Examples and counterexamples are great ways to learn about the intricacies of definitions in mathematics. Counterexamples are especially useful in topology and analysis where most things are fairly intuitive, but every now and then one may run into borderline cases where the naive intuition may ...

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Difference between finite and discrete set of discontinuities

I am reading this paper. In page 395 and 396, theorems $1$ and $2$ use the terms 'finite' and 'discrete' to refer to sets, in this case sets of discontinuities. What I don't understand is: what is the ...
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Examples of loops which have two-sided inverses.

Are there any neat examples of non-associative loops such that for each element a in the loop there exists $a^{-1}$ so that $a*a^{-1}=1=a^{-1}*a$. Even cooler would be a commutative loop. Also: are ...
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71 views

Example of a semigroup with unique idempotent which is not a monoid

I am searching for an example of a semigroup, with unique idempotent element, that is not a monoid. Please help.
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2answers
55 views

Lattice of integers $\mathbf{Z}$ in $\mathbb{R^2}$

Lattice of integers $\mathbf{Z}$ in $\mathbb{R^2}$ The questions: Give an example of a nonempty subset of $\mathbb{R^2}$ (noted $M$) which is closed under addition and for all $m\in M$ we have $-m\in ...
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Non exact sequence of quotients by torsion subgroups

$$0\rightarrow G_{1}\rightarrow G_{2}\rightarrow G_{3}\rightarrow 0$$ is a short exact sequence of finitely generated abelian groups. We call $\bar{G_{i}}$ the quotient of $G_{i}$ by its torsion ...
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An easy example of a non-constructive proof without an obvious “fix”?

I wanted to give an easy example of a non-constructive proof, or, more precisely, of a proof which states that an object exists, but gives no obvious recipe to create/find it. Euclid's proof of the ...
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212 views

Is there a bounded function discontinuous on a countable dense subset?

Is there a function that is continuous everywhere except on a countable dense subset, but is bounded? Bounded in the sense that supremum of $f$ is a finite number.
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8answers
463 views

Does a non-abelian semigroup without identity exist?

I was introduced to semigroups today and had a question. So all the examples of semigroups I was given were either monoids or groups. So I was curious, does there exist a semi-group which is not ...
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143 views

What would be an example of a magma such that $x\cdot(x\cdot x)\neq (x\cdot x)\cdot x$?

Let $(M,\cdot)$ be a non-associative magma. What would be an example of $M$ such that there exists $x\in M$ such that $x\cdot(x\cdot x)\neq (x\cdot x)\cdot x$?
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Vanishing cech cohomology of a concratible space.

Let $C$ be a concratible space. Is it possible to find a sheaf $F$ such that two Cech cohomology groups don't vanish? E.g. Can I find a sheaf (or a local system) and two integers $i,j$ such that ...
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25 views

Relation between convergence in distribution and in probability

Does convergence in distribution imply convergence in probability ? I suppose no, but I need a counterexample. Does anyone know any counterexamples ?
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401 views

Example of non-Abelian group with 4, 5, or 6 elements of order 2

Is there any example for non-Abelian group in which has more than $3$ elements of order $ 2$, but has less than 7 elements of order $2$?
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3answers
200 views

Basically disconnected space which is not extremally disconnected

Space $X$ is basically disconnected if every cozero-set has an open closure. Every extremally disconnected space is basically disconnected But i think the converse fails. The one-point ...
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Examples of mathematical induction

What are the best examples of mathematical induction available at the secondary-school level---totally elementary---that do not involve expressions of the form $\bullet+\cdots\cdots\cdots+\bullet$ ...
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677 views

Difficulty in finding a counterexample

I am finding difficulties in finding a counterexample that if $f\colon (0,\infty) \to(0,\infty) $ is uniformly continuous, this implies that $$\lim_{x\to \infty} \frac{f(x+\frac{1}{x})}{f(x)} =1.$$
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1answer
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Properties of Jacobson radical

I'm looking for an example of ring epimorphism $\varphi:R\rightarrow S$ such that the natural homomorphism $\tilde\varphi:J(R)\rightarrow J(S)$ is not surjective, where $J(R)$ is a Jacobson radical.
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Can an algebraic structure such that $x+a=x+b$, have solutions for all $a,b∈K$ exist?

Does there exist an algebraic structure $(K,+)$ such that equations of the form $x+a=x+b$, $a\neq b$ have solutions for all $a,b\in K$?
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An example of covergence to an exponential distribution, the role of continuity

I got a probability problem I can solve, but my solution does not use an assumption which is given in the formulation of the problem. I am afraid that this is might be a sign that my solution is ...
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Does every ball of boundary point contain both interior and exterir points?

My question is If $x$ is a boundary point of $S$ ($S$ is subset of $R$), does every ball of $x$ contain both interior points and exterior points of $S$? I think this is false. Since $R$ is union of ...
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0answers
129 views

Nyquist–Shannon Sampling Theorem Counter Example?

I was learning about the Nyquist theorem regards signal processing the area of interest which I will rephrase below: Given a signal lasting infinitely long with a maximum frequency of f, then you can ...
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0answers
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mononotone and pseudomonotone operators in current research

I know that the following question is quite broad for this forum. But I am interested in references or any other ideas. Can anyone provide some examples of applications of monotone or pseudomonotone ...
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3answers
162 views

Need example for a topological space that isn't connected, but is compact

We know the topological space $(R,τ_1)$ is a connected space but it is not compact, $(R,τ_+)$ (which generated by $[a,b[$) is not connected space and it is not compact space, and $(R,τ_{cf})$ is ...
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A function not differentiable exactly two points of $[0,1]$. construction of such a function is possible?

Can a continuous function on $[0,1]$ be constructed which is not differentiable exactly at two points on $[0,1]$ ?
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1answer
74 views

Example: convergence in distributions

Give an example $X _n \rightarrow X$ in distribution, $Y _n \rightarrow Y$ in distribution, but $X_n + Y_n$ does not converge to $X+Y$ in distribution. I got a trivial one. $X_n$ is $\mathcal ...
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64 views

counter example of equicontinuous

Consider the functions on $[0,1]$: $f_n(x)=nx$, when $x$ is between $0$ and $1/n$ $f_n(x)=2-nx$, when $x$ is between $1/n$ and $2/n$ $f_n(x)=0$, otherwise How to see it is not (uniformly) ...
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Example for a sequence of continuous functions which converge to a continuous function pointwise but not uniformly on a compact set.

My actual aim is to verify that each of the conditions in Dini's theorem is essential or not.Theorem says that A sequence {$f_{n}$} of continuous functions defined on a compact set $E$ converges to ...
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1answer
35 views

Example of Two-point Remainder that are not homeomorphic

We that any two compactification $c_1 N$ and $c_2 N$ of the space $N=D(\aleph_0$) that have finite remainders of the same cardinality are homeomorphic, and yes can be incomparable with respect to the ...
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Example for why L'Hospital's rule demands that the denominator is locally not $0$.

We're looking at the limit of a function $f(x):=\frac{g(x)}{h(x)}$ for $x \rightarrow x_0$. Since L'hospital's Rule demands that the denominator function $h(x) \neq 0$ for a neighbourhood of $x_0$, ...
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1answer
68 views

An example of $_AM$ is simple but $M^\star_A$ is not?

Let $A$ be a finite dimensional $k$ algebra, $k$ is a field. It is evident that the duality functor ($(-)^\star=hom_k(-,k)$) preserves the simplicity in the case of finitely generated $A$- modules ...
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1answer
61 views

Visualize and define a vector space without dot / inner product

I'm trying to rebase my know how in linear algebra, restart from scratch to get a more formal and useful set of definitions to help me with computer programming stuff . One of the first concepts is a ...
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162 views

Is the converse of Sylvester's inertia law true?

Let $A,B$ be $n\times n$ symmetric matrices. Assume the positive,negative,0 index of $A$ and $B$ are the same. (That is, they have the same inertia) Then, are $A,B$ congruent? What is a ...
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341 views

A counter example in obstruction theory

Let $K$ denote a simplicial complex and $Y$ some topological space. Let us also denote by $K^n$ the $n$-skeleton of $K$. I would like to have an example for the following situation: There is a map ...
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93 views

An example of a simple infinite $2$-group

Is there an example of a simple infinite $2$-group? Informations If a $2$-group is Artinian I know that it also locally finite, so the simple $2$-group cannot be Artinian. Take the subgroup ...
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70 views

Compactness: Opens vs. Neighborhoods

Disclaimer: This thread is a record of thoughts. Discussion Given a compact set. Do mere neighborhood covers admit finite subcovers? $$C\subseteq\bigcup_{i\in I}N_i\implies C\subseteq ...
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Groupoid with division

I'm searching an example of a grupoid with division which is not a quasigroup. A grupoid $(G, \cdot)$ is with division if $a\cdot G=G\cdot a=G$. I was thinking to try $(\mathbb{Q},\cdot)$, where ...
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1answer
29 views

Do there exist semi-local Noetherian rings with infinite Krull dimension?

Do there exist semi-local Noetherian rings with infinite Krull dimension? As far as I know, Nagata's counterexample to the finite dimensionality for general Noetherian rings is not semi-local.
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Are there algebraic subgroups of Lie groups which happen to be Lie groups on their own but not Lie subgroups?

Let $G$ and $H$ be Lie groups and $i:H\to G$ an injective group homomorphism, not necessarily continuous. Once $i$ is continuous, it follows easily that $i$ is differentiable and even an immersion. ...
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75 views

Non-subdifferentiable convex function on a normed space

Is there any convex function $f$ on a normed space $X$ such that $\partial f(x)=\emptyset$ at every $x\in X$?
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43 views

Linear algebra questions

$M$ and $N$ subspaces of $V$. Give examples of $M$ and $N$ such that $M\cup N$ and $M\setminus N$ are not subspaces.
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1answer
29 views

Proof by counter-example

As is probably obvious by the title I cannot work out any set of numbers which disporoves the following conjecture $$ a^2 > b^2 => a > b $$ where A and B are real numbers. Anyone to give a ...
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Is a limit of a sequence of distribution functions is necessarily a distribution function

I got a question: "is a limit of a sequence of distribution functions is necessarily a distribution function". My answer is NO. I have a counterexample: $F_n(x)=0$ if $x<n$ and $1$ otherwise. It ...
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1answer
54 views

Differentiable continuous function whose derivative is not continuous [duplicate]

Is there a function which is continuous and differentiable, but is not smooth function? By smooth I mean having continuous derivative. For example, the derivative of $f(x)=x|x|/2$ is $f'(x)=|x|$ ...
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1answer
106 views

Weaker definitions of Lie subgroups

A Lie group $H$ is called a Lie subgroup of a Lie Group $G$ if there is a map $i:H\to G$ which is (a) an injective immersion and (b) a group homomorphism. My questios are: What happens if we replace ...
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126 views

Counter-example to Cauchy-Peano-Arzela theorem

I was looking for a counter-example to Cauchy-Peano-Arzela theorem. I found this paper (in french) from Dieudonné. [acta.fyx.hu] Take $E = c_0$ to be the space of real sequences converging to $0$, ...
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Just How Strong is Associativity?

A friend of mine is using a lot of algebra that is not associative for an advanced Chemistry project. We were discussing it recently and I found it rather amusing how often she said things like ...
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Example of a non-abelain finite group $G$ with $G/N$ abelian and infinite group $G$ with $G/N$ finite

Have not been able to think of a examples with the following properties: Example of a non-abelian finite group $G$ with property that $G/N$ is abelian for every non-trivial normal subgroup $N$ of ...
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An example of wreath product

I was analyzing the following example of wreath product of groups. Let $\mathbb{Z}_2$ be the cyclic group of order two and $\mathbb{Z}$ be the usual additive group of integers. Consider the ...
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1answer
43 views

How to find example such $A^{(n)}$ are different each other

let denoted $A'$ Derived set,and define $$A'=A^{(1)},(A^{(1)})'=A^{(2)},\cdots,(A^{(n)})'=A^{(n+1)}$$ Question: Take example the set $A$,such $A^{(k)},k=1,2,\cdots,n+1$ are different ...
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39 views

A question about the orders of the elements of a group [duplicate]

Let $m$ and $n$ be to positive integers strictly larger than $1$. Is it possible to find a group $G$ in which there are two elements, say $a$ and $b$, such that the order of $a$ is $m$, the order of ...
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42 views

Example of a unbounded projection

Let $H$ be a Hilbert space over $\mathbb{K}$. Let $T:H\rightarrow H$ be a linear transformation such that $T^2=T$. What is an example of $T$ such that $T$ is unbounded?