For reflexive, symmetric and transitive relations. Use it with the tag (relations).

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36 views

Prove that the union of two equivalence relations on the same set an equivalence relation iff?

Let $R$ and $E$ be equivalence relations on set $A$. Prove that $R\cup E$ is an equivalence relation on set A iff for all $a\in A$, $[a]_{R} \subseteq [a]_{E}$ OR $[a]_{E} \subseteq [a]_{R}$. ...
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1answer
29 views

What is an equivalence class of an equivalence relation?

I might be interpreting this wrong but in my book it says: If ~ defines an equivalence relation on $A$ then the set of equivalence classes of ~ form a partition of $A$. To me, this means that the set ...
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1answer
37 views

Can $R=\{(1,6),(2,7),(3,8)\}$ be said transitive?

Given a relation $R=\{(1,6),(2,7),(3,8)\}$. It is clear that it is not reflexive and symmetric but can we say that it is transitive?
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1answer
21 views

Determinate the quotient topology

I was trying to find the quotient topolgy for the next example: Let R be the real numbers with the usual topology ($\tau$) and define the relationship $\mathcal{R}$ over R as follows, a ...
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1answer
26 views

Proved that if $R\cup E$ equivalence relation so $a / E \subseteq a / R$ OR $a / R \subseteq a / E$

Let R, S be equivalence relations on A. Proved that if $R\cup E$ Is an equivalence relation on A So $\Rightarrow$ For all $a\in A$ , $$a / E \subseteq a / R$$ OR $$a / R \subseteq a / E$$ I ...
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0answers
12 views

Determine the given relation is Equivalence Relation or not.

$R_{1} \oplus R_{2}$ I know that $R_{1} \oplus R_{2} = R_{1} \cup R_{2} - R_{1} \cap R_{2}$, and $R_{1} \cup R_{2}$ is not necessarily an equivalence relation but $R_{1} \cap R_{2}$ is always an ...
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2answers
16 views

How do I prove symmetry of a relation given a function?

Let G be a group. For all $g\in G$ , define the function f: G → G that sends x to $gxg^{-1}$. Define the relation ~ on G by a~b if $a = f(b)$ for some $g\in G$. Prove that ~ is an equivalence ...
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1answer
14 views

Counting ordered pairs in quotient set

We have equivalence relation E on the set $$A = \{1,2,3,4,5\}$$ So the quotient set: $$A/E = \{\{1,2,3\}, \{4\}, \{5\}\}.$$ How much orderd pairs we can find in E? How to count the ordered ...
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0answers
44 views

LEN-Model equivalency

Starting position is a principal-agent-model with incomplete information (moral hazard) and the following properties: Agent utility: $u(z)=-e^{(-r_az)}$ Principal utility: $B(z)=-e^{(-r_pz)}$ Effort ...
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2answers
31 views

What is the equivalence class of the following equivalence relation?

If we have a equivalence relation $R=_{def} \{((x_1,y_1),(x_2,y_2)) ~~| ~~x_1-y_1=x_2-y_2 \} \subseteq \mathbb{R}^2 \times \mathbb{R}^2 $ What is the equivalence class $[(0,1)]_R$? I thought it ...
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0answers
16 views

equivalence class of kernel relation of floor function

By taking particular values of $k$, I found that equivalence class of $k$, $[k]=\{k,k+1,k+2,...,2k-1\}$, equivalence class of $2k$, $[2k]=\{2k,2k+1,2k+2,...,3k-1\}$ and so on, but how to present it ...
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0answers
9 views

Number of symmetric relations

Let set $A=\{1,2,3\}$ Find number of symmetric relations that can be defined on $A$ containing ordered pairs $(1,2)$ and $(2,1)$ is? Can someone give me some hint for this question?
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1answer
37 views

Show that either $[x] = [y]$ or $[x]$ and $[y]$ are disjoint?

An equivalence class $[x]_R$ is defined by $[x]_R = [y ∈ X : xRy]$. In this proof I'm supposed to start by assuming $[x]$ and $[y]$ are not disjoint. Therefore, there is some element $z$ that is in ...
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5answers
27 views

Show that $x$ is an element of its own equivalence class?

If $R$ is an equivalence relation on $X$ and $x$ is an element of $X$, the equivalence class is defined as $[x]_R = [y ∈ X : xRy]$. Since $x$ is equivalent to itself, doesn't that automatically make ...
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1answer
37 views

Relations and their fallacies

I need to find a flaw in the proof of the following statement: Any relation that is symmetric and transitive is also reflexive. False Proof: aRb implies bRa,by symmetry. Then by transitivity, aRa ...
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6answers
70 views

Why $yC_1x \iff yC_2x$ implies $C_1 = C_2$? $C_i$ is a relation.

Here is the text from the book Topology by Munkres: Studying equivalence relations on a set $A$ and studying partitions of $A$ are really the same thing. Given any partition $\scr D$ of $A$, there ...
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2answers
51 views

Proving an equivalence relation on a $\mathbb Z\times \mathbb Z$

I am having some trouble understanding how to prove that a given binary relation is an equivalence relation. I understand that to prove that a relation is an equivalence relation, you must prove ...
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1answer
37 views

Which of the following equivalence classes are equal?

Let R be the relation of congruence modulo 3. Which of the following equivalence classes are equal. [7], [-4], [-6], [17], [4], [27], [19] The answer is: ...
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2answers
58 views

Show that R is an equivalence relation and determine all distinct classes

Let R be a relation on Z define as follows: m R n <--> 3|($m^2$-$n^2$) show that R is an equivalence relation and determine all distinct equivalence classes. EDIT: I looked several places and ...
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0answers
12 views

Is Congruence Class an example of Equivalence Class? (Understanding the definition through Examples)

Would you say a congruence class such as $[0]_{4}, [1]_{4}, [2]_{4},$ and $[3]_{4}$ an example of Equivalence classes since: the set of all elements of $\{..., -8, -4, 0, 4, 8,...\}$ is related to ...
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4answers
155 views

How do you show one way equivalences in mathematics?

In the real world, it seems you can often take a set of things and create new things with them. Let's say you want to make bread, for example. Normally, you can create bread by putting together flour, ...
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2answers
38 views

What does it mean for f([x])=[2x] for a function mapping R/Z to R/Z?

Let X=R/Z (the circle), with a map $f : X → X$ given by $f([x]) = [2x]$. I'm a little lost on what $f([x]) = [2x]$ means. I thought the function was mapping the equivalence class [x] to the ...
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0answers
17 views

Find equivalence classes

A is set of all propositional expressions on the propositions p1 , p2 , . . . , pn. Relation R on A is defined as (P, Q) ∈ R if P ↔ Q is a tautology. I think it is an equivalence relation, what should ...
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1answer
30 views

Equivalence Classes of an Equivalence Relation Confusion (definition and solution included)

The Definition of Equivalence Classes of an Equivalence Relation is given as: Suppose $A$ is a set and $R$ is an equivalence relation on $A$. For each element $a$ in $A$, the equivalence class of a, ...
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1answer
26 views

Showing an equivalence relation

Let $[n]$ denote the set of all permutations. Let $R$ be the relation $$i_1 i_2\cdots i_n=j_1 j_2\cdots j_n$$ if and only if there exists a $k$ such that $j_1 j_2 \cdots j_n=i_k i_{k+1}\cdots i_n i_1 ...
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2answers
88 views

Why not just define equivalence relations on objects and morphisms for equivalent categories?

My question is regarding this blog post https://unapologetic.wordpress.com/2007/05/30/equivalence-of-categories/ which I will paraphrase below: The author gives the example of a category ...
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1answer
25 views

Proving Equivalence Relations by providing an example based on given subsets.

Let $X$ be the set of all nonempty subsets of $\{1, 2, 3\}$. Then $X= \{\{1\}, \{2\}, \{3\}, \{1, 2\}, \{1, 3\}, \{2, 3\}, \{1, 2, 3\}\}$ Define a relation $ R $ on $X$ as follows: For all $A$ and ...
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1answer
45 views

definition of the directed colimit of a functor

Let $(\Lambda,\le )$ be a directed set, which we can understand as a small category: The set of all objects is $\Lambda$ and for $\lambda,\lambda '\in \Lambda$ there exists an unique morphism ...
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1answer
21 views

Proving the Binary Relation is an Equivalence Relation

Let $R$ be a binary relation on a set A and suppose R is symmetric and transitive. Prove the following: If for every $x$ in $A$ there is a $y$ in $A$ such that $x R y$, then $R$ is an equivalence ...
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1answer
21 views

Finite group existence of equivalence relation

I was reading about cosets and, given the fact that if $H$ is a non empty subset of a finite group G, we have the following equality $[G:H]|H|=|G|$, I came up with the following question: If the ...
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1answer
115 views

Equivalence classes under logical equivalence by 13 valuations

Let L be the set of 5 propositional variables. Under the equivalence relation given by logical equivalence, how many equivalence classes of propositional terms are given the value TRUE by 13 ...
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2answers
53 views

Proving a function $\mathbb{Z}_m \to \mathbb{Z}_m,\ [a] \mapsto [a^2 + 3a + 1]$ is well defined

Prove that $\operatorname{poly}\colon \mathbb{Z}_m \to \mathbb{Z}_m$ given by $\operatorname{poly}\colon [a] \mapsto [a^2 + 3a + 1]$ is well defined. This is what I have so far, working in (mod ...
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3answers
478 views

Why is one relation transitive but the other is not?

From what I have read about a transitive relation is that if xRy and yRz are both true then xRz has to be true. I'm doing some practice problems and I'm a little confused with identifying a ...
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1answer
25 views

51 people enter a raffle with 10 prizes; 7 are pencils and 3 are cars. How may ways are there to give out the prizes?

Assume that no one can win more than one prize. If the prizes were all different, then we have the case that order matters and repeats are allowed, meaning there are $P(51, 10)$ ways of handing out ...
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1answer
63 views

If $R$ is an equivalence relation, is $R = R^3$?

If $R$ is an equivalence relation, does $R = R^3$ ? I tried for about 40minutes to construct a relation $R$ that is an equivalence relation that when multiplied with itself twice, it will make $R = ...
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1answer
28 views

Proving that rational equivalence is an equivalence relation on any set.

I seek to prove that the rational equivalence relation is an equivalence relation, in that it is reflexive, symmetric, and transitive. The rational equivalence relation is as follows "Two numbers in ...
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1answer
25 views

Show that $[a][\star][b] :=[a \star b]$ defines an operation on $G/\sim$.

Let $G$ be a set equipped with an operation $\star$ and an equivalence relation $\sim$. Suppose that $\sim$ is compatible with $\star$, i.e., for elements $a$, $a'$, $b$, $b'$ of $G$, $$\text{if}\ a ...
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1answer
26 views

Equivalence Relations of n|(x1-x2)

How would one prove that if $x_1$ and $x_2$ are elements of $\mathbb{Z}$, then $x_1$ ~ $x_2$ <=> $n$|$(x_1 - x_2)$? Giving an example, such as $n=6$ or such would better help me understand the ...
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3answers
9 views

Equivalence Relations and Classes 3

I am studying for a discrete math exam that is tomorrow and the questions on equivalence classes are not making sense to me. Practice Problem: Let $\sim$ be the relation defined on set of pairs $(x, ...
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3answers
40 views

What are the equivalence classes for the relation “congruence modulo 5?”

I'm still a little mixed up on equivalence classes, so I'm trying to make some connections. I need to be specific of how many there are and what is in each. Here's what I have: Let $\mathscr R$ be ...
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1answer
47 views

Let ∼ be an equivalence relation on a set $A$, and let $a, b ∈ A$. Prove that $a ∈ [b]$ iff $b ∈ [a]$.

I have the following proof outline, but I am not sure how to get started proving this. Can anyone point me in the right directon? Proof. Suppose that $\sim$ is an equivalence relation on a set $A$, ...
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1answer
48 views

Prove that, with vector addition and scalar multiplication well-defined, $V/W$ becomes a vector space over $k$.

Let $V$ be a vector space over a field $k$ and let $W$ be a subspace of $V$. Prove that, with vector addition and scalar multiplication well-defined, $V/W$ = {$v+W | w\in W$} becomes a vector space ...
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1answer
17 views

Relation and proving reflexivity

The relation R is defined on integers by $xRy$ if and only if $x^2y=ymod6$. Prove that $R$ is reflexive. So far I have: Let $x=y$ $x^2x=xmod6$ I don't know how to go from here... because ...
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1answer
51 views

What is the formalism of category theory to express an equivalence relation?

Say I have an abstract set $X$ (could be points, functions, functors or whatever). Say I have an equivalence relation $R\in X\times X$. What would be the category-theory way to express $X/R$, that ...
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1answer
27 views

Relations and equivalence classes example

I'm studying discrete mathematics in my course at university and I'm going through notes on relations, equivalence relations and classes and such. I've come across an example on equivalence classes ...
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1answer
56 views

Equivalence Relations on Products

Let $G$ be a group, $p$ a prime dividing $|G|$ and $X = \{(x_0,..., x_{p−1})) ∈ G_p:∏_i x_i = 1\}.$ Let $E$ be the relation defined on $X$ by $(x_0, ..., x_{p−1})E(y_0,..., y_{p−1})$ if there exists ...
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2answers
50 views

Which of the following are partitions of $\mathbb R^2$

Is my answer correct? Can someone provide me better explanations for (a) ,(c) and (d)? Which of the following collections of subsets of the plane $\Bbb R\times\Bbb R$ are partitions? $(a)$ ...
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0answers
48 views

proof a code is equivalent to any code with the code word 00..0 of length n

Let $C$ and $C'$ be codes over a $q$-ary alphabet $A$. We say that $C$ and $C'$ are equivalent if one can be obtained from the other by repeatedly applying the following two operations ...
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2answers
37 views

Show given relation $R$ is equivalence relation on $S$

I will display the exact problem, then my questions. I have searched to the extremes to figure this out and can't: Show that the given relation $R$ is an equivalence relation on set $S$. $S$ is the ...
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1answer
71 views

Name of and references for the equivalence relation $x \sim y :\Longleftrightarrow x^2 = y^2$

Playing around with the concepts of negativity and positivity, I came across the following equivalence relation defined for all elements $x,y$ of a field $\mathbb{F}$: $$ x \sim y :\Longleftrightarrow ...