geometry assuming the parallel postulate of Euclid: in a plane, given a line and a point not on that line, there is exactly one line parallel to the given line through the given point.

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20 views

The Golden Ratio in a Circle and Equilateral Triangle. Geomertic/Trigonometric Proof?

Geogebra gave me 1.61 for the following Golden Ratio construction shown below. Firstoff, has anyone seen anything similar to this construction? Basically begin with an equilateral triangle. ...
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23 views

An interesting geometry problem with angle bisectors and tangent

I have found the following problem: There is an acute $\triangle ABC$. Denote its circumcircle as $\omega$. The angle bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects $BC$ and $\omega$ in points respectively $A_1$ ...
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1answer
21 views

Distance between incentre and orthocentre.

I want to prove that the distance between incentre and orthocentre is $$\sqrt{2r^2-4R^2\cos A\cos B\cos C} $$here $r$ is inradius and $R$ is circumradius. I considered $\triangle API$ ($P$ is ...
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14 views
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1answer
51 views

Ellipse's farthest point to another point

I am trying to find the farthest and closest points of a ellipse without using any brute force type of coding. The processing power is limited so it should be as pinpoint as possible. I have tried a ...
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1answer
34 views

Prove any line passes through at least two points

I've started reading Introduction to Algebra by Cameron, and I'm stuck on the first exercise. Q. Prove any line passes through at least two points using the axioms given below. Definitions: ...
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2answers
40 views

Assuming that the sum of the angles of any triangle is 180, how can I deduce Euclid's 5th postulate?

I already did the reverse, namely, if we assume Euclid's 5th postulate, then the sum of the angles of any triangle is 180 degrees. Now I need to show the converse, but I don't really know how to ...
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0answers
27 views

The Golden Ratio in a Circle, Triangle, and Square: simple geometry/trigonometry construction.

I believe that I have found the golden ratio in the below figure. Geogebra is saying it is very close. Might anyone have a geometric/trigonometric proof? An equilateral triangle ABC is inscribed in a ...
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2answers
26 views

Confusion on wording of an elementary geometry problem

I really want to know the following geometry problem is valid or not. (Please don't change the wording of the problem. Please answer it is valid or not. Please answer frankly.) "ABCD is a ...
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2answers
40 views

Power of a point proof

I found the question on page 13 of this link. Let $P$ be a point inside a circle such that there exist three chords through $P$ of equal length. Prove that $P$ is the center of the circle. I ...
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0answers
26 views

How to find all those points whose distance from $x=(2,0)$ is minimum, using $\|x\|=|x_1| + |x_2|$?

The points must be in the closed ball $\{y : \|y\| \le 2\|x\|\}$. I know $|y_1|+|y_2|$ needs to be $\le 4.$ Other than that, I am confused about how to find all the points that are minimum distance ...
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0answers
6 views

Rewrite each isometry as the composition of at most three reflections

Write each of the following isometries as a composition of at most three reflections: $\rho_{(1,0),\frac{\pi}{6}}$ $\tau_{(1,0)+(0,1)}=\tau_{(1,1)}$ $\sigma_{l_{BC}} \rho_{(1,0),\frac{\pi}{6}} ...
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0answers
7 views

Prove that $l$ and $l_{AB}$ are parallel if and only if $\sigma_B \sigma_l \sigma_B \sigma_A \sigma_l \sigma_A = id$

Prove that $l$ and $l_{AB}$ are parallel if and only if $\sigma_B \sigma_l \sigma_B \sigma_A \sigma_l \sigma_A = id$ I imagine that this proof has to be along the lines of a proof by contradiction, ...
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3answers
118 views

Can a figure inside a circle be seen at right angle from any point on the circle?

A convex, closed figure lies inside a given circle. The figure is seen from every point of the circumference at a right angle (that is, the two rays drawn from the point and supporting the convex ...
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1answer
492 views

Incentre and excentre of a triangle

Prove that the triangle formed by the points of contact of the sides of a given triangle with the excircles corresponding to these sides is equivalent to the triangle formed by the points of contact ...
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1answer
417 views

Properties of sphere

Let $C$ be a circle with diameter $\overline{AB}$. Then it is well known that for any $P$ on the circle $C$ the angle $\angle APB =\frac \pi 2$. There are similar results for sphere?
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26 views

Geometric inequality $180^{\circ}\left(1-\frac1n\right)\le AMB$

Point $M$ is located inside a regular $n$-gon. Prove that there exist different vertices $A$ and $B$ that $$180^{\circ}\left(1-\frac1n\right)\le AMB\le 180^{\circ}$$ My work so far: Let ...
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0answers
23 views

To find/create midpoint, is it easier to bisect a line segment, or double a line segment? With only compass and ruler / straightedge. [on hold]

Suppose one wants to find the midpoint of a line segment. Is it generally easier to simply draw two lines of equal length end to end, or is it easier (does it count as less steps) to draw a line and ...
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1answer
31 views

Simple Golden Ratio Construction with Three Lines, and Interesting Implied Circle?

Consider three equal lines (as illustrated below). A red, green, and orange line of equal length all rest upon the same horizontal line. The red line is stood upon its end in a manner perpendicular ...
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4answers
41 views

Golden Ratio Conjecture in three simple Geogebra shapes--circle, triangle, and square.

A circle, equilateral triangle, and square of equal heights are all placed on the same horizontal line as shown below. The circle is tangent to the triangle which is centered upon the left edge of ...
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0answers
26 views

PHI Conjecture: Fibonacci Number Line Segments & Simple Golden Ratio Puzzle?

This is a golden ratio conjecture. Does the golden ratio exist as conjectured below? The three line segments in the figure below have lengths of the Fibonacci numbers 2, 3, and 5. blue=2 green=3 ...
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1answer
23 views

Angles in Hilbert's axioms for geometry

In Hilbert's axioms for geometry, the following elements are presented as undefined (meaning "to be defined in a specific model"): point, line, incidence, betweenness, congruence. In deed, when ...
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1answer
61 views

Two Equilateral Triangles and the Golden Ratio: Simple Geomtric Proof

Two equilateral triangles rest upon the same horizontal line, as shown in the linked figure below. The red triangle is tilted so that one corner touches a side of the black triangle at the midpoint ...
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1answer
19 views

Is this definition of a Euclidean frame well-defined?

Going through my lecture notes on geometry I find a definition of a Euclidean frame which doesn't seem to have been formed correctly (most likely written down wrong). So I've taken it upon myself to ...
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1answer
32 views

Using Affine Transformation to prove Concurrency

Let $ABCDE$ be a convex pentagon with $F=BC\cap DE, G=CD\cap EA, H=DE\cap AB, I=EA\cap BC, J=AB\cap CD$, Suppose that the areas of $\triangle AHI, \triangle BIJ, \triangle CJF, \triangle DFG, ...
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1answer
34 views

What's the name given to the ratio $P^2/A$ for a closed figure in the Euclidean plane?

Let $\mathscr{F}$ be the set of all plane, closed Euclidean figures having positive perimeter, and let $\sim$ be the similarity relation on $\mathscr{F}$. Then, for any equivalence class ...
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1answer
17 views

How to fit a convex quadrilateral inside another short of cutting them out and playing with them?

I have two convex quadrilaterals (ABCD and WXYZ). Their sides and their interior angles are known. I also know that WXYZ fits perfectly inside ABCD with each corner point touching a different side. ...
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1answer
185 views

Characterization of linearity in terms of metric

At least in Euclidean geometry and the upper half plane model of hyperbolic geometry, the statements '$y$ lies on the line segment determined by $x$ and $z$ ' and '$d(x,y)+d(y,z)=d(x,z) $' are ...
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0answers
75 views

Water filling problem in Blocks - Algebra Question

Consider a rectangular plot comprising $n\times m$ square cells on which $nm$ cement blocks of various heights are stored, one block per cell. The base of each block covers one cell completely, and ...
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0answers
31 views

Finding a relation between three points in a small circle of a sphere

I have a relation as follows. I am given two points $C, D$ on a circle, and a point $P$ somewhere inside of it. I would like to find the quantity $|AC| |AD|$, where $A$ is a point on the circle lying ...
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3answers
57 views

A simple geometrical question regarding three circles and a line. Trigonometric construction. [closed]

In Figure 1 three tangential circles all have the radius of 1 or r. What is the ratio of the blue line to the yellow line in terms of r, and in terms of r=1?
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1answer
19 views

Isometries in $\mathbb{E}^2$

We define $\mathbb{E}^2 = (\mathbb{R}^2, d_E)$, where $d_E$ is the usual Euclidean metric on $\mathbb{R}^2$. We say that a function $f:X \rightarrow Y$, where $X, Y$ are metric spaces, is an isometry ...
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1answer
25 views

An elementary problem in Euclidean geometry

Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle ($AB < AC$) which is circumscribed by a circle with center $O$. $BE$ and $CF$ are two altitudes and $H$ is the orthocenter of the triangle. Let $M$ be the ...
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1answer
60 views

Draw A Triangle From 3 Excenters and Ex-radii

My teacher gave me this problem and told me to think- " Is it possible to draw a triangle, given the three ex-centers and length of the ex-radii?" I don't know if it's possible or not. So, my ...
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1answer
60 views

How to prove a regular pentagon is formed by knotting a rectangular strip of paper?

I found this interesting problem from a friend (From Arthur Engel's-Problem Solving Strategies book). The method to begin the problem is as follows- Step 1.Take a rectangular strip of paper ...
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1answer
57 views

How to show $\partial A = \varnothing \Rightarrow A=R^n$ [closed]

Let $A\subset R^n$ and dim$A=n$, $\partial A$ is the relative boundary of $A$. If $\partial A=\varnothing$ how to show $A$ is $R^n$ ? Picture below is from XX page of Schneider R.-Convex Bodies_ ...
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2answers
551 views

a conjugate of a glide reflection by any isometry of the plane is again a glide reflection

Q : Prove that a conjugate of a glide reflection by any isometry of the plane is again a glide reflection, and show that the glide vectors have the same length. I know that: the conjugate ...
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2answers
25 views

Prove $∠ADM = ∠ACB$ of triangle $ABC$ [closed]

Suppose that $ABC$ is a triangle. Let $D$ be its circumcenter and let $M$ be the midpoint of $\vec {AB}$. Show that $∠ADM = ∠ACB$.
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1answer
25 views

Every orthogonal matrix represents a rotation around an axis

Is it true that every element of the group $O(n)$ represents a rotation around some axis? I'd like this to be true in order to decompose any matrix $R \in O(n)$ as a block matrix in $O(n-1)$ and a 1 ...
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1answer
23 views

There are finitely many $n$-dimensional wallpaper groups

There are $7$ Frieze groups, $17$ wallpaper groups and $230$ space groups, which are the 1,2,3-dimensional cases of isometries on $\Bbb R^n$ (I think? Frieze groups seem to require $[0,1]\times\Bbb R$ ...
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0answers
9 views

How to determine the angle from a point and the plane tangent points in a sphere

I have an UAV modeled in three dimensions with let's say position coordinates $p_{uav} = (x_1,y_1,z_1)$ that is moving in a direction $d = (d_x,d_y,d_z)$ and a moving obstacle modeled as a sphere with ...
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11answers
5k views

In a right triangle, can $a+b=c?$

I understand that due to the Pythagorean Theorem, $a^2+b^2=c^2$, given that $a$ and $b$ are legs of a right triangle and $c$ is the hypotenuse of the same right triangle. However, most of the time, ...
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0answers
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A geometric inequality about the internal besectors [closed]

prove that in every triangle the following inequality is hold: $$\frac{1}{w_\alpha}+\frac{1}{w_\beta}+\frac{1}{w_\gamma}\le \frac{2}{\sqrt{3}}\left(\frac{1}{a}+\frac{1}{b}+\frac{1}{c}\right)$$ ...
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2answers
182 views

Optimal path around an invisible wall [duplicate]

The Problem On an infinite plane there are two points, $A$ and $B$, a unit distance apart. There is a $50\%$ probability that there is an invisible wall somewhere between the two points. The ...
25
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5answers
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Right triangle inscribed in a square. Find the square area?

I hope it's valid to ask for (a more neat solution) of a problem on this network, despite the fact that I don't have a strict definition of the word "neat". Here is the square and the right triangle ...
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0answers
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Prove a harmonic range from a familiar picture

During solving some simple problem (10th grade), I found this interesting problem, which I got no clue to solve it clean and properly. Hope someone can give me some hint to solve it. Thanks. Given ...
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2answers
300 views

What is the geometry behind $\frac{\tan 10^\circ}{\tan 20^\circ}=\frac{\tan 30^\circ}{\tan 50^\circ}$?

This identity is solvable by the help of trigonometry identities, but I guess there is an interesting and simple geometry interpretation behind this identity and I can't find it. I found it when ...
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0answers
17 views

Are given maps isometric?

I'm trying to determine if certain maps are isometric in $\mathbb R^2$. The two maps I have to analyze are f such that: $|f(X)| = |X|$ $f(X)*f(Y) = X * Y$ where $*$ is the dot product (inner ...
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1answer
484 views

Internal polygon formed by drawing diagonals in a regular polygon

In an n-sided (n>4) regular polygon, label the vertices {0, 1, ..., n-1}. For each vertex i, draw a pair of diagonals: from i to (i+2) mod n and from i to (i-2) ...
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0answers
26 views

Convert a 3d vector into a rotation matrix?

Is it possible to compute a Rotation matrix given a 3d vector given in the Euclidean space? and if not what would it need? An illustration of my situation. Illustration of my problem I have a ...