Examples and counterexamples are great ways to learn about the intricacies of definitions in mathematics. Counterexamples are especially useful in topology and analysis where most things are fairly intuitive, but every now and then one may run into borderline cases where the naive intuition may ...

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42
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796 views

Does there exist a bijection of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with itself such that the forward map is connected but the inverse is not?

Let $(X,\tau), (Y,\sigma)$ be two topological spaces. We say that a map $f: \mathcal{P}(X)\to \mathcal{P}(Y)$ between their power sets is connected if for every $S\subset X$ connected, $f(S)\subset Y$ ...
15
votes
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308 views

Taking the automorphism group of a group is not functorial.

Once upon a time I proved that there is no functorial 'association' $$F:\ \mathbf{Grp}\ \longrightarrow\ \mathbf{Grp}:\ G\ \longmapsto\ \operatorname{Aut}(G).$$ A few days ago I casually mentioned ...
12
votes
0answers
342 views

Papers with unorthodox writing style

I'm not sure if this is the right forum for this question, in any case probably CW is appropriate? I've been looking around the mathblogosphere for the past few weeks and ran into mathgen. It's ...
11
votes
0answers
167 views

Hopf-like monoid in $(\Bbb{Set}, \times)$

I am looking for a nontrivial example of the following: Let a monoid $A$ be given with unit $e$, and two of its distinguished disjoint submonoids $B_1$ and $B_2$ (s.t. $B_1\cap B_2=\{e\}$), ...
6
votes
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123 views

Exhibit a subset of $\mathbb A^2$ which is constructible, but not locally closed

A subset of a variety is locally closed if it is the intersection of a closed subset with an open subset; it is constructible if it is a finite union of locally closed subsets. Suppose that the base ...
5
votes
0answers
49 views

What is an importance of Gaussian and Eisenstein rings?

Among quadratic integer rings, $\mathbb{Z}[i]$ and $\mathbb{Z}[\frac{1+\sqrt{-3}}{2}]$ have their special names, namely Gaussian integers and Eisenstein integers respectively. I guess this is named so ...
5
votes
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110 views

Converse to Lefschetz fixed point theorem (counterexample)

The celebrated Lefschetz fixed point theorem, in its simplest form, says (following Wikipedia) that if $f\colon X \to X$ is a continuous map of a compact triangulable space $X$ to itself, then $f$ has ...
5
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37 views

A locally connected metric space of first category

I wonder if there exists a locally connected metric space of first category. I proved a theorem which assumes a space to be connected locally connected hereditarily Baire and metrizable. I ...
5
votes
0answers
90 views

Example of charts on $\mathbb{R}$ that are $\mathcal{C}^r$ compatible but not $\mathcal{C}^{r+1}$ compatible.

Is there a simple example of two charts where this is the case? I'm struggling to think up one.
5
votes
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109 views

An interesting space inspired by Mrowka's space

The example is from Bell M G. First countable pseudocompactifications[J]. Topology and its Applications, 1985, 21(2): 159-166.. Let us recall some necessary definitions firstly: Let $X$ be a ...
5
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151 views

Primes of the form $\frac{n^2-n+4}{2}$ satisfy Hardy-Littlewood analogue?

Let $n,a,b$ be positive integers with $a<b$. Consider primes of the form $f(n)=\dfrac{n^2-n+4}{2}$. Let $C(a,b)$ denote the amount of primes of the form $f(n)$ between (and including) $f(a)$ and ...
5
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246 views

Fourier dimension of sets of positive Lebesgue measure

Let $K$ be a compact set in $\mathbb{R}$ with positive Lebesgue measure. My question is whether there exists a probability measure $\mu$ supported on $K$ such that $\hat{\mu}(\xi)$, the ...
4
votes
0answers
26 views

Find $f:C\to\mathbb{R}^2$ continuous and bijective but not open, $C\subset\mathbb{R}$ is closed and connected

Are there a closed connected subspace $C$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$ and a continuous, bijective function $f:C\to\mathbb{R}^2$ that is not open? If we remove the condition for $C$ to be connected, we have ...
4
votes
0answers
60 views

An example of a nilpotent group

Is there an example of a nilpotent group such that $G/G'$ is (non-trivial) torsion-free while $G$ is not? I cannot think of any example of this kind and I think that it is not proved any result like ...
4
votes
0answers
44 views

about the closure of by pointwise convergence of sequences.

In the book "Integration Theory" (LNM315, K.Bichteler, p.65) a family $\mathcal{F}$ of real function is called full if it is close by pointwise convergence of dominated (by some element of ...
4
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125 views

An a.e.-defined derivative which is not Lebesgue integrable on any interval?

If the derivative $f'$ exists everywhere then it is shown here that there exist intervals on which $f'$ is Lebesgue integrable. But perhaps there is a function $f$ such that $f'$ only exists almost ...
4
votes
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25 views

Function in Lipschitz space

I'm looking for a function that is in $W^{1,1}(0,1)$ but only in the Lipschitz space $\mathrm{Lip} (\alpha, L_2(0,1))$ for $0<\alpha < 1$. $\mathrm{Lip}(\alpha, L_2(0,1))$ is defined as the set ...
4
votes
0answers
58 views

Self-duality in a lattice

Is there any finite self-dual lattice $(X,\le)$ such that there is not any self-duality $f:X\to X$ such that $f\circ f = 1_X$? Let $f,g:X\to X$ be a self-dualities. Then $f^{-1}\circ g$ is an ...
4
votes
0answers
75 views

Does there exist an infinite solvable group with no normal abelian subgroups?

This is impossible if $G$ is finite and solvable, because then $G$ has a (nontrivial) minimal normal subgroup $A$, which can be shown (using a trick) to be abelian. I'm trying to mimic the same ...
4
votes
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92 views

Contractible Subspace and Homotopy Equivalence

It is known that if pair $(X,A)$ has the homotopy extension property and $A$ is contractible, then the quotient map $q:X\to X/A$ is a homotopy equivalence. I am wondering what if the homotopy ...
4
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107 views

Smash products of pointed spaces is really not associative

The canonical bijective map $\mathbb{N} \wedge (\mathbb{Q} \wedge \mathbb{Q}) \to (\mathbb{N} \wedge \mathbb{Q}) \wedge \mathbb{Q}$ is not an isomorphism of pointed spaces (i.e. homeomorphism), see ...
4
votes
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61 views

Lindelöf property and $\omega$-covers

Let $X$ be a Lindelöf topological space. Does this imply that every $\omega$-cover has a countable subcover which is also an $\omega$-cover? if not, is there an example of a topological Lindelöf space ...
4
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79 views

Is $X$ pseudocompact

The following example with a little modified from the handbook of set theoretic topology, Page 574: Let $\kappa$ be any cardinal for which there exists a family $\{H_\alpha: \alpha < \kappa\}$ ...
4
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82 views

Quotient-lifting properties

I borrowed this terminology from K. Conrad's article on series of subgroups, in which he discusses solvability of groups. This property of certain groups satisfies Let $N\triangleleft G$. Then ...
4
votes
0answers
239 views

Interesting applications of the cofinite topology?

Background: I'm doing some expository writing on intuitionistic logic and I have been toying with the idea of demonstrating its applicability via models where the denotations are taken from a Heyting ...
3
votes
0answers
31 views

What would be an example such that cardinality of linearly independent set is greater than the rank?

Let $R$ be a commutative ring and $M$ be a free $R$-module. Since $R$ is commutative, $R$ has IBN property, hence the rank of $M$ is uniquely well-defined. So set $n:=rnk(M)$. Let $A$ be an ...
3
votes
0answers
68 views

understanding a theorem in c*algebra

I want to understand the following theorem: Theorem: Let A and B $C^*$-algebras with A unital, and let $\varphi:A\to B$ a bounded linear selfadjoint map such that: for every self-adjoint elements ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Continuity of third derivative in extremum test

Consider the following standard real analysis textbook theorem: Let $I$ be a perfect interval, $f\colon I \to \mathbb{R}$ be $C^3$ (i.e. three times differentiable and $f'''$ continuous). If $x_0 ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

mononotone and pseudomonotone operators in current research

I know that the following question is quite broad for this forum. But I am interested in references or any other ideas. Can anyone provide some examples of applications of monotone or pseudomonotone ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Separability of conjugacy classes in conjugacy separable semidirect products.

We say that group $G$ is conjugacy separable if for every $g \in G$ the set $g^G = \{cgc^{-1} \mid c \in G\}$ is closed in the profinite topology on $G$, i.e. for every $f \in G \setminus g^G$ there ...
3
votes
0answers
86 views

A sequence of subsets of an infinite group.

Is there an infinite group $G$ such there is not any sequence $(A_n)$ of its subsets such that always $$A_n=A_n^{-1}, \quad A_{n+1}A_{n+1}\subsetneqq A_n$$ ?
3
votes
0answers
47 views

Find an example such that $\tau$ is a stopping time and $\mathcal{F}_\tau$ and $\mathcal{F}_\infty$ differ on $\{\tau = \infty\}$.

I need to find an example such that the following is true: $\tau$ is a stopping time and $\mathcal{F}$ is a filtration defined on $\mathbb{R}_+$. Let $\mathcal{F}_\tau$ denote the stopped ...
3
votes
0answers
156 views

Why this is not a Banach space

When reading about functional analysis I encountered the following example of a Banach space: $ C^1 ([0,1])$ endowed with the norm $\|f\| = \|f\|_\infty + \|f'\|_\infty$. where $\|\cdot\|_\infty$ ...
3
votes
0answers
54 views

Left continuous magmas with no fixed points

Let $X$ be a compact Hausdorff topological space, and $*: X^2\rightarrow X$ an associative map (so that $(X, *)$ is a semigroup) which is left continuous (for all $s\in X$, the map $t\mapsto ts$ is ...
3
votes
0answers
198 views

An open problem on general topology

There is an open problem in this paper: J. van Mill, V.V. Tkachuk, R.G. Wilson, "Classes defined by stars and neighbourhood assignments", Topology and its Applications, Vol. 154, Issue 10, 2007, pp. ...
3
votes
0answers
159 views

Moscow space-Examples

A space $X$ is called $Moscow$, if for each open subset $U$ of $X$, the closure of $U$ in $X$ is the union of a family of $G‎_{δ}$‎‎‎ ‎-subsets of $X$ . For example, Every first countable $T_1$ ...
3
votes
0answers
87 views

Application of a result on some bounded functionals on a subspace of $C([0,1])$

The following result was proved in a previous post: Bounded functionals on Banach spaces. Let $(X, \|.\|)$ be a Banach space such that $X \subset C([0,1]) $ For every $r\in \mathbb{Q}\cap[0,1], ...
3
votes
0answers
165 views

Relative Homology and Quotients

Are there any topological spaces $X$ with subspaces $A$ such that $H_n(X,A)$ is not isomorphic to $H_n(X/A)$? I've been trying some familiar spaces, but everything seems to be me an isomorphism ...
3
votes
0answers
89 views

Azumaya algebra and its subalgebras

I remind you that an Azumaya algebra $A$ is a central and separable algebra. Now, I know that if $A$ is an algebra over a skew-field or over a local ring then there exists a subalgebra $S$ of $A$ such ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

How much regularity is needed, anyway?

When doing real analysis, the difference between functions which are continuous and functions which are not is intuitive. The graph of the later may exhibit shearing, or extreme distortion (in higher ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Not continuous function with closed graph

I would like to see an explicit example of a function $f:R\rightarrow R$ which has a closed graph in $R^2$ but is discontinuous at every point in the real line.
2
votes
0answers
37 views

A metric space of which the geodesic is not a metric

The text book in my course has an exercise about finding a metric space whose (usual) length metric is not a metric. It wants me to find a metric space $(X,d)$ satisfying $d'(x,y)=0 \ \ $for some ...
2
votes
0answers
39 views

What problems are related with the following type of FDE with delay?

Consider the following class of functional differential equations with delay: $$\begin{align} \frac{du}{dt} &= F(x,t,u(x,t),u_{t,x}), & (x,t) &\in [a,b] \times [0,T] \\ u(x,t) &= ...
2
votes
0answers
37 views

Is a limit of a sequence of distribution functions is necessarily a distribution function

I got a question: "is a limit of a sequence of distribution functions is necessarily a distribution function". My answer is NO. I have a counterexample: $F_n(x)=0$ if $x<n$ and $1$ otherwise. It ...
2
votes
0answers
97 views

An example of wreath product

I was analyzing the following example of wreath product of groups. Let $\mathbb{Z}_2$ be the cyclic group of order two and $\mathbb{Z}$ be the usual additive group of integers. Consider the ...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Two disjoint connected and bounded open sets in the plane that shares the same boundary

In $\mathbb{R}^2$ with std. topology I want to exhibit two open sets that are connected, bounded and disjoint but that have a common boundary. My attempt: Since both my sets need to be bounded, my ...
2
votes
0answers
69 views

Counterexample to an implication

Denote $\bar{A}$ a complement of $A$ in a set $\Omega$ and $A \Delta B = A/B \cup B/A$ the symmetric difference of $A, B$. It is claimed that for a map $\phi := \Omega \rightarrow \lbrace 0, 1 ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

Example of a series parallel graph with toughness greater than $\frac{4}{7}$

Can anyone lead me to an example of a "more than $\frac{4}{7}$ tough series parallel graph"? Graph toughness is defined as $T = \min \left\{\frac{|a|}{\omega{(G\backslash A)}}\right\}$ over all ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Find counter-example about product measure

This problem is in Real analysis for graduate students, Richard F. Bass. Problem is the following Let $(X,\mathcal A)$, $(Y,\mathcal B)$ be two measurable spaces and let $f \ge 0 $ be measurable ...
2
votes
0answers
73 views

Embedding vs embedding as a closed subset

A version of Whitney's Theorem state that any $n-$dimensional manifold can be embedded in $\mathbb{R}^{2n+1}$ as a closed subset. Another version states that that any $n-$dimensional manifold can be ...