Examples and counterexamples are great ways to learn about the intricacies of definitions in mathematics. Counterexamples are especially useful in topology and analysis where most things are fairly intuitive, but every now and then one may run into borderline cases where the naive intuition may ...

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1answer
56 views

Closed surjection that does not preserve regularity

Def Map $p\colon X\rightarrow Y$ is perfect if it is a closed surjection and $p^{-1}\left(\left\{y\right\}\right)$ is compact for each $y\in Y$ It is well known that perfect maps preserve regularity, ...
4
votes
3answers
114 views

Is every such function convex or concave?

I was pondering convex functions today, and the following questions naturally posed themselves. Call a function $f : \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ $2$-limited iff for all $m,c \in \mathbb{R},$ ...
2
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1answer
36 views

Absolutely continuous probability measures example

I was given the following definition: Then this example: It is said that $\mathbb P_1\ll\mathbb P_2$ , but I don't really see it.Please help.
3
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2answers
45 views

Example of a function $F(x,y)$

I'm trying to find a non trivial function $F(x,y)$ such that $div F(x,y)=0$ everywhere and $F(x,y)=0$ on the unit square. I know that there are some books that provide such example but I didn't find ...
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2answers
46 views

A non-algebraic complete lattice

Do you have an example of a complete lattice which is not algebraic‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌?
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2answers
130 views

Example: Algebraic Multiplicity vs Geometric Multiplicity

Is there a simple example of a matrix having an eigenvalue whose geometric multiplicity is strictly smaller than its algebraic multiplicity?
2
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1answer
63 views

Discontinuous function whose restriction on closed sets is continuous

Let $X$ a metric space, $\{U_i\}$ a collection of non-empty closed sets whose union is all of $X$. Give an example of a function $f:X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that the restriction $f|_{U_i}$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

Splitting of Nonmeasurable Sets

Being curious I'm wondering: Let $V$ be a Vitali set defined as usually as a choice of $v\in[r]$ with $0\leq v\leq 1$ for every $[r]\in\mathbb{R}/\mathbb{Q}$. Since the countable disjoint union of ...
2
votes
2answers
66 views

If $S \subseteq X$ is closed, is $f(S,r)$ necessarily closed?

Let $X$ denote a metric space. Whenever $S \subseteq X$ and $r \in \mathbb{R}_{\geq 0}$, write $f(S,r)$ for the following set. $$\{x \in X \mid \exists s \in S : d(x,s) \leq r\}$$ Question. ...
1
vote
1answer
118 views

Total Variation Measure: Definition?

The total variation according to Rudin is defined as: $$|\mu|(E):=\sup_{\bigcup_{k\in\mathbb{N}}E_k=E}\sum_k|\mu(E_k)|$$ where the supremum is taken over all countable partitions. Now I'm reading in ...
4
votes
1answer
82 views

The “converse” of $P\rightarrow(Q\rightarrow R)$

As everyone know, even when reading mathematics books, a paragraph written in natural language contains much more information than just its purely logical translation. For my next tutor session, I am ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Homogeneous topological space with the fixed-point property

Let $X$ be a topological space. $X$ is said to be homogeneous if for every $x$ and $y\in X$ there is an self-homeomorphism $f$ of $X$ such that $f(x)=y$. Further, $X$ is said to have the fixed-point ...
1
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2answers
34 views

When solving convex problem, why we don't just find the optimal of the cost function and project it back to the feasible set

I know that is wrong, because if it is right people would not develop so many algorithms. But why? Can I ask for some examples illustrating this does not guarantee optimal?
0
votes
1answer
277 views

Example of Something That's Not A Manifold

Two examples of non-manifolds that I know are the cross and the cone. Also the sphere with a hair isn't a topological manifold. But what's an example of a topological space $X$ such that $X$ is not a ...
2
votes
4answers
122 views

Does anyone know of a non-trivial algebraic structure satisfying these four identities?

Does anyone know of a non-trivial (i.e. cardinality $\geq 2)$ algebraic structure $(X,+,-)$ satisfying the following identities? $(x+a)-a=x$ $(x-a)+a=x$ $(x+y)+a = (x+a)+(y+a)$ $(x-y)+a = ...
4
votes
0answers
52 views

Self-duality in a lattice

Is there any finite self-dual lattice $(X,\le)$ such that there is not any self-duality $f:X\to X$ such that $f\circ f = 1_X$? Let $f,g:X\to X$ be a self-dualities. Then $f^{-1}\circ g$ is an ...
5
votes
2answers
113 views

A Hausdorff space which is not completely regular

My example is, $f : \mathbb{R}^+ \to \mathbb{R}$ defined by: $$f(x) = \begin{cases} x, &\text{if }0 \leq x < 1 \\ \tfrac{1}{x}, &\text{if }x \geq 1. \end{cases}$$ Even though $f(0)=0$ but ...
0
votes
0answers
44 views

A counterexample 2

Can we find a function $f:\mathbb{R}\to(0,\infty)$ which satisfies $$\limsup_{|x|\to + \infty}\frac{f(x+c)}{f(x)}<+\infty, \ \ \forall c\in \mathbb{R},(\text{limit in }+\infty\text{ and ...
4
votes
3answers
53 views

Does continuity of $f$ imply $f^{-1}(\bar A)\subset\overline{f^{-1}(A)}$?

I'm struggling to prove or disprove that the continuity of $f$ implies $f^{-1}(\bar A)\subset\overline{f^{-1}(A)}$. $f:X\to Y$ is a map between metric spaces $(X,d),(Y,d')$ while $\bar M$ denotes the ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Do two II$_1$-factors with trivial intersection generate $B(H)$?

Let $H$ be an infinite dim. separable Hilbert space and $B(H)$ the algebra of bounded operators. Let $A$, $B \subset B(H)$ be II$_1$-factors such that $A \cap B = \mathbb{C}I$. Examples: (1) Take ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Product of divisible module is divisible

I have the following problem Is the product of divisible $R$-modules divisible? I think it is not. But I need some counterexample to this, somebody can give me a "place" to search one? Thanks a ...
3
votes
3answers
178 views

A persisting element in all subgroups.

Let $G$ be a finitely generated abelian group and $a$ be a nontrival element of $G$ contained in all nontrivial subgroups of $G$. Is $G$ necessarily cyclic?
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2answers
54 views

an example of a continuous bijection which is not a homeomorphism [duplicate]

I need an example of a continuous bijection $f:X \to Y$, where $X$ is NOT compact and $Y$ is Hausdorff, such that $f$ is not a homeomorphism. (It is easy to show that if $X$ is compact, then $f$ is ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Is kinetic energy a positive definite quadratic form?

Recall (Arnold, Mathematical methods of classical mechanis, 4.19, B) Definition. Let $M$ be a riemannian manifold. The quadratic form on each tangent space $$ T = \frac{1}{2} \langle v, v ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Homomorphic image of intersection equals intersection of homomorphic images?

This is a tangent of this question. I wanted to remark in my answer that it is not generally true that given a group homomorphism $f:G\rightarrow H$ and two subgroups $X,Y\leq G$ that $$f(X\cap ...
2
votes
3answers
57 views

Example of ring $R$ with ideals $I\neq J$ such that $R/I \cong R/J$ as modules

It's easy to prove that if $I$, $J$ are two-sided ideals and $R/I\cong R/J$ as modules over $R$, then $I=J$. What about left ideals? Is there a simple counterexample? I believe I've found an answer, ...
9
votes
7answers
463 views

Constructing a family of distinct curves with identical area and perimeter

Two recent questions were posed by Arjuba [1] [2] asking for counter-examples regarding whether two different figures could have the same perimeter and area. Responders quickly raised a number of such ...
16
votes
10answers
2k views

Polygons with equal area and perimeter but different number of sides?

Let's say we have two polygons with different numbers of sides. They can be any sort of shape, but they have to have the same area, and perimeter. There could be such possibilities, but can someone ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Linear bijection non-preserving Hausdorff propery

My question is: If $f: X \to Y$ is a continuous and linear bijection between topological vector spaces, is it possible that $X$ is Hausdorff and $Y$ is non-Hausdorff? (TVSs are considered in the more ...
3
votes
0answers
34 views

Separability of conjugacy classes in conjugacy separable semidirect products.

We say that group $G$ is conjugacy separable if for every $g \in G$ the set $g^G = \{cgc^{-1} \mid c \in G\}$ is closed in the profinite topology on $G$, i.e. for every $f \in G \setminus g^G$ there ...
70
votes
31answers
7k views

What are some conceptualizations that work in mathematics but are not strictly true?

I'm having an argument with someone who thinks it's never justified to teach something that's not strictly correct. I disagree: often, the pedagogically most efficient way to make progress is to ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Semidirect products as (amalgamated) free product

It is well known that $\mathbb{Z}\rtimes \mathbb{Z}_2$ is free product $\mathbb{Z}_2 \star \mathbb{Z}_2$. Are there more examples of these kind?
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vote
2answers
58 views

“Full”-Simplification of arbitrary mathematical expressions

I've come across many (classroom) problems, like Roy did, whereby the solution to a problem, $$−3(7−2x)^2−5(1+x)^2$$ is the result of simplifying that expression as much as is possible, i.e. ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Pair of functions $F(x)$ (transcendental),$A(x)$ (algebraic) with expanded series of positive integer coefficient linked by derivative

$$F(x)=\sum_0^{\infty}b_k x^k,b_k\in \mathcal{N} \bigcup 0,\exists M \space b_k \leq M^k$$. $$A(x)=\sum_0^{\infty}a_k x^k,a_k\in \mathcal{N} \bigcup 0,\exists M \space a_k \leq L^k$$ where $F(x)$ is ...
3
votes
2answers
132 views

Is an arbitrary group generated by a traversal of the conjugacy classes?

Let $G$ be a group, and let $\mathcal C$ be the collection of conjugacy classes of $G$. Let $S$ be a traversal of $\mathcal C$ (that is $S$ contains exactly one element from each set in $\cal C$). ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Free cyclic subgroups in a non-abelian group

Is there any non-abelian group $G$ such that for each $a\in G$ and any automorphism $g:\left<a\right>\to \left<a\right>$ the function $$f:G\to G$$ $$f(x) = \begin{cases} g(x) & \text{ ...
5
votes
7answers
235 views

If $A^2 = B^2$, then $A=B$ or $A=-B$

Let $A_{n\times n},B_{n\times n}$ be square matrices with $n \geq 2$. If $A^2 = B^2$, then $A=B$ or $A=-B$. This is wrong but I don't see why. Do you have any counterexample?
1
vote
1answer
32 views

If the quotient by the $i$th center is cyclic, does it follow that the original group is abelian?

Let $G$ be a group such that there exists an $i$ such that $G/Z^i(G)$ is cyclic. Does it follow that $G$ is abelian? This question is a generalization of the well known fact that if $G/Z(G)$ is ...
0
votes
3answers
167 views

Proof by contradiction using counterexample

Why can't we use one counter example as the contradiction to the contradicting statement? Example: Let a statement be A where a-->b. We can prove A is not true by finding a counter example. Now, in ...
6
votes
1answer
47 views

Divergence set at radius of convergence

I came up with this question on my own while I was musing around reviewing notes. After unsuccessful Google search (thwarted by a deluge amount of webpages on basic calculus), I decided to ask here. ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Are there standard parameters for the Weierstrass nowhere differentiable function?

On Wikipedia, the Weierstass non-differentiable function is defined as: $$f(x)=\sum^{\infty}_{n=0}a^n\cos(b^n\pi x)$$ where $0<a<1$, $0<b$, and $ab>1+\frac 32 \pi$ Since it seems like, ...
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0answers
34 views

Natural examples of multiplicatively-graded rings

A ring $A$ is multiplicatively graded if, as an additive group, it decomposes as $$A=\bigoplus_{n\geq 1} A_n$$ and the product satisfies $A_n \times A_m \rightarrow A_{nm}$. A natural example of ...
5
votes
2answers
102 views

Give an example of a function $f$ satisfying $\lim_{x\to 0}(f(x)f(2x))=0$,but $\lim_{x\to 0}f(x)$ does not exists

Question: Give an example of a function $f$ satisfying the condition $$\lim_{x\to 0}(f(x)f(2x))=0$$ and such that $$\lim_{x\to 0}f(x)$$ does not exists. I think this question have many example. But ...
11
votes
2answers
320 views

Do differentiable functions preserve measure zero sets? Measurable sets?

Consider Lebesgue measure on $\mathbb{R}$ and let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be differentiable. Does $f$ necessarily preserve measure zero sets? Does $f$ necessarily preserve measurable sets? ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

What are some examples of non-commutative monoids that are both idempotent and self-distributive (on both sides)?

In the presence of the axioms for a commutative monoid, idempotency is equivalent to self-distributivity. Proof. Suppose a commutative monoid is idempotent. Then: $$x(yz) = xxyz = (xy)(xz)$$ On the ...
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votes
0answers
97 views

Please give me an example of the algorithm where $\Theta$ will be equal to $e^n$

Please give me an example of the algorithm where $\Theta$ or $O$ will be equal exactly to $e^n$ . The algorithm should not be simple counting from 0 till $e^n$ . It should be a clear relation of two ...
11
votes
1answer
134 views

If $f\tau$ is continuous for every path $\tau$ in $X$, is $f:X\rightarrow Y$ continuous?

Let $X$ be a path connected space and $Y$ be a topological space. Let $f:X\rightarrow Y$ be a function such that for every path $\tau:\mathbb{I}\rightarrow X$ , $f\tau:\mathbb{I}\rightarrow Y$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
54 views

Example of a function $f$ which is Lebesgue integrable on $[0,1]$, but max{$f,0$} is NOT Lebesgue integrable?

Can anyone come up with an example of a function $f$ which is Lebesgue integrable on $[0,1]$, but max{$f,0$} is NOT Lebesgue integrable? Thanks.
10
votes
1answer
138 views

Are elements commutative when subgroups are?

Suppose G is a group and for every $H_1,H_2\le G$, $H_1H_2=H_2H_1$. Is $G$ abelian?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

A Lindelof non-scattered space $X$ which is not an extention of $\mathbb R$

Is anyone familier with an example for a Lindelof non-scattered topological space $X$ which is not an extention of $\mathbb R$ (with Euclidean topology). I am looking for an example which is not a ...