geometry assuming the parallel postulate of Euclid: in a plane, given a line and a point not on that line, there is exactly one line parallel to the given line through the given point.

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Unique Euclidean isometry between affinely independent points

Let $u_0,\dots,u_n$ be vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$ such that $u_1-u_0,\dots,u_n-u_0$ are linearly independent and similarly let $v_0,\dots,v_n$ be vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$ such that ...
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2answers
28 views

Derive formula for coordinates of internal and external centers of similitude.

Given 2 circles $(x - x_1)^2 + (y - y_1)^2 = r^2$ and $(x - x_2)^2 + (y - y_2)^2 = r'^2$ (with radii $r, r'$) coordinates of the internal and external centers of similitude $C_i, C_e$ are given by ...
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Complex Numbers: Im$(\frac{12}{z-7})=1$

Sketch and describe the set of complex numbers satisfying $$Im(\frac{12}{z-7})=1$$ where $z=x+iy$ The answer should be in circle form. Here is what I have so far: $$Im(12)=z-7$$ $$Im(12)=x+iy-7$$ ...
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Banach Tarski paradox in Minkowski space

The Banach - Tarski paradox states: 'A three-dimensional Euclidean ball is equidecomposable with two copies of itself.' My simple question is: Does this paradox hold his validity also in the Minkowski ...
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243 views

IMO 2014 problem 3, first day

Convex quadrilateral $ABCD$ has $\angle ABC = \angle CDA = 90^{\circ}$. Point $H$ is the foot of the perpendicular from $A$ to $BD$. Points $S$ and $T$ lie on sides $AB$ and $AD$, respectively, such ...
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+200

Tangent and angle bisectors

The tangent to the incircle of a triangle ABC is reflected about the external angle bisectors. Show that the triangle formed by the resulting 3 lines is congruent to ABC .
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How to make a perpendicular construction in 3 moves?

I've been playing Euclid: The Game for some time now. I'm quite addicited to it, trying to get all the records now. Suprisingly, I'm not able to get a record for some really early level. In Level 4 ...
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28 views

A mixtilinear tangency

Let ABC be a triangle with incircle $\gamma$ and circumcircle $\Gamma$. Let $\Omega$ be the circle tangent to rays $AB, AC,$ and to $\Gamma$ externally, and let $A^{\prime}$ be the tangency point of ...
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34 views

A construction of a triangle mapping with a homothety

Given an acute triangle $ABC$ draw a triangle $PQR$ such that $AB=2PQ,BC=2QR,CA=2RP$, and the lines $PQ,QR,RP$ pass through $A,B,C$ respectively. Note $A,B,C,P,Q,R$ are distinct. This is a problem ...
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25 views

Find close points by grouping points in n-dimensional space

I know I already asked a similar question over here: Finding the closest point in a set to another point in n-dimensional space: efficiently But now my question is different. I have many points ...
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1answer
24 views

euclid's 13th proposition

Euclid's 13th Proposition goes as : Proposition 13. If a straight-line stood on a(nother) straight-line makes angles, it will certainly either make two rightangles, or (angles whose sum is) equal ...
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47 views

Finding the closest point in a set to another point in n-dimensional space: efficiently

I'm a programmer and am working on writing an efficient algorithm that, given a point P in n-dimensional space, can find the closest point from a set of points. For ...
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2answers
31 views

Rotation of an equation

Problem: Suppose a line $L$ is given by the equation $\frac{x}{a} + \frac{y}{b}=1$, where $a$ and $b$ are non-zero real numbers. Let $\Re_{\frac{\pi}{2}}$ be the counterclockwise rotation of the ...
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1answer
25 views

Dilation proof verification

I am wanting to verify the proof below; can someone please tell me if they agree with the way I have argued this or if I have made any incorrect assumptions (and where they are). Thanks!! A ...
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1answer
42 views

Show every dilation is a non-constant linear function.

A dilation of reals is a function $f:\Re \mapsto \Re$ such that for some constant $c\neq0$ one has $|f(x)-f(y)|=c\ast|x-y|$ for all $x,y\in\Re$. Show that every non-constant linear function is a ...
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50 views

How to establish this result using induction?

A point $(x,y)$ in the plane is called a lattice point if both coordinates $x$ and $y$ are integers. Let $P$ be a polygon whose vertices are lattice points. Then the area of $P$ is $I + \frac{1}{2}B ...
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41 views

Square inscribed in a circle and an angle

Consider this badly drawn picture and the circle in the picture. Suppose that the circle has unit length, so that the area is $\pi$. Suppose that We know that the area enclosed by $ABCD$ is exactly ...
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1answer
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Is taking the Euclidean norm of multiple Euclidean norms equivalent to taking the Frobenius norm?

I'm just a programmer venturing into the world of norms (is that even a thing?) here, and am wondering if two formulas are equivalent. Please forgive my ignorance! Suppose we have a $10\times3$ ...
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2answers
42 views

Express the length of the as a function of x

I am having problems understanding how to extract this information into a formula. ...
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1answer
13 views

What are the coordinates of a point on a rigid body after a rotation in 3D Euclidean space, given the initial coordinates and a center of rotation

Main question Let ($x_p$, $y_p$, $z_p$) be the initial coordinates of a point $P$ on a rigid body in a right-handed 3D Euclidean space. Let ($x_r$, $y_r$, $z_r$) be the coordinates of a center of ...
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A Modern Alternative to Euclidean Geometry

First of all, I want to master Geometry, I have knowledge on high school geometry and I was thinking of learning Euclidean Geometry. I bought a copy of Euclid's Elements, it is very interesting, ...
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40 views

Area of small trinagle in terms of Bigger triangle

I'm a school student and our teacher gave the question as follows: $A', B'$ and $C'$ trisects the sides of a triangle. then find the area of triangle $UVW$ in terms of triangle $ABC$. Please help ...
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2answers
61 views

A question about 4 concyclic points

In a triangle $ABC$, let $I$ denote its incenter. Points $D, E, F$ are chosen on the segments $BC, CA, AB$, respectively, such that $BD + BF = AC$ and $CD + CE = AB$. The circumcircles of triangles ...
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Why are these lines tangent?

I was trying the problems at http://euclidthegame.org and for level 20, ending up using, but couldn't see the reason behind the following: We have a circle centred on B and a point A outside the ...
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1answer
30 views

Proof about isometries, symmetry and reversing orientation.

Suppose $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is an isometry of the reals. Prove that $f$ is a symmetry around a point if and only if $f$ reverses orientation of $\mathbb{R}$. The orientation of ...
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2answers
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Euclid the Game Level 2: Construct a line that bisects the given angle.

This is the level I'm trying to complete: My last idea was this, but I still don't get a message that I completed the level. Why is this not correct ? Last time I did mathematics was 10 years ...
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1answer
33 views

Proof about symmetry in isometries.

Suppose $f: \Bbb R \rightarrow \Bbb R$ is an isometry of the reals. Prove that $f$ is a symmetry about a point if and only if $f$ has a unique fixed point. Part 1: The assumption is $f$ is a ...
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3answers
35 views

Proof about isometries

Suppose $f\colon\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ is an isometry of the reals. Prove $f$ is a non-trivial translation iff $f$ has no fixed points. Assumption: $f$ is a non-trivial translation (trivial ...
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A surprising locus of points

I was playing with the setup for Desargues Theorem in Geogebra today and got a very odd-looking (to me) result. I imagine I could grind through this analytically and get an ugly-looking parametric ...
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Given a pair of conics, construct (synthetically) their shared tangent lines

There are various well-known ways to construct the common tangents to a pair of circles; this is an easy one. I also just learned that we can use Pascal's Theorem to construct a tangent to a conic at ...
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Is triangle congruence SAS an axiom?

I was wondering if there is a way to prove SAS in triangle congruence with Euclidean axioms. Thank you for your help!
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Euclidean geometry please help me

http://i62.tinypic.com/5osi8n.jpg please help me just wrote exam and wanted to know whether it was correct or not. I said (m+n)(m-n)=(m-n)^2 so I think it is not A right angled triangle what do you ...
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1answer
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Find the equation of a plane that is perpendicular to another plane, parallel to a line and goes through a point

Find the equation of a plane which is perpendicular to the plane $$\pi_1\equiv x-3y-z+1=0,$$ parallel to a line $$l\equiv\frac{x - 2}{2} = \frac{y -3}{-3} = \frac{z}{1}$$ and goes through point $P ...
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59 views

Three Circles Meeting at One Point

We have three triples of points on the plane, that is, $X=\{x_1, x_2, x_3\}$, $Y=\{y_1, y_2, y_3 \}$, and $Z=\{z_1, z_2, z_3\}$, where $x_i, y_i, z_i$ are points on the plane. I was wondering if there ...
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Mapping between two unknown 3D coordinate systems from common motion

Coordinate systems A and B are rigidly linked in an unknown way. The platform then moves and the motion vectors [RA|TA] and [RB|TB] are calculated in each coordinate system. They are parallel but not ...
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2answers
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Axis of rotation of composition of rotations (Artin's Algebra)

Say $R_1$, $R_2$ are rotations in $\mathbb{R}^3$ with axes and angles $(v_1,\theta_1), (v_2,\theta_2)$ respectively. Since $SO_3$ is a group, we have that $R_2 \circ R_1$ is a rotation with some axis ...
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48 views

Difference between Euclidean space and vector space?

I often hear them used interchangeably ... they are very complicated to make any use of. Wikipedia words: Euclidean space: One way to think of the Euclidean plane is as a set of points ...
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1answer
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What are geodesics in H$^2$?

Specifically, I am looking at a question that asks What axioms for a projective plane fail in the this space? Any two “points” are contained in a unique “line.” Any two “lines” contain a unique ...
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4answers
73 views

Euclidean Geometry in Physics

I've started tutoring my 13 year old niece in math. She learning geometry this year (it's a year-round school). Obviously, it'll just be basic Euclidean geometry -- though I might try to get to a ...
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1answer
49 views

Proving a strange vector inequality in the euclidean space

It seems to hold the following inequality in an euclidean reference frame $(x,y,z)$: $$\overrightarrow{U}\cdot\overrightarrow{U}\ge\sqrt{2}\left(\Omega_x+\Omega_y\right)$$ where: ...
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Find the equation of an $n$-Cone given the apex, a directional vector and the solid angle

Let $x$ be a point in $\mathbb R^n$ and $v$ a vector in $\mathbb R^n$. Find the equation of the cone with apex $x$ opening in the direction $v$ with a solid angle of $2\theta$. That is, on any ...
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0answers
13 views

Trying to use Cholesky decomposition of covariance matrix to sample error ellipsoid

I'm trying to construct an error ellipsoid from a covariance matrix (which exists for a 3D point) and then sample consistent xyz points in this region. In a previous question when I asked about this ...
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1answer
39 views

Parallelogram constructed through medians

Bdmo In $\Delta ABC$, Medians AD and CF intersect at P.Let Q be any point on AC.Construct QM and QN parallel to AD and CF respectively.Now the line joining M and N intersects CF and T and AD at ...
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1answer
78 views

What exactly does a Mobius Transformation do?

From what I understand, a Mobius transformation is of the form f(z) = $\frac{Az+D}{Cz+B}$ where A,B,C, and D may be real or complex What is f(z) doing to z exactly? And what are some of the ...
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1answer
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How does a linear fractional function behave like a $2\times 2$ matrix?

So I did the math for this and got \begin{align*} A &= a_1a_2 + b_1c_2\\ B &= a_1b_2 + b_1d_2\\ C &= c_1a_2 + d_1c_2\\ D &= c_1b_2 + d_1d_2. \end{align*} My book does not talk ...
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1answer
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Plane geometry.

I was reading proposition 14 of Euclid's elements and there is only one thing which I find weird: Why do we need postulate 4 to conclude that “the sum of the angles $\angle CBA$ and $\angle ABE$ ...
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1answer
49 views

What does it mean to call horizontal lines through O the “points at infinity” in real projective plane $RP^2$?

This is a picture from my book. I extended the line M to get a better idea of where $p_n$ is. It says the following: It is natural to call the horizontal lines through O the "points at infinity". ...
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1answer
23 views

The composition of two different glide reflections is a rotation

Denote by $G_{XY}$ a glide reflection which reflects around the $XY$-axis and then takes the point $X$ to $Y$. I would like to prove that the composition of two different glide reflections $G_{XY} ...
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n-gon Inequality Theorem Converse

In the plane, if we have an n-gon with side lengths $v_1$, $\ldots$,$v_n$, these lengths satisfy the "planar $n$-gon inequalities," ie. the length of each side is less than the sum of the lengths of ...
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Side-splitter theorem generallized

In $\Delta ABC$, $D \in \overline{AB}$ and $E \in \overline{AC}$. $DE$ can or cannot be parallel to side $BC$. Then problem is to find the measure of $DE$ in terms of $AD, DB, AE, EC$ and $BC$. Please ...