Examples and counterexamples are great ways to learn about the intricacies of definitions in mathematics. Counterexamples are especially useful in topology and analysis where most things are fairly intuitive, but every now and then one may run into borderline cases where the naive intuition may ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms (2)

1
vote
1answer
28 views

$H^1(X) = [X,\mathbb{T}]$?

This is a stupid question, but here goes. I have a compact Hausdorff space $X$, and I am talking about $[X,\mathbb{T}]$, the group of homotopy classes of maps $X \to \mathbb{T}$, where $\mathbb{T}$ ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

Quotient of a locally compact space

I am looking for an example of a quotient of a locally compact space that isn't locally compact. Is there a not too complicated example ?
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Counterexample: Convergence in finite dimensional distributions does not imply weak convergence

I'm working at the following exercise: Give an example of a sequence of stochastic processes $(\mathbb{X}^n)_{n\geq 1}$ such that the finite dimensional distributions converge to the finite ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

If $\sum a_n$ with $a_n>0$ is convergent, then is $\sum {a_n}^2$ and $\sum \sqrt{a_n}$ always convergent? [closed]

If $\sum a_n$ with $a_n>0$ is convergent, then is $\sum {a_n}^2$ and $\sum \sqrt{a_n}$ and $\sum \sqrt{a_na_{n+1}}$ always convergent? Either prove it or give a counter example. I am thinking ...
6
votes
2answers
390 views

Difference between being faithful and being injective on arrows

I'm studying the concept of faithful functors, but I cannot grasp the difference between being faithtful and being injective on arrows. Could someone explain the difference and provide some examples? ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Various convergences in the space of bounded operators

Could you please help me to find some classical (counter)examples in functional analysis? Let $X$ and $Y$ be some normed spaces over $\mathbb{C}$. By $\mathcal{B}(X,Y)$ we denote the space of bounded ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

WHat would be an example of this function?

WHat would be an example of a Lebesgue integrable function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow [0,\infty)$ satisfying: $f$ is continuous. $\limsup_{x\to \infty} f(x)=\infty$
2
votes
1answer
61 views

If $|\operatorname{Aut}_KF|=3$, must we have cube roots of unity?

Let $K$ be a field of zero characteristic. Let $F$ be a finite dimensional extension field of $K$ such that $|\operatorname{Aut}_K F|=3$. Must the equation $x^2+x+1=0$ have a root in $F$ ? Thank you
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Example of a Problem Made Easier with Skew Coordinates

I'm looking for an example of a problem which would be hard (or significantly harder) to solve in orthogonal coordinate systems, or at least the Cartesian coordinate system, but is reduced to an ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

what would be an example of a function such that $\int_{|z|=r} f(z)=0$ for all $r>0$, but not analytic everywhere?

what would be an example of a function such that $\int_{|z|=r} f(z)=0$ for all $r>0$, but not analytic everywhere. I cannot think of one..
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Are surjective order-homomorphisms necessarily complete lattice homomorphisms?

Let $X$ and $Y$ denote complete lattice, and suppose $f : X \rightarrow Y$ is a surjective order-homomorphism. Does $f$ necessarily preserve arbitrary suprema, therefore being a complete lattice ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

Closed 4-manifolds with uncountably many differentiable structures

I know that $\mathbb{R}^4$ admits uncountably many differentiable structures and I was wandering what happen if we consider closed (or just compact) 4-manifolds. Are there any closed (or compact) ...
2
votes
2answers
36 views

Does $(x-a)^n\in K[x]$ imply that $a\in K$?

Let $F$ be an extension field of $K$. Let $a\in F$ and $n$ be a positive integer. It is also given that the polynomial $(x-a)^n$ has all of its coefficients in $K$, i.e. $(x-a)^n\in K[x]$. Does it ...
2
votes
2answers
62 views

What are counter examples for these statements?

Question 1. Let $\{T_i\}_{i\in I}$ be a family topologies on a set $X$. Provide an example that $\bigcup T_i$ is not a topology on X. > Question 2. Let $X$ be a compact space ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Can an algebraic structure such that $x+a=x+b$, have solutions for all $a,b∈K$ exist?

Is there exist a algebraic structure $K$ such that equations of the form $x+a=x+b$, $a\neq b$ have solutions for all $a,b∈K$?
3
votes
0answers
56 views

Homeomorphisms of product spaces: an example [duplicate]

In the first of these lectures (http://www.mpim-bonn.mpg.de/node/4436) given by M. Freedman he says that there exists (compact metric) spaces $X$ and $Y$ such that $X\times S^{1}$ is homeomorphic to ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Necessity of a hypothesis in Scheffé's lemma

Scheffé's lemma states that if $f_n$ is a sequence of Lebesgue integrable functions (i.e. $f_n \in L_1$) that converges almost everywhere to another integrable function $f$, then $\int |f_n - f| \, ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

What is wrong with this “counterexample” of boundedness of weakly convergent sequences?

Weakly convergence sequences $\{u_n\}$ in a Hilbert space $H$ are bounded. Here is an attempted "counterexample". What is wrong with this? Let $H = \ell_2(\mathbb{N})$, and let $\{e_n\}$ be the ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Product of two symmetric banded matrices - real eigenvalues?

Let $A$ and $B$ be real symmetric banded matrices but $AB$ is not symmetric. Are the eigenvalues of $AB$ real? A more specific case: let $D$ be a real diagonal matrix, $B$ real symmetric and banded, ...
4
votes
0answers
26 views

A locally connected metric space of first category

I wonder if there exists a locally connected metric space of first category. I proved a theorem which assumes a space to be connected locally connected hereditarily Baire and metrizable. I ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

F sigma subsets of the real line

I need an example of a nowhere dense $\mathcal F_\sigma$ subset of the real line that is not a countable union of perfects sets and not a countable union of pairwise disjoint closed sets.
6
votes
2answers
92 views

A function such that $f'(x)>0$, but not strictly monotone increasing.

This is Exercise 10.3.5 from Analysis Vol.1 by Terence Tao. Give an example of a subset $X \subset \mathbb{R}$ and a function $f: X \to \mathbb{R}$ which is differentiable on $X$, is such that ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

A real-valued separately continuous function discontinuous everywhere

I need an example of a real-valued separately continuous function that is discontinuous at each point. This is either a well-known folklore fact or a burning problem in separate versus joint ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Continuity conditions for multivariate functions.

Is the following true ? A proof or counter-example or reference would be nice. A function $f:\mathbb{R}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continous at $(0,0)$ if and only if if for all $a, b$, the limits ...
2
votes
2answers
57 views

Topological vector spaces vs. locally convex spaces

I'm taking a course on locally convex spaces and our lecturer mentioned that these form the most general collection of spaces on which one can still prove interesting theorems (like Hahn-Banach - ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Extending a compact operator to the entire Hilbert space

In a course I'm taking we defined compact operators as a linear mapping $H\rightarrow H$, where $H$ is a Hilbert space, that maps bounded sets to relative compact ones. The lecturer mentioned that the ...
10
votes
1answer
364 views

Example of similar matrices $A$ and $B$ such that products $AB$ and $BA$ are not similar

I'm looking for the simplest possible example of square matrices $A$ and $B$ such that $A$ is similar to $B$, $AB$ is not similar to $BA$. Such an example should exist, but I would like to find ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

is this a valid counter-example - function is not locally invertible

Let $S_n$ be the set of all symmetric matrices with real entries of size $n$x$n$. We are asked if the function $f:S_n \to S_n$, $f(A)=A^2$ is locally invertible for every $A$ (Using the Inverse ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Counterexample for converse about measurable sections

On page 67 of Jacod and Protter, Probability Essentials, it is stated that: Theorem 10.2 Let $f$ be measurable: $(E \times F, {\cal E} \otimes {\cal F}) \to (\mathbf R, {\cal R})$. For each $x \in ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

$\mathcal{C}^\infty$ strictly monotone function $\lim f(x) = 0$, but $\lim f^\prime(x) \ne 0$

Does there exist a strictly monotone function $f\colon \Bbb R\to\Bbb R$ that is $\mathcal{C}^\infty$, and $\lim\limits_{x\to+\infty} f(x) = 0$, but $$\lim_{x\to+\infty} f^\prime(x) $$ and ...
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Example of a subgroup of index two which contains a non square element

If a finite group contains a subgroup H of index two, then every element of the group which is a square belongs to H. Is there a (simple) counterexample showing that not all the elements of H are ...
7
votes
1answer
105 views

The topology on $X/{\sim}\times X/{\sim}$ is not induced by $\pi\times\pi$.

I'm looking for an example of a topological space $X$ together with an equivalence relation $\sim$ where the product topology on $X/{\sim}\times X/{\sim}$ is not induced by $\pi\times\pi$ as a final ...
0
votes
2answers
92 views

Closure of Integers under multiplication and rational exponentiation

What is the closure of the Integers under a finite number of multiplications and rational exponentiations? For example, $3^{1/2}$, $i = -1^{1/2}$, and $\frac{-1+i \sqrt(3)}{2} = 1^{1/3}$ all in this ...
3
votes
1answer
119 views

Infinite abelian group counterexample [duplicate]

A finite group $G$ is abelian iff all its irreducible representation $\rho$ have dimension 1. I'm looking for a counter-example when $G$ is an infinite group. Are there any? EDIT We're dealing ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

Question about compact operator

So here is my question, Let $H$ be a Hilbert-space and $K:H\rightarrow H$ a compact operator. I know that if $K$ is self adjoint, then it has one eigenvalue $\mu$ such that $|\mu|=||K||$. Can some ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Counterexample to Marcinkiewicz

I have a version of Marcinkiewicz: Let $(X,\mu)$ and $(Y,\nu)$ be measure spaces and let $1<p_1 \leq \infty$. Suppose that $T$ is a mapping from $L^1(X,\mu) + L^{p_1}(X,\mu)$ to $\mu$- measurable ...
4
votes
2answers
63 views

Question about a counterexample concerning compact operators

Does anybody know if the following is true, Let $H$ be an infinite dimensional Hilbert-space and $K:H\rightarrow H$ a compact operator. Then if $|\mathrm{spec}(K)|<\infty$ i.e the spectrum is ...
0
votes
3answers
60 views

applications of the identity $ab + \left(\frac{a+b}{2} - b\right)^2 = \left(\frac{a+b}{2}\right)^2$

I am reading euclid's elements I found the algebraic identity $ab + \left(\frac{a+b}{2} - b\right)^2 = \left(\frac{a+b}{2}\right)^2$ I ponder on usage of this identity for $2$ hours. but I can't ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Extraneous solutions.

I just learned of extraneous solutions on the internet and thought, "could you both lose and gain solutions in one equation?" I think that, yes, you should be able to do that. However I haven't been ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

Problem on Convergence of random series

Suppose that $\{X_n\}$ is an independent sequence and $E[X_n]=0$. If $\sum \operatorname{Var}[X_n] < \infty$, then $\sum X_n$ converges with probability $1$. Is independence necessary condition ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Counterexamples for the image of central,idempotent,invertible and nilpotent elements of a ring

I already proved that if i was given a surjective ring morphism f from R to S and then if a∈R is invertible, central, idempotent, or nilpotent, respectively then f(a) also is. But im looking for ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Do all distributions of R.V.s have a singular part and a continuous part?

Consider the probability distribution of a real-valued R.V. as the equivalence class of generalized PDFs where the integral over each measurable set in $\mathbb{R}$ is the same in each PDF. 1) Can ...
6
votes
1answer
75 views

counterexample for ill posedness of the laplace equation

Consider the wave equation with initial data: $$u_{tt}(t,x) + u_{xx}(t,x) = 0$$ $$u(0,x) = u_0(x)$$ $$u_t(0,x) = u_1(x)$$ Hadamard showed that this problem is ill-posed: there exist large solutions ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Counterexamples for L1-convergence not implying L2-convergence and vice versa

I am trying to find counterexamples for the following statements. Let $\{f_n\}$ be a sequence in $L^1(\mathbb{R}^d) \cap L^2(\mathbb{R}^d)$, and let $f$ also be in $L^1(\mathbb{R}^d) \cap ...
20
votes
8answers
2k views

Statements with rare counter-examples [duplicate]

This is a soft question. I'm searching for examples of mathmatical statements (preferably in number theory, but other topics are also fine), that seem to be true, but are actually not. Statements ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

an example that property $\delta$ does not imply property $\gamma$

In this article, two properties are mentioned at page 153: property $\gamma$: If $\mathcal U$ is an open $\omega$-cover of $X$, then there is a sequence $G_n \in \mathcal U$, with $\underline {Lim} ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Maps from subsets of $\mathbb{R}^2$ that are either open/closed/continuous

I'm self studying J. Lee's Introduction to Topological Manifolds, and after doing all other exercises on chapter 2, I can't seem to come with the proper counterexamples for this one. For each of ...
3
votes
1answer
87 views

If partial sums of derivatives diverge then derivative does not exist?

Let $f_n :[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ be differentiable and such that $\sum_n f_n'(x)$ diverges for all $x \in [a,b]$. Let $\sum_n f_n $ converge uniformly on $[a,b]$ to $f$. Does it follow that $f'$ does ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

The closed graph theorem for Banach spaces isn't true. True?

I'm reading through some functional analysis lecture notes and there the closed graph theorem was stated in the following form: Let $X$ be a Baire locally convex space and $Y$ a Frechet space. If ...
2
votes
2answers
58 views

Example for a corollary in finite field theory

I'm preparing a seminar and the problem is that I never had a lecture before in finite fields. So I had to learn everything by myself, and that is unfortunately not easy at all... Can anyone help me ...