Examples and counterexamples are great ways to learn about the intricacies of definitions in mathematics. Counterexamples are especially useful in topology and analysis where most things are fairly intuitive, but every now and then one may run into borderline cases where the naive intuition may ...

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Example of a semimartingale with special properties

I have to find an example of a semimartingale X such that $\lim_{t \rightarrow \infty} X_t$ exists a.s. and $X$ is not a semimartingale up to infinity. I think it could be a deterministic function ...
32
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3answers
1k views

If every continuous $f:X\to X$ has $\text{Fix}(f)\subseteq X$ closed, must $X$ be Hausdorff?

Given a function $f:X\to X$, let $\text{Fix}(f)=\{x\in X\mid x=f(x)\}$. In a recent comment, I wondered whether $X$ is Hausdorff $\iff$ $\text{Fix}(f)\subseteq X$ is closed for every continuous $f:X\...
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4answers
171 views

A concave positive function on $[1,\infty)$ is uniformly continuous

Let $f$ be a concave positive function on $[1,\infty)$, then $f$ is uniformly continuous on $[1,\infty)$. This was a true or false problem that I couldn't prove to be true, so I'm thinking that maybe ...
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4answers
174 views

Assume that the function $f(x)$ is continuous and $\lim_{n\to\infty}f_n(x)=f(x)$. Does this imply that $f_n(x)$ is uniform convergent?

I wonder if this is true: Let $(f_n)$ be a sequence of real-valued functions defined on a set $S\subset\mathbb{R}$. Assume that the function $f(x)$ is continuous and $\lim_{n\to\infty}f_n(x)=f(x)$. ...
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2answers
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Example of a general random variable with finite mean but infinite variance

Given a probability triple $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mu)$ of Lebesgue measure $[0,1]$, find a random variable $X : \Omega \to \mathbb{R}$ such that the expected value $E(X)$ converges to a finite, ...
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2answers
118 views

A discontinuous function with smooth sections

I am searching for $f : U\rightarrow \mathbb R $ defined in an open square $U$ in $\mathbb R^2$ so that $(0,0) \in U$, $f$ is not continuous at $(0,0)$, for each $x$ the function $y\mapsto f(x,y)$ is ...
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1answer
62 views

About commutative ring with identity

Let $R$ be an infinite commutative ring. Which of following options is false? Center of $M_2(R×R)$ is nontrivial. $ M_2(R×R) \cong M_2(R)×M_2(R)$ The number of units in $M_2(R ×R)$ is infinite. The ...
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3answers
34 views

Example for associative, commutative operations

I need examples of binary operations for real numbers that are associative and commutative associative but not commutative The examples are for a programming class and need to be rather simple. ...
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2answers
28 views

Prove or disprove : limit point compact hausdorff space imply compact space?

Prove or disprove : limit point compact hausdorff space imply compact space?. I think that it is not true. Because we know that the every product of compact space is compact and we know that product ...
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0answers
14 views

Specific examples of Side Information?

I'm starting to apply information theory to gambling. There is something called Side information (see details in [1]), which I understand is additional information about the outs of the game. It could ...
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39 views

Normal extension of a field

Let $F$ be an extension of $K$ (they are both fields). I know that if $F$ has finite degree over $K$, then the following things are equivalent: 1) $F$ is such that every irreducible polynomial in $K[...
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1answer
85 views

Examples of provably${}^n$ unprovable statements

Given any statement $A$ and a classical theory $T$ which we assume is at least as strong as Peano Arithmetic ($\sf PA$), we have that $T\vdash A$ implies $T\vdash T\vdash A$ (that is, if a statement ...
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1answer
33 views

What is an example of a uniformly continuous function but not absolutely continuous

Is there a function that is uniformly continuous function but not absolutely continuous. My answer is $f(x)=x^{2}, \forall x\in R$ Is this right? Are there any other?
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1answer
75 views

Continuous or Differentiable but Nowhere Lipschitz Continuous Function

What is a real valued function that is continuous on a close interval but not Lipschitz continuous on any subinterval? What is a real valued function that is differentiable on a close interval but not ...
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1answer
41 views

Can you give me an example of a function that is either upper OR lower quasi-continuous but not both?

A function $f: X \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is said to be upper (lower) quasi-continuous at $x \in X$ if for each $\epsilon >0$ and for each neighbourhood $U$ of $x$ there is a non-empty open set $G \...
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0answers
30 views

What are types of coalgebras that are more naturally described by cooperads?

Let $\mathsf{C}$ be a symmetric monoidal category. An object $X \in \mathsf{C}$ has two operads "naturally" (the two constructions aren't functorial) associated to it: the operad of endomorphisms and ...
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4answers
501 views

Non-separable compact space

Off the top of my head, I can't think of a non-separable compact space. Can you provide a good example?
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1answer
35 views

A graph with list chromatic number $4$ and chromatic number $3$

What is an example of a graph with chromatic number $\chi(G)=3$ and list-chromatic number $\chi_\ell(G)=4$? My first thought was to consider complete tripartite graphs since these will have chromatic ...
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1answer
24 views

Torsion elements and subgroups of nonabelian group

I am currently studying torsion groups and I am playing around with defintions to get used to them. An element $g \in G$ is a torsion element, if there exists $n \in \mathbb{N}$ so that $g^n = e$, ...
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1answer
18 views

Example of an uncountable metric space where every point is isolated

I was trying to come up with an example of an uncountable metric space all of whose points are isolated. I've had difficulty thinking of one, has anyone got any nice examples? Just in case: ...
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1answer
36 views

Question on abstract algebra about invertiblity?

Let $(G,*)$ be a group. Could anyone give me an example $a,b\in G$ such that $$a*b=e\mbox{ and } b*a\neq e $$ Where $e$ is the identity element. I would appreciate any help. Thanks in advance!
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420 views
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1answer
68 views

Examples of the use of $(p \vee q) \wedge (\neg p \vee r) \Rightarrow (q \vee r)$ in “real” mathematics?

Here, a proof is requested for the following tautology: $$(p \vee q) \wedge (\neg p \vee r) \Rightarrow (q \vee r)$$ Its pretty easy to prove; nonetheless, I don't find the formula at all intuitive, ...
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1answer
40 views

Counterexample that a measurable function does not guarantee almost sure convergence

I try to find a counterexample that if $X_n\xrightarrow{\text{a.s.}}X$ then for a measurable function $g:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ this does not imply that $$g(X_n)\xrightarrow{\text{a.s.}}g(X)$$ ...
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Ergodic actions of orthogonal group $O(2)$

I am looking for explicit ergodic action of $O(2)$ on a von Neumann algebra $M$. ($O(2)$=orthogonal group of $2\times 2$ matrix)
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1answer
33 views

Is every such family induced by an associative operation?

Suppose we're given an associative operation $\star : X \times X \rightarrow X$. Then for each $n \in \mathbb{N}_{>0}$, there's a function $f_n : X^n \rightarrow X$ given as follows: $$f_n(x_0,\...
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4answers
985 views

Does a continuous point-wise limit imply uniform convergence?

Question Given a sequence of continuous functions $(f_n)_{n \in \mathbb N}$ and define $$ f : X \rightarrow Y, \quad f(x) = \lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} f_n(x) $$ where $X$ and $Y$ are metric spaces. ...
2
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1answer
113 views

inflexion points of a composition of functions

Let's consider a smooth positive bounded and non-increasing function $h$ over $\mathbb{R}^{+}$ (for example some kind of decreasing sigmoid). A) Is it true that if $h$ has only one inflexion point, ...
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1answer
79 views

A smooth nowhere analytic function such that all derivatives are monotone

Related questions that might provide some context: (1) (2) (3) (4) Let's restrict our attention to real-values functions on an open unit interval $f:(0,1)\to\mathbb R$. There are examples $\!^{[1]}$...
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1answer
37 views

How many examples exist of Lie groups that are 2-dimesional surfaces?

It is relatively easy to show that $\mathbb{R}^2$ or $\mathbb{T}^2$ are 2-dimensional surfaces with a structure of Lie groups. I can not find other surface which are also a Lie group, there are more ...
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1answer
42 views

Sum of closed spaces is not closed

I recently encountered the theorem that the sum of a closed (linear) subspace with a finite dimensional subspace is closed subspace of the Banach space in which it is contained. However, this came ...
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1answer
49 views

Is every set of measure zero countable?

I know it is true that every countable set has measure zero, but is the converse true. Is it true that every set of measure zero is countable?
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1answer
202 views

Find $f:C\to\mathbb{R}^2$ continuous and bijective but not open, $C\subset\mathbb{R} ^2$ is closed and connected

Are there a closed connected subspace $C$ of $\mathbb{R}^2$ and a continuous, bijective function $f:C\to\mathbb{R}^2$ that is not open? If we remove the condition for $C$ to be connected, we have ...
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1answer
10 views

Counter example for The Composition Theorem for Riemann Integrability

Based on The Composition Theorem (found in the last Lemma here) we can say that if a function f is Riemann Integrable, then $f^n$ is Riemann Integrable as well. The converse is not true, but I can't ...
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1answer
108 views
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3answers
31 views

Continuous for each variables does not implies continuous

Prove or disprove the following statement: Statement. Continuous for each variables, when other variables are fixed, implies continuous? More clearly, prove or disprove the following problem: Let $\...
360
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34answers
22k views

Examples of apparent patterns that eventually fail

Often, when I try to describe mathematics to the layman, I find myself struggling to convince them of the importance and consequence of 'proof'. I receive responses like: "surely if the Collatz ...
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18 views

Counterexamples of Cumulative Distribution Function ( multidimensional )

For simplicity, we consider 2-dimensional. We consider the function $F:\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$. Let $F$ satisfies: $0\leq F(x_1,x_2)\leq1$ for $(x_1,x_2)\in\mathbb{R}^2$ $\left\{\displaystyle\...
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2answers
104 views

Non-subdifferentiable convex function on a normed space

Is there any convex function $f$ on a normed space $X$ such that $\partial f(x)=\emptyset$ at every $x\in X$?
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2answers
3k views

Give an example of a function $h$ that is discontinuous at every point of $[0,1]$, but with $|h|$ continuous on $[0,1]$

Give an example of a function $h:[0,1]\to\mathbb{R}$ that is discontinuous at every point of $[0,1]$, but such that the function $| h |$ that is continuous on $[0,1]$. I don't really even know where ...
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0answers
18 views

Baire class one function

in here http://www.m-hikari.com/ijma/ijma-2013/ijma-5-8-2013/feneciosIJMA5-8-2013.pdf has been shown that if a function $f$ is a real valued function on $\mathbb{R}$ with a countable set of ...
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1answer
36 views

Is there a graph with $n$ vertices and $n^2/4$ edges that isn't bipartite? [closed]

Is there a graph with $n$ vertices and $\lfloor n^2/4\rfloor$ edges that isn't bipartite and contains no triangles ($K_3$)? Rather, what I am asking is whether Mantel's Theorem implies that every ...
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2answers
25 views

$A^\circ \cup B^\circ \subset (A \cup B )^\circ$ Counterexample for = instead of $\subset$

If $A$ and $B$ are sets of real numbers, then $(A \cup B)^{\circ} \supseteq A^ {\circ}\cup B^{\circ}$ But the same relation with a = isn't always true. Can someone find an example where the = doesn'...
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1answer
58 views

counterexample for $\overline{A \cap B} = \overline{A} \cap \overline{B}$

Prove $(\overline{A \cap B}) \subseteq \overline{A} \cap \overline{B}$. But the same relation with a $=$ isn't always true. Can someone find an example where the $=$ doesn't hold, I can't seem to ...
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2answers
67 views

Looking for an example of an infinite metric space $X$ such that there exist a continuous bijection $f: X \to X$ which is not a homeomorphism

I am looking for an example of an infinite metric space $X$ such that there exists a continuous bijection $f: X \to X$ which is not a homeomorphism. Please help. Thanks in advance.
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0answers
81 views

Algebra defined by $a^2=a,b^2=b,c^2=c,(a+b+c)^2=a+b+c$

Let $\cal A$ be the (noncommutative) unitary $\mathbb Z$-algebra defined by three generators $a,b,c$ and four relations $a^2=a,b^2=b,c^2=c,(a+b+c)^2=a+b+c$. Is it true that $ab\neq 0$ in $A$ ? This ...
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1answer
33 views

Is there an example where $ A \subseteq\mathcal {P}\bigcup A\ $ is no longer true?

I came up with the following: Let A = {x} Then $ \bigcup A = x $ $ \mathcal {P} \bigcup A =$ ? This is where I get stuck. The definition of power set is the set of all subsets of $A$ ...
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4answers
327 views

Ratio test for sequences, the other direction

Suppose I have a real sequence $x_n\to 0$. Is it true that: $$ \left|\frac{x_{n+1}}{x_n}\right|\to r<1 $$ for some $r\in\mathbb{R}$? If not, is it true that: $$\exists N\in\mathbb{N}:\left|\frac{x_{...
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2answers
308 views

Distance from a compact subset need not be attained in a metric space?

Suppose we have a metric space $(X,d)$. Let $S$ be a compact subset of $X$. Provide me with an example of $X$, and $S$ (closed and bounded in $X$) such that $$\min \{d(p_0,p): p \in S\}$$ does not ...
0
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2answers
26 views

Example of a function $u \in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ whose extension $\hat{u}$ to be $0$ outside $\Omega$ $\hat{u} \notin W^{1,p}(\mathbb{R}^n)$

Let's consider a function $u \in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$, where $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ is the Sobolev Space and $\Omega$ is an open set. When we extend $u$ to $\hat{u}$ like this: $$\hat{u}(x)=\left\{\begin{...