For reflexive, symmetric and transitive relations. Use it with the tag (relations).

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Prove: In $\mathbb{Z}$, m ~ n iff $|m|=|n|$

Prof. Pinter's "A Book of Abstract Algebra" presents this exercise: Prove that each of the following is an equivalence relation on the indicated set. Then describe the partition associated with ...
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Prove $\lbrace A_n : n \in \mathbb{Z}\rbrace$ is a partition of $\mathbb{Q}$

Dr. Pinter's "A Book of Abstract Algebra" presents the following exercise: Prove that each of the following is a partition of the indicated set. Then describe the equivalence relation with that ...
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1answer
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Prove: $\langle A_0, A_1, A_2, A_3, A_4 \rangle$ is a partition of $\mathbb{Z}$

The following exercise from Dr. Pinter's "A Book of Abstract Algebra" presents this exercise: Prove that each of the following is a partition of the indicated set. Then describe the equivalence ...
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1answer
38 views

How do I show that the equivalence relation defining the rational numbers is transitive?

I apologize if this is a super easy question, but there is something fishy about my proof. I was to show: $$(p,q) \sim (m,n) \wedge (m,n) \sim (a,b) \implies (p,q) \sim (a,b) $$ under the ...
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Why is equivalence 'class', not equivalence 'set'? [duplicate]

Why do we call it a class, not a set? Is it not a set? Can it be a proper class?
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In what mathematically rigorous sense does $ \mathbb{Q}$ extend $\mathbb{Z}$?

I was trying to understand rigorously what the word "extends" means in this context, pin it down formally with the correct mathematical language. First, let me explain some of my thoughts and the ...
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113 views

What do you get with this equivalence relationship for all $\mathbb{Q}$ sequences

Consider all $\mathbb{Q}$ Cauchy sequences with this equivalence relationship $\{x_n\} \sim \{y_n\} \iff \{x_n-y_n\} \rightarrow 0$ Then you get all real numbers as an equivalence class with this ...
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50 views

Quotients vs equivalence relations

In a recent preprint I defined the category of quasi-frames (qframes for short) as follows: a qframe is a modular and upper continuous complete lattice; a morphism of qframes $f:L_1\to L_2$ is a map ...
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1answer
28 views

Best approach to determine the equivalence classes of a formal language

I created a minimum automaton for a formal language using the Myhill-Nerode theorem. The language for which I created the automaton is defined by $L=\{w \in \{a,b\}^*:w=av \text{ for a word } v ...
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Linear/Discrete Math Equivalence Classes

I am confused on this question: For each of the following binary relations on $\Bbb R$, state whether or not the relation is an equivalence relation. If it is an equivalence relation, describe the ...
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Proving Equivalence Relation $xPy$ iff $ y = x + n\pi$ on The Reals

I am trying to prove that the relation P on $\mathbb{R}$ by the rule $\forall x, y \in \mathbb{R}, xPy \text{ if and only if } \exists n \in \mathbb{Z} \text{ such that }y = x+ n\pi$ From what I can ...
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If S is finite then the equivalence classes will not exceed the size of set S

If S is a finite set and $\sim$ is an equivalence relation on it, then the total number of equivalence classes can never exceed $\vert S\vert$ and it can be any integer number $1\leq k\leq\vert ...
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1answer
33 views

Equivalence relation for which there are infinitely many equivalence classes.

On set $\mathbb{R}$ and the relation on it where $x\sim y$ if $x^{4}=y^{4}$. Then $\sim $ is equivalence relation for which there are infinitely many equivalence classes, one of which consists ...
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1answer
164 views

Confusion between an element and its preimage

Let $X$ be a set and $\sim$ is an equivalence relation on $X$, so that the quotient set $X/_\sim=\bigcup_{x\in X}{[x]}$ with $[x]=[y]$ if and only if $x\sim y$. Consider the quotient map $f:X\to ...
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26 views

How to proof equivalence relation?

I need help with this problem: Let $S=\left\{\left[\begin{matrix} a & b \\ c & d \end{matrix}\right] : a,b,c,d \in \mathbb{C}\right \}$ and $M=\left\{\left[\begin{matrix} a & b \\ ...
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22 views

What is an algorithm for describing the partition of this equivalence relation?

Let $\mathbb{R}$ be the set of real numbers,$ f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ a map, and $E$ the equivalence relation on $ ℝ $ defined by $E = \{(x,y) \in \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R} \mid ...
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Test for symmetric property of this ordered pair

Suppose the set $$S={1,2,3}.$$ I must show that the equivalence relation $$R=\{(1,1),(1,3),(2,2),(3,1),(3,3)\}$$ is on the set. The reflexive property states that: $$(a,a) \in R \;\forall a \in ...
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1answer
110 views

Can a relation be both anti-reflexive and anti-symmetric?

Is it possible for a relation to be both anti-reflexive and anti-symmetric?
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96 views

Relative Identity vs Set Theory

The last complete, but unpublished, paper by the late Tom Etter titled "Three-Place Identity" purports to prove that all of mathematics can be expressed in terms of relative identity. In his own ...
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1answer
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Anti-symmetric or asymmetric for a relation between pairs in the set of Z x Z?

Is this anti-symmetric or asymmetric? I at first thought asymmetric because anti-symmetric would mean a = c and b = d which would not be true. But because the domain is the Cartesian product of ...
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1answer
32 views

Equivalence relations regarding binary relations

Let $R \subseteq X \times X$ be a binary relation for $X = \{a, b, c, d\}$. $R = \{(a, a), (b, c), (c, d), (b, d)\}$. Is the relation an equivalence relation? I don't know if I am proving it correctly ...
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1answer
21 views

A question on eqivalence relation

Please explain what the examiner means by asking: Also find [3,6] in Q 1 (a)(i)??
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1answer
41 views

Does this notion of “weak” isomorphism exist in literature?

Let $(M,\circ)$ and $(N,\ast)$ be two magmas. I'd like to relax the notion of isomorphism by defining a notion of "weak" isomorphism in the following way: $M$ and $N$ are "weakly" isomorphic if there ...
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When is the topological closure of an equivalence relation automatically an equivalence relation?

Let $X$ be a topological space, not necessarily nice, let $R$ be a subspace of $X \times X$, and let $\overline{R}$ be the closure of $R$ in $X \times X$. Then: If $R$ is a reflexive binary relation ...
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About the group of units

I'm stuck at this section of the following problem: Let $R$ be a commutative ring and $S$ be a subset of $R$, with $S$ multiplicatively closed. Find the group of units of $S^{-1}R$. My try: ...
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Well-defined and Equivalence relations

I am wondering why the following is well-defined... The definition of well-defined is given as; $g:(X/\sim) \to Z$ is well-defined if a mapping $f:X \to Z$ can be found where $f$ has the property $x ...
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Equivalence classes in $\mathbb{Z}_n$

I've the following exercise: Solve each of the following equations in the given set $\mathbb{Z}_n$: 1) $[5]+x=[1]$ in $\mathbb{Z}_9$ 2) $[2]\cdot x=[7]$ in $\mathbb{Z}_{11}$ For 1), is $x=5$ ...
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1answer
54 views

Proof of an equivalence relation

Let S be the relation on R defined by $xSy \Leftrightarrow x=|y|$, $\forall x,y\in\Re$ Is the relation reflexive, symmetric and/or transitive? By my proof that 1) $x=|y| \Rightarrow |y|=x$ ...
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1answer
27 views

Equivalence classes of $\Bbb Z$ with the operation $\mod n$

So I came across this phrase in my abstract algebra textbook: The integers $\mod n$ also partition $\Bbb Z$ into $n$ different equivalence classes; we will denote the set of these equivalence ...
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simple clarification of equivalence relation and order relation notation meaning

So by definition an equivalence relation is a binary relation on a subset of the cartesian product of our set A, i.e $A\times A$ satisfying the 3 conditions. But I'm a little confused about ...
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17 views

More clarification on an equivalence relation problem already answered

So this problem already has a solution: Problem with Equivalence Relations I'm good for the majority of it except for part c), I wasn't able to figure that out on my own or by looking at the ...
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1answer
44 views

Isn't reflexivity and symmetry implied in equivalence relations?

It looks like for all "nice" sets, the set $S\times S$ will have symmetry and reflexivity by default. The tough part is usually showing transitivity. However, are there any non-empty sets such that ...
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1answer
38 views

How to understand this definition of equivalence relations

I often see this type of definitions of equivalence: Suppose that $f$ and $g$ are differentiable on $\mathbb R$. We can define an equivalence relation on such functions by letting $f(x) \sim g(x)$ ...
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1answer
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Defining Equivalence relations

So I am not really comfortable with equivalence relations, so this example from Wikipedia gives me trouble. Here is what it says: Let the set $\{a,b,c\}$ have the equivalence relation ...
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1answer
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Intersection of two sets which are equivalence on set A is always equivalence?

If $R_{1}$ and $R_{2}$ are equivalence relations on set A ,then$ R_{1}\bigcap R_{2}$ must be equivalence relation. firstly, I am not understanding the function of R,I think that, this is only a ...
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why are equivalence relations called so?

"an equivalence relation is the relation that holds between two elements if and only if they are members of the same cell within a set that has been partitioned into cells such that every element of ...
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1answer
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Transitive Relations Problem,

Let S be the set of all three-digit numbers, and define x~y to mean that x and y have the same first and last digit. (i) Show that the relations ~ is transitive. (ii) List two numbers in the ...
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Equivalence Classes Output

I understand that an equivalence relation is a set that is reflexsive, symmetric, and transitive. I don't quite understand equivalence classes though. For example: What would the equivalence class be ...
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2answers
37 views

Why is this an equivalence relation, and what does the equivalence classes contain?

I'm doing some discrete mathematics exercises, but I can't seem to wrap my head around this relation: $$R(x, y) \text{ if } \exists z(\text{LiesInPart}\circ\text{LiesInCountry}(x,z) \wedge ...
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1answer
34 views

How to determine an equivalence class?

Let $A$ be a nonempty set and let $B$ be a fixed subset of $A$. A relations $R$ is defined on the power set $\mathcal{P}(A)$ by $X\mathrel{R}Y$ if $X \cap B = Y \cap B$. Let $A=\{1,2,3,4,5\}$ and ...
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Relations and Equivalence - numbers are related if they have the same floor

$S$ is defined on $\mathbb{Q}$ by $xSy$ if and only if $⌊x⌋=⌊y⌋$ (Note that$⌊q⌋$is defined to be the largest integer less than or equal to q. You can think of it as “$q$ rounded down”.) We've been ...
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1answer
20 views

Equivalence relations and classes

$T$ is defined on $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ by $(a,b)\mathrel{T}(c,d)$ if and only if $a \leq c$ and $b \leq d$. I know this is a partial order relation as it is Transitive, Anti Symmetric and ...
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1answer
22 views

Describing equivalence classes over the set of natural numbers

So for this problem we are supposed to describe the equivalence class for the following relation. $x \thicksim y$ iff $x$ mod 2 = $y$ mod 2 and $x$ mod 4 = $y$ mod 4. I am confused on what is meant ...
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verifying properties of relations to test equivalence

We are doing some more with relations and this time we are given a relation and told that it is not equivalent. We need to find out which property it does not fulfill. So we at least know there is ...
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Can someone explain how to find the number of equivalence classes and elements?

I am struggling so much with this topic. Trying to do some practice questions but I don't seem to get it. What I'm working on is Let $A = \{ 1, 2, 3, \dots, 2014 \} = \{ x \mid 1 \le x \le ...
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30 views

Proving that two equivalence classes are disjoint?

I am having trouble with the following proof: Define the relation $R$ on $\mathbb{Z}$ by $nRm$ if $n-m$ is divisible by $2$. Prove that the equivalence class for $0^{(\bar{0})}$ and the equivalence ...
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1answer
40 views

Which equivalence class represents the zero element $0_{\mathbb Q}$ in $\mathbb Q$?

The Statement of the Problem: We identify $\mathbb Q$ with the set of equivalence classes $[a,b]$, where $(a,b) \in \mathbb Z \times \mathbb N^+$ and $(a,b) \sim (a'b')$ iff $ab'=ba'$. We define ...
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1answer
24 views

Union of equivalence relations

As part of a HW assignment in the course elementary set theory, I was given the following question: Let $A$ be a set and let $T$ and $S$ be two equivalence relations on $A$. Prove: $S\circ ...
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1answer
24 views

Equivalence Relation on the set of ordered pairs of positive integers

Have a homework question, but how can I show that the given relation R is reflexive, symmetric and transitive, so that it is an equivalence relation. Appreciate assistance from anyone. "Let R be the ...
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1answer
47 views

Composition of equivalence relations

As part of a HW assignment in the course elementary set theory, I was given the following question: Let $A$ be a set and let $T$ and $S$ be two equivalence relations on $A$. Prove: $S\circ ...