Estimation theory is a branch of statistics and signal processing that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured/empirical data that has a random component.

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18
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3answers
5k views

Intuitive explanation of a definition of the Fisher information

I'm studying statistics. When I read the textbook about Fisher Information, I couldn't understand why the Fisher Information is defined like this: $$I(\theta)=E_\theta\left[-\frac{\partial^2 ...
11
votes
2answers
728 views

You see a route 14 bus on the moon. What is the most likely number of bus routes on the moon?

This question was asked on a forum and while many argued that the answer is 14 (since the probability of you seeing bus 14 is maximum in this case), I argued against it that they were working ...
8
votes
2answers
504 views

Why should Gaussian noise have fractal dimension of 1.5?

In a paper I'm trying to understand, the following time series is generated as "simulated data": $$Y(i)=\sum_{j=1}^{1000+i}Z(j) \:\:\: ; \:\:\: (i=1,2,...,N)$$ where $Z(j)$ is a Gaussian noise with ...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Minimum variance unbiased estimator for scale parameter of a certain gamma distribution

Let $X_1, X_2, ..., X_n$ be a random sample from a distribution with p.d.f., $$f(x;\theta)=\theta^2xe^{-x\theta} ; 0<x<\infty, \theta>0$$ Obtain minimum variance unbiased estimator of ...
6
votes
2answers
7k views

Difference between logarithm of an expectation value and expectation value of a logarithm

Assuming I have a always positive random variable $X$, $X \in \mathbb{R}$, $X > 0$. Then I am now interested in the difference between the following two expectation values: $E \left[ \ln X ...
6
votes
1answer
6k views

Maximum Likelihood Estimator for Multinomial.

Suppose that 50 measuring scales made by a machine are selected at random from the production of the machine and their lengths and widths are measured. It was found that 45 had both measurements ...
5
votes
3answers
281 views

Estimating population size

Let's suppose there are $n$ real numbers $a_0 < ... < a_n$ uniformly selected from interval [0, 1). If one knows $k$ numbers on consecutive positions $a_i < ... < a_{i+k-1}$ how good is ...
5
votes
2answers
448 views

estimate the perimeter of the island

I'm assigned a task involving solving a problem that can be described as follows: Suppose I'm driving a car around a lake. In the lake there is an island of irregular shape. I have a GPS with me in ...
5
votes
1answer
236 views

Maximum Likelihood Estimator of the exponential function parameter based on Order Statistics

Let $X_1, \ldots, X_n$ be a random sample from the exponential distribution $\exp(\lambda)$. Let $$M_n=\max\{X_1, \ldots, X_n\}$$ with probability density function $$g_{M_n}(x)=n\lambda e^{-\lambda ...
5
votes
1answer
198 views

Finding the joint distribution of $X_{1:n}$ and $\overline{X}$

I need to show that, given a random sample of independent variables $X_1, ... , X_n$, each following a distribution EXP($\theta$,$\eta$), that is, ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Inverse problem from pdes

A linear inverse problem is given by: $\ \mathbf{d}=\mathbf{A}\mathbf{m}+\mathbf{e}$ where d: observed data, A: theory operator, m: unknown model and e: error. To minimize the effect of the noise; ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Estimating the Gamma function to high precision efficiently?

I know there are several approximations of the Gamma function that provide decent approximations of this function. I was wondering, how can I efficiently estimate specific values of the Gamma ...
4
votes
1answer
144 views

Showing that $X_{1:n}$ is sufficient for $\eta$, by factorization

I'm asked to show that $X_{1:n}$ (the minimum order statistic) is sufficient for $\eta$, in the case of a random sample $(X_1, ... , X_n)$ where $X_i\sim EXP(1,\eta$) (this is the two-parameter ...
4
votes
2answers
113 views

Estimating the “step size” of a grid

Suppose one is given a set of $M$ points distributed on a "grid", i.e: $$x_i = x_0 + \alpha n_i + \epsilon_i, \quad n_i\in\mathbb{Z}$$ This might like something like this: $\quad\ ...
4
votes
2answers
70 views

estimation of a parameter

The question is: $x_i = \alpha + \omega_i, $ for $i = 1, \ldots, n.$ where $\alpha$ is a non-zero constant, but unknown, parameter to be estimated, and $\omega_i$ are uncorrelated, zero_mean, ...
4
votes
1answer
155 views

Estimate the scale of $e^{-(m+1) t} \sum _{k=0}^{\infty } \frac{t^k}{k!}\left(\sum _{r=0}^k \frac{t^r}{r!}\right)^{m}$

I would like to estimate the scale of the following series, $$S(m,t)=e^{-(m+1) t} \sum _{k=0}^{\infty } \frac{t^k}{k!}\left(\sum _{r=0}^k \frac{t^r}{r!}\right)^{m},$$ where $e$ is the base of ...
4
votes
1answer
152 views

MLE of the mean of a heteroscedastic Gaussian time series

Suppose we observe $Y_i\sim \mathcal{N}(\theta_0 + \theta_1 x_i, \sigma_i^2)$, with $x_i$ and $\sigma_i^2$ known for all $i = 1,\ldots,n$ and $Y_1,\ldots,Y_n$ independent. Assume $\theta_0$ is ...
4
votes
0answers
247 views

A late-diverging “approximating solution” for a system of functional equations

Peace be upon you, At the end of this question, I have shown that how computing MLE on an i.i.d Beta distributed data, results in the following system \begin{align*} &\begin{cases} ...
3
votes
2answers
142 views

Estimation of the number of prime numbers in a $b^x$ to $b^{x + 1}$ interval

This is a question I have put to myself a long time ago, although only now am I posting it. The thing is, though there is an infinity of prime numbers, they become more and more scarce the further you ...
3
votes
2answers
477 views

How can I compare two Markov processes?

There is a discrete-time irreductible Markov process with $r$ possible states. $k$ observations were performed. At each observation a state of process was determined. $T_0 = \lbrace 0,1,\dots ...
3
votes
1answer
164 views

Is a probability density function necessarily a $L^2$ function?

If a nonnegative continuous real valued function $f$ is integrable over $\mathbb{R}$ with $$\int_\mathbb{R} f\,\mathrm{d}x = 1,$$ does it hold true $$\int_\mathbb{R} f^2 \,\mathrm{d}x<\infty?$$ ...
3
votes
1answer
711 views

CRLB/UMVUE estimation of $\theta$

We have a random sample $X_1,X_2,\ldots,X_n$ from a probabilitiy distribution with density $f(x;\theta) = \theta x^{-\theta-1} $ given that $x > 1$, and $0$ else. where $\theta >1 $ is an ...
3
votes
3answers
6k views

Prove the sample variance is an unbiased estimator

I'm trying to prove that the sample variance is an unbiased estimator. I know that I need to find the expected value of the sample variance estimator $$\sum_i\frac{(M_i - \bar{M})^2}{n-1}$$ but I get ...
3
votes
2answers
40 views

Difficult to understand difference between the estimates on E(X) and V(X) and the estimates on variance and std.dev. on lambda-hat

I'm having a very hard time to separate estimates on population values versus estimates on sample values. I'm struggling with this exercise (not homework, self-study for my exam in introductionary ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

biased Maximum Likelihood estimation

Given $N$ points ($x_k$, k from $1$ to $N$) generated from a normal distribution (1-dimensional case) with known mean $\mu$, the Maximum Likelihood estimation of the variance is ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

Finding an efficient estimator for $\theta$ in $U[0, \theta]$ in terms of the sample maximum

This question appeared in a past exam paper, in the form: Let $X = (X_1\dotsc X_n)\in\mathbb{R}^n$ be an i.i.d. sample from $U[0, \theta], \theta>0$ Apply Rao-Blackwell's theorem to the unbiased ...
3
votes
2answers
89 views

Calculating likelihood of event based on retrospective analysis

I have a simple dataset consisting of the dates/times at which certain medications were taken by a patient. By looking retrospectively I'd like to make a best guess estimate as to which medication ...
3
votes
1answer
803 views

Unstable linear inverse problem: which “dampening” Tikhonov matrix should I use?

A linear inverse problem is given by: $\ \mathbf{d}=\mathbf{A}\mathbf{m}+\mathbf{e}$ where d: observed data, A: theory operator, m: unknown model and e: error. The Least Square Error (LSE) model ...
3
votes
1answer
234 views

Solving perturbed polynomial equations

Rather than asking the most general question possible, I will frame it in terms of what I believe is an illustrative example. Let $\epsilon>0$ be a small parameter, let $a,b>0$ and $x\in ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

Trying to show convergence (in probability) of integrals using Taylor expansion

I've been working for a long time now on how to prove a proposition given in a paper about the asymptotic normality of POT-quantile estimators. Hope somebody can help me out. Proposition (i) Let ...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

How is the “cooking” done in surveys

In my country there's an official center undertaking surveys of voting intention every 4 months. However, they provide only "direct" voting intention, and the statistics obtained are usually pretty ...
3
votes
2answers
86 views

Estimating time in harmonic signal

I hope someone can help me with the following problem: Assume a periodic signal of the form $$\begin{align} s(t) &= \sum\limits_{p=1}^P \sin(p\Omega_0t)\\ &= \sum\limits_{p=1}^P ...
3
votes
1answer
475 views

Maximum likelihood estimators, hypergeometric and binomial

I'm trying to solve a two part problem. The set up is as follows: consider a bag with $\theta$ red marbles and $7-\theta$ blue marbles, with $\theta$ being unknown. Let $x$ denote the number of red ...
3
votes
0answers
120 views

Estimate number of distinct items

I have a large array of $n$ integers, some of which may be repeated, and I want to estimate how many distinct integers are in the array. Say the number of distinct integers is $N$. I can sample with ...
3
votes
1answer
407 views

Determine whether a statistic is sufficient, given the probability density

Let $X_1, X_2, \dots, X_n$ be a sample of i.i.d. random variables, with density $$f_\theta=\frac{2}{3\theta}\left(1-\frac{x}{3\theta}\right) $$ for $0 < x < 3\theta$. And $f_\theta=0$ if $ x ...
2
votes
3answers
97 views

More accurate estimation of mathematical constant $e$

Very often in books and also on Wikipedia we can find that: $$e \approx \left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)^n$$ but I want more accurate estimation, it means instead using $\approx$ I wonder if I can use ...
2
votes
2answers
171 views

Is $\frac{m-1}{x}$ an unbiased estimator of $\theta$ for given pdf?

Let $X$ be a continuous random variable with pdf, $$f(x;\theta)=\frac {\theta^m.x^{m-1}e^{-\theta x}} {(m-1)!} ; x\geq0, \theta>0$$ Is $\frac{m-1}{x}$ an unbiased estimator of $\theta$ for given ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

How to prove that the maximum likelihood estimator of $\theta$ is aysmptotically unbiased and cosistent

In a class we looked at this example: Let $X_1,...,X_n\sim U(0,\theta)$. Then the maximum likelihood function is $\mathcal{L}(\theta) = \begin{cases} \dfrac{1}{\theta^{n}} & \text{if } ...
2
votes
2answers
67 views

Convergence Rate of Sample Average Estimator

Let $X_1, X_2,\cdots$ be i.i.d. random variables with $E(X_1) = \mu, Var(X_1) = σ^2> 0$ and let $\bar{X}_n = {X_1 + X_2 + \cdots + X_n \over n}$ be the sample average estimator. Is there a way to ...
2
votes
1answer
280 views

Parameter estimation for a distribution by minimizing its conditional entropy

Let $X$ be a discrete random variable with Laplacian distribution with mean $0$ and scale $\lambda$, as $$ p(X) = \frac{1}{2\lambda} \exp\left(-\frac{|x|}{2\lambda}\right), \\ X \in ...
2
votes
1answer
261 views

Maximum Likelihood Estimation

For iid random variables from a distribution with p.d.f. $$f(x;\theta_1,\theta_2)=\frac{1}{\theta_2}\exp\bigg(-\frac{(x-\theta_1)}{\theta_2}\bigg), \quad x>\theta_1, ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Prove that $\int k(w)o(h^2w^2)dw=o(h^2)$ for $\int k(w)dw=1$

Suppose that $k$ is nonnegative real-valued function satisfying $$ \int k(w)dw=1,\quad\int wk(w)dw=0,\quad\int w^2k(w)dw=\kappa_2<\infty.\tag{$\star$} $$ (The limits of the integrals are all ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Monotonicity of Sample Mean

$X_1,X_2,\ldots$ are drawn i.i.d. from a distribution with mean $\mu$. Define $\bar{X}_n = \frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n X_i$ Prove that $\forall t \quad E[|\bar{X}_t - \mu|] \geq E[|\bar{X}_{t+1} - \mu|]$ ...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Finding the MLE of $\theta$ where $\theta \leq x$

consider the following PDF $$ \begin{eqnarray} f(x;\theta) &=& \left\{\begin{array}{ll} 2\frac{\theta^2}{x^3} & \theta \leqslant x\\ 0 & x< \theta; 0 < \theta ...
2
votes
2answers
92 views

Have spd $(A^TA)$ and $(B^TB)$, need $A^TB$.

Given two symmetric positive definite matrices $(A^TA)$ and $(B^TB)$ I need to compute $A^TB$. $A$ and $B$ are not given directly. $(A^TA)$ and $(B^TB)$ have the same dimensions. $A$ and $B$ are ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Some expectation values for a Gamma distribution

Assuming I have a Gamma distributed random Variable $x \sim Gamma( \alpha, \beta )$. Now I like to have the following two expectation values (integrals): $E \left[ x \ln x \right]$ $E \left[ \ln ...
2
votes
1answer
132 views

Hypothesis test between two normal distributions

Let $T_1,T_2,\ldots ,T_ n$ be i.i.d. observations, each drawn from a common normal distribution with mean zero. With probability $1/2$ this normal distribution has variance $1$, and with probability ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

UMVUE for pdf $f_{\theta}(x) = \theta e^{-\theta x}, x>0$

Let $X_1,\ldots,X_n$ be a random sample from a pdf $f_{\theta}(x) = \begin{cases} \theta e^{-\theta x}, & x>0 \\ 0, & \text{otherwise} \end{cases}$, where $\theta>0$ is an unknown ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

How do I find the MLE of $\theta$ when x is dependent on $\theta$?

Let $X_{1},X_{2},...,X_{n}$ represent a random sample from a distribution with pdf: $f(x; \theta)=e^{-(x-\theta)}, \theta \le x<\infty, -\infty<\theta<\infty$ | zero elsewhere I need to ...
2
votes
2answers
551 views

Expected value of a max

We have a roulette with the circumference $a$. We spin the roulette 10 times and we measure 10 distances, $x_1,\ldots,x_{10}$, from a predefined zero-point. We can assume that those distances are ...