# Tagged Questions

Estimation theory is a branch of statistics and signal processing that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured/empirical data that has a random component.

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### Estimate the scale of $e^{-(m+1) t} \sum _{k=0}^{\infty } \frac{t^k}{k!}\left(\sum _{r=0}^k \frac{t^r}{r!}\right)^{m}$

I would like to estimate the scale of the following series, $$S(m,t)=e^{-(m+1) t} \sum _{k=0}^{\infty } \frac{t^k}{k!}\left(\sum _{r=0}^k \frac{t^r}{r!}\right)^{m},$$ where $e$ is the base of ...
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### How to estimate variances for Kalman filter from real sensor measurements without underestimating process noise.

As the title says, I want to estimate the variances needed for a Kalman filter from real sensor measurements only. For example we can take a temperature sensor, but the solution shall be as ...
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### MLE of the mean of a heteroscedastic Gaussian time series

Suppose we observe $Y_i\sim \mathcal{N}(\theta_0 + \theta_1 x_i, \sigma_i^2)$, with $x_i$ and $\sigma_i^2$ known for all $i = 1,\ldots,n$ and $Y_1,\ldots,Y_n$ independent. Assume $\theta_0$ is ...
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### Properties of an MLE based on likelihood constructed from both PDF and CDF

For continuous RV the likelihood function is (typically) given by a product of PDFs, i.e. $$L(\theta; x_1,x_2, ..., x_n) = \prod_{i=1}^n f(x_i\mid \theta)$$ However, in survival analysis with ...
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### A late-diverging “approximating solution” for a system of functional equations

Peace be upon you, At the end of this question, I have shown that how computing MLE on an i.i.d Beta distributed data, results in the following system \begin{align*} &\begin{cases} \psi(\alpha)-\...
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### Estimate number of distinct items

I have a large array of $n$ integers, some of which may be repeated, and I want to estimate how many distinct integers are in the array. Say the number of distinct integers is $N$. I can sample with ...
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### Prove the sample variance is an unbiased estimator

I'm trying to prove that the sample variance is an unbiased estimator. I know that I need to find the expected value of the sample variance estimator $$\sum_i\frac{(M_i - \bar{M})^2}{n-1}$$ but I get ...
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### Estimation of the number of prime numbers in a $b^x$ to $b^{x + 1}$ interval

This is a question I have put to myself a long time ago, although only now am I posting it. The thing is, though there is an infinity of prime numbers, they become more and more scarce the further you ...
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### Parameter optimization in probabilistic models

Task: Suppose we model a variable $y = Wx + \mu$ as a linear transformation of $x$ plus some Gaussian noise $\mu\sim\mathcal N(0,\sigma I)$. Our aim is to minimize the estimation error of $x$ given $y$...
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### Convergence Rate of Sample Average Estimator

Let $X_1, X_2,\cdots$ be i.i.d. random variables with $E(X_1) = \mu, Var(X_1) = σ^2> 0$ and let $\bar{X}_n = {X_1 + X_2 + \cdots + X_n \over n}$ be the sample average estimator. Is there a way to ...
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### Maximum Likelihood Estimation

For iid random variables from a distribution with p.d.f. f(x;\theta_1,\theta_2)=\frac{1}{\theta_2}\exp\bigg(-\frac{(x-\theta_1)}{\theta_2}\bigg), \quad x>\theta_1, \quad(\theta_1,\theta_2)\in\...
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