Examples and counterexamples are great ways to learn about the intricacies of definitions in mathematics. Counterexamples are especially useful in topology and analysis where most things are fairly intuitive, but every now and then one may run into borderline cases where the naive intuition may ...

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6
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2answers
139 views

Closed, orientable surface whose genus is very hard to find intuitively

I'm introducing the Classification Theorem on closed and orientable surfaces in a talk on (intuitive) topology, and to motivate it I'd like an example of an embedding of a surface in $\mathbb{R}^3$ ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Reference request: An example of a false conjecture with a very large number as the first counter example

I recall that there was some conjecture, something that I believe involved prime numbers, and was believed to be true (as it was checked up to a relatively large number) until a counter example was ...
0
votes
2answers
33 views

Lipschitz does not imply fixed points

I have the following problem in mind: Let us say we have a function $f:X\rightarrow X$ (X is a complete metric space) and it respects that if $x\neq y$ then : $d(f(x),f(y))<d(x,y)$. My trouble ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

Violation of the irrelevant alternative criterion of fairness in a pairwise comparison

I am teaching my students about the fairness criteria for voting system, working up towards arrow's impossibility theorem. One of the voting methods is called the pairwise comparison method: voters ...
6
votes
1answer
66 views

Inner Product on a Vector Space over a field besides $\mathbb R$ or $\mathbb C$?

Are there any fields with vector spaces you can define an inner product over besides subfields of $\mathbb C$? I know that you'd want the field to contain an ordered subfield, so it must have ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Example of $\sum_i a_i\otimes b_i\in M\otimes_AN$ which cannot be written as $a\otimes b$

In the appendix of my commutative algebra text: Note that in general the element of $M\otimes_AN$ is a sum of the form $\sum_i a_i\otimes b_i$ and cannot be necessarily written as $a\otimes b$. ...
17
votes
2answers
332 views

If the tensor power $M^{\otimes n} = 0$, is it possible that $M^{\otimes n-1}$ is nonzero?

Let $M$ be a module over a commutative ring $R$. It is possible that $M \otimes M = 0$ if $M$ is nonzero, for example when $R = \mathbb{Z}$ and $M = \mathbb{Q}/ \mathbb{Z}$. What about when higher ...
1
vote
2answers
221 views

What is $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}|a_nz^n|^2=\frac{1}{2 \pi}\int_{-\pi}^{\pi}|f(ze^{it})|^2dt$ for?

Let $f : \mathbb C\rightarrow \mathbb C$ be an analytic function : $f(z)= \sum a_n z^n$ It holds that $$a_n z^n= \frac{1}{2 \pi}\int_{-\pi}^{\pi}f(ze^{it})e^{-int}dt$$ and ...
12
votes
6answers
284 views

Function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that takes each value in $\mathbb{R}$ three times

Does there exist a function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ that takes each value in $\mathbb{R}$ three times? If not, how could I prove that such a function does not exist?
5
votes
3answers
131 views

Peculiar examples to the Stone Representation Theorem

The Stone Representation theorem states that every Boolean algebra is isomorphic to a field of sets. That is, a Boolean algebra whose elements are sets, and sums, products, negation are union, ...
5
votes
4answers
937 views

Example of two open balls such that the one with the smaller radius contains the one with the larger radius.

Example of two open balls such that the one with the smaller radius contains the one with the larger radius. I cannot find a metric space in which this is true. Looking for hints in the right ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

A non-closed $p$-group.

Are there a Hausdorff topological group $(G,\mathcal T)$ and and a non-closed $p$-group $P\le G$ ? a $p$-group where $p$ is a prime number, is a group $P$ such that $$(\forall a\in P)(\exists n\in ...
1
vote
2answers
76 views

Sigma-algebra requirement 3, closed under countable unions.

The requirement for sigma-algebra is that. It contains the empty set. If A is in the sigma-algebra, then the complement of A is there. 3. It is closed under countable unions. My question relates ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

A question about polynomials in $K[x_1,x_2,…,x_n]$ and there permutations

Let $K$ be a field. Let $n$ be a positive integer and $P$ be a non-symmetric polynomial in $K[x_1,x_2,...,x_n]$. $S_n$ acts on $K[x_1,...,x_n]$ in an obvious way. Let $P_1,P_2,...,P_r $ be the ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Does $X=[0,\omega_1]$ satisfy $S_1(\Omega,\Omega)$?

Definition: An $\omega$-cover of a topological space $X$, is an open cover $\mathcal U$, such that, for any finite set $C \subset X$, there exists an open set $U \in \mathcal U$, such that, $C \subset ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Square of absolute value of a function different than square of function

How come if f is measurable, we might have $|f|^2\neq f^2$? Can you provide an example? I think it is true if f is real.
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Counterexample of Separation Theorem in topological vector space

The Separation Theorem states that: If $A$ and $B$ be two disjoint convex subsets in a vector space $X$ and one of them has nonempty core (algebraic interior) then there exists a linear functional ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Closed, bounded and convex subset in $X^*$ but not $w^*$ closed.

Banach-Alaoglu states that: If $X$ is a topological vector space then the polar of any neighborhood of the origin is $\sigma(X^*,X)$ compact. Especially, if $X$ is a norm linear space then the closed ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

Groups of order $p^aq^br^c$ containing elements of order $pq$, $qr$, and $pr$, but not $pqr$

Let $G$ be a solvable group of order $p^aq^br^c$ (for distinct prime $p,q,r$) containing elements of orders $pq$, $qr$, and $pr$, but no element of order $pqr$. Furthermore, assume that $G$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Convex function that has a finite limit at infinity

Can someone give me an example for a convex function that has a finit limit at infinity ?
1
vote
1answer
28 views

The space with countable complement topology (example 20 in “Counterexamples in topology”)

As a continuation to this question: Given the space of countable complement topology on $X$, where $X$ is an uncountable set. (example 20 in "Counterexamples in topology"). We know that $X$ is not ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Indiscrete rational extension for $\mathbb R$ (examp 66 in “Counterexamples in topology”)

As a continuation to this question: Let $X$ be the Indiscrete rational extension for $\mathbb R$ (examp 66 page 88 in "Counterexamples in topology"). Let $\langle \mathcal{U}_n: n \in \mathbb{N} ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

An example of a Lindelöf topological space which is not $\sigma$-compact

I am looking for an example of a Lindelöf topological space which is not $\sigma$-compact. I have looked in Counterexamples in Topology, but, if I am not wrong, all the examples there which meet my ...
0
votes
3answers
49 views

Discrete HW Question

Show that For all sets A and B, $A^{C} \cup B^{C} \subset (A \cup B)^{C}$ is false by a counterexample.
2
votes
0answers
51 views

intersection of locally compact Hausdorff topologies.

Are there locally compact Hausdorff topologies $\mathcal T, \mathcal S$ on a set $X$, such that $\mathcal T\cap \mathcal S$ is a Hausdorff but not locally compact topology on $X$?
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Condition to separability of a Banach space.

I am trying to prove the following statement: Let X be a Banach space and $X^{*}$ its topological dual space. If there exists a countable family of functions $(f_{n})_{n} \subset X^{*}$ such that ...
10
votes
3answers
111 views

An example of a noncommutative PID

It's well known that when a ring $R$ is a PID, every submodule of a free $R$-module is free. I'm interested in cases when the converse holds -- that is, in rings $R$ which have the property that every ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Counterexample of separation theorem

I'm trying to know a counterexample for separation theorem: If $A$ and $B$ are two disjoint convex set in a topological vector space $X$, one of them has nonempty interior, then there exists $f\in ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Completeness is not preserved under homeomorphism

I am trying to give a counterexample which will make it clear that homeomorphism does not preserve completeness. I have an easy one in mind ($(0,1)$ and $\mathbb{R}$) but I have just thought that ...
4
votes
1answer
79 views

Hard to find counterexample for $\partial (\partial A) = \partial A$

In an exercise I've proven that $\partial(\partial A) \subset \partial A$, for any $A\subset X$, where $X$ is a topological space and $\partial$ in this case stands for the boundary. Apparently, in ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

A question on Fourier Transform

Is there a function which is not absolutely integrable but which has a continuous fourier transform? I know that if a function is absolutely integrable then the fourier transform is continuous but I ...
5
votes
1answer
134 views

Is there a nonempty open bounded subset of plane whose boundary contains no 1 dimensional interval?

Someone asked a question here which hasn't received a correct answer because everyone seems to be misinterpreting the question. I would like to ask the question again. Does there exist a nonempty ...
3
votes
1answer
125 views

Does there exist a nowhere differentiable, everywhere continous, monotone somewhere function?

Is there a nowhere differentiable but continuous everywhere function which is monotone in some small interval however small it is? Until now I have seen only the Weierstrass function and it seems to ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

If $\lim \limits_{x \to \infty}f(x) = L \neq 0$ must it be that $\lim_{x \to \infty} f(x) \sin x $ does not exist?

I got this question: Let $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ be a function that satisfies $\lim \limits_{x \to \infty}f(x) = L \neq 0$, Must it be that $\lim_{x \to \infty} f(x) sin x $ does not ...
8
votes
5answers
741 views

Are continuous functions monotonic for very small ranges?

So I am wondering, if we have a continuous function f and we take the range $[c,c+h]$ for $h \to 0$, is the function monotonic in that range?
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Why doesn't the identity theorem for holomorphic functions work for real-differentiable functions?

I've been fascinated by the idea of analytic continuation and I came across the identity theorem for holomorphic functions. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Identity_theorem) On wikipedia it states: ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Find an example such that $\tau$ is a stopping time and $\mathcal{F}_\tau$ and $\mathcal{F}_\infty$ differ on $\{\tau = \infty\}$.

I need to find an example such that the following is true: $\tau$ is a stopping time and $\mathcal{F}$ is a filtration defined on $\mathbb{R}_+$. Let $\mathcal{F}_\tau$ denote the stopped ...
0
votes
1answer
78 views

$\exists f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R},$ continuous, non-constant, with uncountably many extrema?

I couldnt think of any; by intuition I don't think any can exist, but I can't figure out how to prove it. If it existed then the set of extrema would have to be uncountable but I think this might ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Heineken and Mohamed Groups

I was trying to understand the costruction of the Heineken and Mohamed groups. (II) Every proper subgroup of $G$ is subnormal and nilpotent. Lemma 1. If $G$ is a non-nilpotent soluble group ...
1
vote
1answer
81 views

Does sequential compactness imply countable compactness?

Let $X$ be a topological space which is sequentially compact. Does this imply that $X$ is countably compact? Thank you!
1
vote
0answers
36 views

nearest point and closed complement of a subspace in norm spaces

It is well-known that in any Hilbert space $H$, each closed subspace $Y$ admits a closed complement $Y^\perp$. This result also implies that there exists a best approximation point to $Y$ for any ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Bijective single variable real functions which does not commute under composition

Are there bijective single variable real functions which does not commute under composition? I believe it does because of permutations in discrete case, but I am not able to find it.
1
vote
2answers
47 views

Conjecture: When does $n=ab$, with $a\leq b\leq 2a$?

I conjecture that if this occurs, $a$ and $b$ are unique. Obviously if $n$ is an odd prime, this does not occur, and if $n=a^2$, it does. In any case, what is the set of numbers such that this sort of ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Counterexample for the Chain rule for the Gateaux-derivative

I'm reading the book of Drabek, Milota - Methods of Nonlinear Analysis, and at page 121, they state: but I can't manage to find such counterexample. For clarity the Gateaux derivative is defined ...
0
votes
1answer
110 views

Decomposing real line as a union of a nullset and a set of first category

$\Bbb R$ can be written of the form $A\cup B$ such that $A$ is of measure zero and $B$ is of the first category! can anybody prove this?? I guess $A$ must be an $G_{\delta}$ set which is dense in ...
2
votes
3answers
150 views

An example of an ordered, uncountable set in $\Bbb R$?

Is there an example of an ordered, uncountable set in $\Bbb R$? My Calculus professor, who likes to keep things simple, defined a sequence in $\Bbb R$ as an "ordered and infinite list of real ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Intuition and counterexamples for higher-order derivative test

In the higher-order test we keep differentiating a function till we find the n'th derivative (n being even) to be greater than or less than zero thereby identifying it as a minimum or maximum. My two ...
3
votes
1answer
149 views

A calculus counterexample!

Give me an example of two Riemann-integrable functions $f,g:[0,1]\to[0,1]$ such that $g\circ f$ isn't integrable! I already know the following example: $$f(x)=\begin{cases} 0, & \text{if ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

If $b+(a)$ is not a zero divisor in $R/(a)$, does it follow that $(a,b)=R$

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with identity. Let $a,b$ be elements of $R$. If $b+(a)$ is not a zero divisor in $R/(a)$, does it follow that $(a,b)=R$ ? The converse can be easily shown to be true. ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Projection onto a subset in norm space

Let $X$ be a norm space, $S$ be a subset of $X$, for each $x\in X$, denote the set of projection from $x$ to $S$ by $\Pi(x; S):=\{s\in S: \ \|x-s\| =d(x;S)\}$, where $d(x;S):=\inf\{\|x-s\|: \ s\in ...