Use this tag for the error and complementary error functions (erf and erfc). These are special functions formed by taking definite integrals of the Gaussian/normal distribution function.

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33
votes
3answers
743 views

How to evaluate $\int_0^\infty\operatorname{erfc}^n x\ \mathrm dx$?

I successfully evaluated these integrals: $$\int_0^\infty\operatorname{erfc}x\ \mathrm dx=\frac1{\sqrt\pi},\tag1$$ $$\int_0^\infty\operatorname{erfc}^2x\ \mathrm dx=\frac{2-\sqrt2}{\sqrt\pi}\tag2,$$ ...
28
votes
6answers
3k views

What is the antiderivative of $e^{-x^2}$

I was wondering what the antiderivative of $e^{-x^2}$ was, and when I wolfram alpha'd it I got $$\displaystyle \int e^{-x^2} \textrm{d}x = \dfrac{1}{2} \sqrt{\pi} \space \text{erf} (x) + C$$ So, I ...
27
votes
2answers
1k views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\left(x+5\,x^5\right)\operatorname{erfc}\left(x+x^5\right)\,dx$

Is it possible to find a closed form (possibly using known special functions) for this integral? $$\int_0^\infty\left(5\,x^5+x\right)\operatorname{erfc}\left(x^5+x\right)\,dx$$ where ...
25
votes
1answer
630 views

Weber-type integral

In connection with this answer, I came across the following integral: $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{du}{u} \: \,e^{-t u^2} \frac{J_0(u) Y_0(r u)-J_0(r u) Y_0(u)}{J_0^2(u)+Y_0^2(u)}$$ where $r \gt 1$. I ...
20
votes
2answers
403 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty\frac{\sin(x)\ \operatorname{erfi}\left(\sqrt{x}\right)\ e^{-x\sqrt{2}}}{x}dx$

Let $\operatorname{erfi}(x)$ be the imaginary error function $$\operatorname{erfi}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^xe^{z^2}dz.$$ Consider the integral $$I=\int_0^\infty\frac{\sin(x)\ ...
20
votes
3answers
279 views

A closed form for $\int_0^\infty e^{-a\,x} \operatorname{erfi}(\sqrt{x})^3\ dx$

Let $\operatorname{erfi}(x)$ be the imaginary error function $$\operatorname{erfi}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^xe^{z^2}dz.$$ Consider the following parameterized integral $$I(a)=\int_0^\infty ...
19
votes
1answer
401 views

Non-trivial values of error function $\operatorname{erf}(x)$?

The so called error function $\operatorname{erf}(x)$ is defined as $$\operatorname{erf}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^x e^{-t^2}dt,$$ and it is well known that $\operatorname{erf}(\infty)=1$. Are ...
18
votes
1answer
369 views

Fourier transform of $\operatorname{erfc}^3\left|x\right|$

(this is a follow-up on my another question) Could you please help me to find the Fourier transform of $$f(x)=\operatorname{erfc}^3\left|x\right|,$$ where $\operatorname{erfc}z$ denotes the the ...
15
votes
2answers
413 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty F(z)\,F\left(z\,\sqrt2\right)\frac{e^{-z^2}}{z^2}dz$ involving Dawson's integrals

I need you help with evaluating this integral: $$I=\int_0^\infty F(z)\,F\left(z\,\sqrt2\right)\frac{e^{-z^2}}{z^2}dz,\tag1$$ where $F(x)$ represents Dawson's integral: $$F(x)=e^{-x^2}\int_0^x ...
12
votes
1answer
218 views

Integral $\int_0^\infty\exp\left(-\sqrt2\,x^2\right)\,\operatorname{erfi}(x)\,\log(x)\,x^3\,dx$

Consider the following integral: $$\mathcal{A}=\int_0^\infty\exp\left(-\sqrt2\,x^2\right)\,\operatorname{erfi}(x)\,\log(x)\,x^3\,dx,\tag1$$ where $\operatorname{erfi}(x)$ denotes the imaginary error ...
8
votes
3answers
436 views

Evaluation of $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{\Gamma (n+s)}$

I want to try and evaluate this interesting sum: $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{\Gamma (n+s)}$$ where $0 \le s < 1$ WolframAlpha evaluates this sum to be $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{\Gamma ...
7
votes
1answer
127 views

Calculating $\text{erf}^{-1}(z)$ for $z\in\mathbb{C}$

All the information I found about inverse error function $\text{erf}^{-1}(z)$ was about $z\in\mathbb{R}$. Also I found some Taylor expansions for it, but as the function is unbounded near $z=\pm1$, ...
7
votes
1answer
378 views

Integrating a product of exponential and complementary error function with square-root of variable in the denominator

I need to evaluate \begin{equation} \int_a^\infty \mathrm{erfc}\left( \frac{b}{\sqrt{c\cdot h}} \right) e^{-d\cdot h} dh \end{equation} where $\mathrm{erfc}(s) = \frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}} ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

Integral involving the error function of log(x)

Looking for a closed form for the integral $$\int_0^{\infty } e^{-\left(\frac{a-\log (x)}{b}\right)^2} \left(\frac{1}{2} \text{erf}\left(\frac{a-\log (x)}{b}\right)+\frac{1}{2}\right) \, ...
6
votes
3answers
433 views

Evaluating $ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x\exp\left(-b^{2}\left(x-c\right)^{2}\right)\mathrm{erf}^{2}\left(a\left(x-d\right)\right)\,\mathrm{d}x $

I have big difficulties solving the following integral: $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}x\exp\left(-b^{2}\left(x-c\right)^{2}\right)\mathrm{erf}^{2}\left(a\left(x-d\right)\right)\,\mathrm{d}x $$ I tried to ...
5
votes
3answers
477 views

How to compute $ \int_0^1 {e^{-x^2}} dx$

I know that $$ \int_{0}^{+ \infty} e^{- x^{2}} dx = \frac{\sqrt{\pi}}{2}. $$ My question is: $$ \int_{0}^{1} e^{- x^{2}} dx = ~? $$
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Integral involving an error function

For $\sigma>0$, how can we prove that $$\frac{1}{2}\int_{-1}^1 \text{erf}\left(\frac{\sigma}{\sqrt{2}}+\text{erf}^{-1}(x)\right) \, \mathrm{d}x= \text{erf}\left(\frac{\sigma}{2}\right)$$ where erf ...
5
votes
1answer
408 views

Elegant proof for an inequality involving erf

I'm trying to prove the following inequality for $0 < x < 1$: $$\operatorname{erf}\left(\frac{(1+x)\sqrt{\ln{(1+x)}}}{\sqrt{(1+x)^2 - 1}}\right) - ...
4
votes
2answers
412 views

Fourier transform of $\operatorname{erfc}^2\left|x\right|$

Could you please help me to find the Fourier transform of $$f(x)=\operatorname{erfc}^2\left|x\right|,$$ where $\operatorname{erfc}z$ denotes the the complementary error function.
4
votes
2answers
126 views

Advice on an integral involving the error function

I'd like to calculate the following integral: $$\int^{\infty}_{0} \mathrm{erf}\left(\frac{\alpha}{\sqrt{1+x}} - \frac{\sqrt{1+x}}{\beta}\right) \exp\left(-\frac{x}{\gamma}\right)\, dx,$$ where ...
4
votes
1answer
210 views

Integral of 2D Gaussian over triangle

I am interested in computing (numerically) the integral of a 2D Gaussian (with arbitrary mean and covariance matrix) over a triangle in the plane. I would like the solution to work over a wide range ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

Inverse Laplace Transform of $e^{c \cdot s^2}$

I am trying to find the Inverse Laplace Transform of the function $$ F(s)=e^{c \cdot s^2} $$ where $c > 0$.
4
votes
2answers
685 views

Integral of product of exponential function and two complementary error functions (erfc)

I found the following integral evaluation very interesting to me: Integral of product of two error functions (erf) and I hoped that I could use that result to evaluate the following integral: $$ ...
4
votes
1answer
45 views

Solving $\int dx {\sqrt{x^2+a}} e^{-A x^2} erf \left( c(x-b) \right)$

I got as far as: $$\int dx {\sqrt{x^2+a}} e^{-A x^2} erf \left( c(x-b) \right) $$ $$=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}} \int dx \int^{c(x-b)}_0 dy {\sqrt{x^2+a}} e^{-A x^2 - y^2}$$ $$=\frac{-2 c}{\sqrt{\pi}} ...
4
votes
0answers
115 views

Exact values of error function

The error function is defined as $$\operatorname{erf}(z)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}} \int_0^z e^{-t^2} \, dt.$$ We know that the Gaussian integral is $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} e^{-x^2}\,dx=\sqrt{\pi}.$$ ...
4
votes
2answers
95 views

Approximating the erf function

I was trying to find an approximate solution to the following: $\DeclareMathOperator\erf{erf}$ $$\frac12 \sqrt{\pi} \erf\left (\frac{x-2}{\sqrt{10}}\right) + \frac12 \sqrt{\pi} \erf ...
3
votes
2answers
81 views

Does anyone know of a closed form solution to the following integral?

Does anyone know of a closed form solution to the following integral? $$ \DeclareMathOperator\erf{erf} \newcommand{d}{\;\mathrm{d}} \int^{+\infty}_{-\infty} \erf^{\;m}\!(x) \frac{\d^n ...
3
votes
2answers
93 views

Convincing that $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{2^{n-2}(2n+1)(n!)} \ne \pi$

A friend of mine in high school challenged me to calculate the value of the sum $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^n}{2^{n-2}(2n+1)(n!)}$$ And then claimed that the answer was $\pi$ . But when I ...
3
votes
2answers
139 views

Integral of exponential using error function

I'm trying to solve some integrals below $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} {x^n e^\frac{-(x - \mu)^2}{\sigma^2}}dx$$ I am interested in the solutions where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. I have learned that ...
3
votes
1answer
52 views

Closed forms for definite integrals involving error functions

I have been working for a while with these kinds of integrals $$\int_0^\infty dx\,\text{erfc}\left(c +i x\right)\exp \left(-\frac{1}{2}d^2x^2+i cx\right)$$ $$\int_\Lambda^\infty ...
3
votes
1answer
218 views

Is there an analytical solution to Gaussian integral $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{e^{-x^2}}{(x+a)^2+b} dx$?

I wonder if there is an analytical solution to $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{e^{-x^2}}{(x+a)^2+b} dx,$$ where $a, b>0$. I know, of course, that the antiderivative of the fraction is a version ...
3
votes
0answers
78 views

Properties and representations of the the rescaled complementary error function $\mathrm{erfcx}{z}$

Consider the rescaled complementary error function: $$ \mathrm{erfcx}(z) = {e^{z^2}} \left( {1-\mathrm{erf}(z)} \right) $$ $z \in \Bbb{C}$ which also has the following integral representation: $$ ...
3
votes
0answers
175 views

Differentiation under integral sign

There is this integral that I used a lot in my research: $$\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\exp\left(-b^{2}\left(x-c\right)^{2}\right)\mathrm{erf}\left(a\left(x-d\right)\right)\,\mathrm{d}x = ...
3
votes
0answers
404 views

Integral of two error functions (erf)

In my research I came across the following integral: \begin{equation} ...
2
votes
2answers
405 views

Product of two complementary error functions (erfc)

I believe that (i.e., it would be convenient if, and visually appears that) the product of the two complementary error functions: ...
2
votes
2answers
74 views

Erf squared approximation

I found a nice and useful approximation of squared error function $$ \mathrm{erf}^{2}\!\left(x\right)=1-\exp\!\left(-\frac{\pi^{2}}{8}x^{2}\right)+\varepsilon\!\left(x\right). $$ I checked ...
2
votes
2answers
25 views

Why is the Wronskian of these two functions equal to $\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}$

I can't seem to get the right answer $ f = e^{\frac{y^2}{2}}$ and $g =e^{\frac{y^2}{2}}erf(y)$ where $erf(y) = \frac{2}{\sqrt\pi}\int_{0}^{y}e^{-\alpha^2}d\alpha$ I get $W = \frac{2}{\sqrt\pi} - ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

How to show integral is related to complementary error function?

I have to somehow show that: $$ \int_0^\infty{\frac{e^{-a t}}{t^{1/2}(t+x)}} \textrm{d}t=\frac{\pi}{\sqrt{x}} e^{a x} \textrm{erfc}(\sqrt{ax}) $$ I've tried substituting $u=\sqrt{t}$ to get $$ 2 ...
2
votes
1answer
184 views

Definite integral - Please point to me my mistake

This emerged while I was investigating this question, i.e. the solution to the definite integral $$I_x = \int_0^\infty\left(5x^5+x\right)\operatorname{erfc}\left(x^5+x\right)\,dx$$ In a comment, its ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

How to find the error term for multiple applications of a method

I have a problem where I have to estimate the second derivative of a function at a point using given data. I have $f(1.2)$, $f(1.3)$, and $f(1.4)$. ($h=0.1$) I need to find $f''(1.3)$, so I use the ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Lagrange polynomial and derivative problem

I need to code this function in matlab $$L'(x) = \sum_{k = 0}^{n} f_k l_k(x) $$ Where's $l_k$ looks like this $$l_k(x) = \sum^{n}_{j=0, j \neq k} \frac{\prod^{n}_{i=0}(x - x_i)}{(x - ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Challenging integral

I am trying to find a close form representation for the following integral: $$ A(x;a,b,c)= \int_{0}^{x}\frac{\sin\left(a k+b k^{2}\right)+\sin\left(c k-b k^{2}\right)}{k}dk $$ for $0<x \ll ...
2
votes
3answers
180 views

What am i doing wrong when solving this differential equation

$$ f(x) = \frac{\frac{d^2}{dx^2}[e^y]}{\frac{d}{dx}[e^y]} $$ Given that $f(x) = cx$ $$ \frac{c}{2}x^2 + k_1 = \ln(e^y y') $$ $$ k_2\int e^{\frac{c}{2}x^2} dx = e^y $$ $$ y = \ln(k_2\int ...
2
votes
1answer
51 views

Integral of a gaussian over a slice of the plane

I need to evaluate the following $n$ real integrals: $$\int_{\frac{\pi}{2}-\frac{\pi}{n}}^{\frac{\pi}{2}+\frac{\pi}{n}}\int_0^\infty\frac{1}{\pi \sigma^2}e^{-\frac{|re^{i\theta}-i|^2}{\sigma^2}} \ dr ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Evaluating $\int\frac{e^{-x^2}}{(1+2x^2)^2}dx$

I'm trying to evaluate the following indefinite integral: $$ \int\frac{e^{-x^2}}{(1+2x^2)^2}dx $$ According to Wolfram|Alpha, this integral evaluates to: $$ \int \frac{e^{-x^2}}{(1+2 x^2)^2} dx = ...
2
votes
3answers
91 views

Integrate $ x\cdot e^{i\omega x - x^2}$ from $0$ to $\infty$

Can anybody help me in solving the following integral: $$\int_0^\infty x\cdot e^{i \omega x-x^2}\,dx\quad?$$ Any help/hints will be highly appreciated. Thanks
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Understanding Variance

I have to analyse the reasons that we did not meet target. Our target is 4750 m Our target speed is 500m/hr Our target hrs are 9.5 We achieved a speed of 550 m/hr We achieved hrs of 9.1 We achieved ...
1
vote
2answers
248 views

Value minimizing mean absolute percentage error

What value for $c$ would minimize the formula: $$\frac{1}{n}\;\sum^{n}_{i=1}\left | \frac{y_i-c}{y_i}\right|$$ given the values $y_1, ..., y_n$. For example in the mean squared error we have the ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

How can I solve the integral in the error function $\mbox{erf}(x)$?

To get from this To this series I can't seem find the step-by-step solution anywhere.
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Inverse Laplace transform of a given function

1) The Laplace transform of f(t) is $\overline{f}(p)=\frac{1}{p}$ when $f(t)=1$ 2) The Laplace transform of $f(at)$ is $\frac{1}{a}\overline{f}(\frac{p}{a})$ 3) The Laplace transform of the ...