Examples and counterexamples are great ways to learn about the intricacies of definitions in mathematics. Counterexamples are especially useful in topology and analysis where most things are fairly intuitive, but every now and then one may run into borderline cases where the naive intuition may ...

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How to use stars and bars (combinatorics)

How to use the stars and bars method? Say I want to find number of combinations I can get with $x_1+x_2+x_3+x_4=22$, where $x_i\in\mathbb{N}$. Is this the correct time to apply the method?
18
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2answers
428 views

If the tensor power $M^{\otimes n} = 0$, is it possible that $M^{\otimes n-1}$ is nonzero?

Let $M$ be a module over a commutative ring $R$. It is possible that $M \otimes M = 0$ if $M$ is nonzero, for example when $R = \mathbb{Z}$ and $M = \mathbb{Q}/ \mathbb{Z}$. What about when higher ...
4
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2answers
50 views

Example of a non-polynomial function $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that $f'(x)$ is negative for $x<0$ and positive for $x \ge 0$.

I have a bunch of polynomial functions example easily (e.g. $x^2$), but have trouble coming up with a non-polynomial function. I was thinking of defining $f(x) = e^{-x}$ for $x<0$ and $f(x) = ...
7
votes
1answer
96 views

$X$ is connected, $A \subset X$ connected, and $C$ a component of $X\backslash A$. Is $\overline A \cap \overline C \ne \emptyset$?

I'm trying to prove or disprove the following statement: If $X$ is connected, $A \subset X$ is connected, and $C$ a component of $X\backslash A$ then $\overline A \cap \overline C \ne \emptyset$. I ...
2
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2answers
33 views

Double complex with exact rows

Let $(K^{p,q},\delta,d)$ be a double complex of modules. We assume that $\delta$ of degree $(1,0)$, $d$ has degree $(0,1)$ and $d$ and $\delta$ commute. Since $d$ and $\delta$ commute, then $\delta$ ...
4
votes
1answer
60 views

Continuous and bounded imply uniform continuity?

I am thinking about this since couple hour. Is a continuous and bounded function $f:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ uniform continuous too? I didn't found a counter example and thus I tried to prove this like ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Deleting a contractible subspace is the same as deleting a point

Let $X$ be a topological space and $A$ and $B$ are subspaces of $X$. Suppose that $A$ is contractible. I know that taking the quotient does not affect the homotopy type, that is $X/A$ is homotopy ...
6
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3answers
3k views

Is a bounded and continuous function uniformly continuous?

$f\colon(-1,1)\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is bounded and continuous does it mean that $f$ is uniformly continuous? Well, $f(x)=x\sin(1/x)$ does the job for counterexample? Please help!
4
votes
3answers
221 views

Necessity of completeness of the inner product space in Riesz representation theorem

I wanted to find a counter example to show that the completeness of the inner product space is necessary in Riesz representation theorem. Please give an example of a bounded linear functional $T$ on ...
15
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5answers
2k views

Continuous function from $(0, 1]$ onto $(0, 1)$?

Is there any continuous function defined on $(0, 1]$ whose range is $(0, 1)$?
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1answer
71 views

What are some easy to understand applications of Banach Contraction Principle?

I know that Banach contraction principle guarantees a unique solution to problems of the form $$f(x) = x$$ But for the life of me I cannot understand why this problem is important at all. I don't ...
1
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1answer
35 views

Can this statement about winding number generalized?

Definition Let $\alpha$ be a path in $\mathbb{C}\setminus\{z_0\}$. Since $\mathbb{C}\rightarrow \mathbb{C}\setminus \{z_0\}:z\mapsto e^z$ is a covering map, $\alpha$ can be decomposed as ...
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10answers
1k views

Fake induction proofs

Question: Can you provide an example of a claim where the base case holds but there is a subtle flaw in the inductive step that leads to a fake proof of a clearly erroneous result? [Note: Please do ...
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vote
1answer
74 views

Sobolev functions counterexample

Let $A=(0,1)^{d}$.Does anyone have a simple example of a funtion in $H_0^1(A)\cap H^2(A)$ that is not in $H^2_0(A)$? Thanks a lot.
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0answers
20 views

What is an example that Euclidean function varies by a unit?

Let $R$ be a Euclidean domain and $f$ be a Euclidean function on $R$. (Not necessarily submultiplicative) Let $a,b$ be nonzero elements of $R$ such that $a=ub$ where $u$ is a unit of $R$. Is there ...
5
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1answer
60 views

Example of a surjective local homeomorphism that is not a covering? [duplicate]

Let $X$ and $Y$ be connected, locally path connected, and Hausdorff topological spaces. Can someone give me an example of a surjective local homeomorphism that is not a covering? I don't think this ...
6
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3answers
760 views

Local homeomorphisms which are not covering map?

I am trying to find examples of maps between topological space which are local homeomorphism but not covering maps. Especially, how twisted has to be such a counterexample : can it be a local ...
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2answers
31 views

Continuous marginal distributions do not imply continuous joint distribution

I already proved the other implication. I need to find an explicit example that shows that if there is some random vector $(X,Y)$ and $X$ and $Y$ have both continuous marginal distributions, then ...
2
votes
2answers
42 views

Existence of an metric or a topology so that every subset is compact

Let $X$ be a infinite set. Is there a metric on $X$ such that every sub set of $X$ is compact? What about a topology on $X$? I think that if we can answer first question then we can answer the ...
5
votes
0answers
50 views

Looking for functions “similar” to the $ \Gamma $ function

According to wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_equation The $\Gamma$ - function is the only solution that suffices the following three equations: $$ f(x)={f(x+1) \over x}\tag{$*$} ...
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0answers
26 views

Examples of ODEs with a 3-dimensional vector-function

I'm testing a program which solves ODEs and I need some examples. Where can I find some examples of ODEs with a 3-dimensional vector-funcion? Likes these two:
2
votes
1answer
227 views

Example to illustrate the necessity for nets?

Given topological spaces $(X,\tau)$, $(Y,\upsilon)$, we say a function $f:X\rightarrow Y$ is continuous iff $\forall$ $U\in \upsilon$, $f^{-1}(U)\in \tau$. Equivalently, we can say that $f$ is ...
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2answers
174 views

Does there exist a function that is continuous at every rational point and discontinuous at every irrational point? And vice versa?

Actually there are 2 questions, but they are closely related. Does it exist a function that is: Continuous at every rational point and discontinuous at every irrational point? Continuous at ...
2
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3answers
103 views

Continuous bijective function between the same topology that is not a homeomorphism.

I know there are many examples when the domain and co-domain do not coincide. Taking the identity on $X$ from $(X,\tau_1)$ to $(X,\tau_2)$ when $\tau_2$ is coarser than $\tau_1$ gives an infinite ...
0
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0answers
81 views

non compact closed range operator

Lately I've been reading Abramovich and Aliprantis' book 'An invitation to operator theory', chapter 2 (page 69) on bounded below operators. I would like to find an example of non-compact (and ...
0
votes
0answers
53 views

Is there an example such that $\text{rank}(A^t)\neq \text{rank}(A)$?

Let $R$ be a commutative Noetherian ring and $A\in M_{n\times m}(R)$. If $R$ is a field, then $rank(A^t)=rank(A)$. However, in general Noetherian rings, does $rank(A^t)=rank(A)$ hold? Since the ...
3
votes
1answer
98 views

Is every Hilbert space an $L^2$ space?

Let $H$ be any Hilbert space. Must there exist a measure space $(X,\scr{M},\mu)$ such that we have a Hilbert space isomorphism: $$H\cong L^2(\mu)$$ Thank you
2
votes
1answer
320 views

A semisimple commutative Banach algebra with a non-semisimple quotient

I am looking for an example of a semisimple commutative Banach algebra which admits a non-semisimple quotient. Attempt from the comments: "I take $A$ to be the algebra of all continuously ...
6
votes
0answers
67 views

Does there exist a graph $G$ such that every edge is contained in a unique Hamiltonian circuit, that is not a cycle graph?

Suppose $G$ is an (undirected, simple) finite graph. If $G$ is a cycle graph, then each edge of $G$ belongs to a unique Hamiltonian circuit. Does there exist a non-cycle graph $G$ with this property?
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1answer
95 views

Practical examples/implementation details for Gauss-Seidel method

I'm having a presentation on Gauss-Seidel iterative method, and although it isn't mandatory , I would like to have some practical examples for this method (a system of linear equations with n>=1000, ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Is my example of non equivalent maps correct?

We define two smooth maps $f: (\mathbb R, 0) \to (\mathbb R^2, 0)$ and $g: (\mathbb R, 0) \to (\mathbb R^2, 0)$ to be equivalent if there exist diffeomorphisms $\tau : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ and ...
3
votes
1answer
70 views

Reconciling two different definitions of constructible sets

This question is really about sets and topology, but it is motivated from commutative algebra, hence the tag. Setup: Let $X$ be a set and let $\{U_\lambda\}_{\lambda\in\Lambda}\subset 2^X$ be a ...
3
votes
2answers
142 views

completeness of cones in an ordered normed space

Let $(X,\|\cdot\|,\le)$ be a normed, ordered vector space over $\mathbb{R}$ and let $X^+=\lbrace x\in X:x\ge0\rbrace$ denote the (positive) cone in $X$. with a metric $d$ induced by the norm ...
1
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3answers
57 views

Discontinuous maps taking compacts to compacts

It's commonly known that in general topology, a continuous map $f$ from a topological space $(X, \tau)$ to another topological space $(Y, \tau')$ will send every compact set to another compact set. ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Counterexample to a variation on “The politician theorem”.

The following is a theorem in graph theory that has a nice 'real world' interpretation: Suppose $G$ is a finite simple graph in which any two vertices have precisely one common neighbour. Then ...
3
votes
2answers
477 views

K topology: Examples

Why would the interval $(-3,1)$ be open in the $k$-topology? (I'm using Munkres). Can I have some other examples of intervals in $k$-topology? What exactly does $(a,b)$ $\cup$ $(a,b)-k$ for ...
75
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32answers
7k views

What are some conceptualizations that work in mathematics but are not strictly true?

I'm having an argument with someone who thinks it's never justified to teach something that's not strictly correct. I disagree: often, the pedagogically most efficient way to make progress is to ...
5
votes
3answers
876 views

A locally injective but non globally injective function?

A continuous function $f : U \subset \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$, is said to be locally injective at $x_0 \in U$ if exist a neighborhood $V \subset U$ of $x_0$ s.t. $f|_V$ is injective. $f$ is said ...
4
votes
1answer
67 views

Non-example for vector space

$V$ is a vector space over a field $F$ if it satisfies the following conditions. $(V,+)$ is an abelian group. $1 \in F $ such that $1.\alpha=\alpha$ for every $\alpha \in V$ ...
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votes
2answers
258 views

Is projection of a closed set $F\subseteq X\times Y$ always closed?

If we have closed subset $F$ of product $X \times Y$ (product topology) does it mean that $p_1(F)$ (projection on first coordinate) is closed in $X$ and $p_2(F)$ in $Y$ are closed? If not, why not ...
2
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0answers
54 views

Can we find an example?

I have this theorem, and i want to know if i can find an expression of the operator $A$ which satisfy this theorem:
5
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2answers
360 views

An example for infinite dimensional vector space with Hamel dimension smaller than $\operatorname{card} F$

What will be the example for a vector space(infinite dimensional) over a field where Hamel basis has strictly smaller cardinality than that of field? It is not possible in a Hilbert Space (over R or ...
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2answers
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find examples of two series $\sum a_n$ and $\sum b_n$ both of which diverge but for which $\sum \min(a_n, b_n)$ converges

Find examples of two series $\sum a_n$ and $\sum b_n$ both of which diverge but for which $\sum \min(a_n, b_n)$ converges. To make it more challenging, produce examples where $a_n$ and $b_n$ are ...
3
votes
1answer
81 views

Counter exchanging limit and integral

Background I came across this answer on Math SE which claimed it made a lot of sense to switch limit and integral. In response I came up with the following counter-examples: $\lim_{w \to 0} ...
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votes
3answers
128 views

Looking for an example of an increasing function $f:[a,b] \to [a,b]$ which is discontinuous at infinitely many points

I am looking for an example of an increasing function $f:[a,b] \to [a,b]$ which is discontinuous at infinitely many points ; please help , thanks in advance .
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2answers
50 views

If $\sum a_{2k}$ exists then $\sum a_m$ exists?

Let $\{a_0,a_1,a_2...\}$ be a sequence of real numbers let $s_n=\sum a_{2k}$. If $\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty} s_n $ exists then $\sum a_m$ exists. Is it true? I don§t find a counter example
2
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0answers
73 views

Finding a weight function with a specific property

I am looking for a (smooth, quickly decaying) function $w : [0,\infty) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $$w(t) \cdot \int_{0}^{t} \frac{1}{w(2x)} dx $$ is absolutely integrable on $[0,\infty)$. ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

If the $(n-1)$th moment exists does the $n$th moment necessarily exist?

Let's suppose the distribution is unknown but that the second moment is known to be finite. Doesn't this imply that the distribution should fall off exponentially fast and therefore higher moments ...
6
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1answer
214 views

Convergence types in probability theory : Counterexamples

I know that the following implications are true: $$\text{Almost sure convergence} \Rightarrow \text{ Convergence in probability } \Leftarrow \text{ Convergence in }L^p $$ $$\Downarrow$$ ...
2
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0answers
34 views

Example of a continuous non-lipschitz function with domain $[0,1]$ and co-domain $\mathbb R$

I would like an example of a function which is continuous with domain $[0,1]$ but is not Lipschitz continuous. Is this possible? I know a continuous function with domain $[0,1]$ is uniformly ...