Questions on congruences, linear diophantine equations, greatest common divisor, divisibility, etc.

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10
votes
4answers
4k views
+50

How to use the Extended Euclidean Algorithm manually?

I've only found a recursive algorithm of the extended Euclidean algorithm. I'd like to know how to use it by hand. Any idea?
26
votes
3answers
5k views

Prove that $\gcd(a^n - 1, a^m - 1) = a^{\gcd(n, m)} - 1$

For all $a, m, n \in \mathbb{Z}^+$, $$\gcd(a^n - 1, a^m - 1) = a^{\gcd(n, m)} - 1$$
13
votes
4answers
2k views

Highest power of a prime $p$ dividing $N!$

How does one find the highest power of a prime $p$ that divides $N!$ and other related products? Related question: How many zeros are there at the end of $N!$? This is being done to reduce ...
13
votes
6answers
8k views

Prove that if $\gcd( a, b ) = 1$ then $\gcd( ac, b ) = \gcd( c, b ) $

I know it might be too easy for you guys here. I'm practicing some problems in the textbook, but this one really drove me crazy. From $\gcd( a, b ) = 1$, I have $ax + by = 1$, where should I go from ...
7
votes
1answer
795 views

In how many ways can we colour $n$ baskets with $r$ colours?

In how many ways can we colour $n$ baskets using up to $r$ colours such that no two consecutive baskets have the same colour and the first and the last baskets also have different colours? For ...
5
votes
2answers
397 views

Divisibility criteria for $7,11,13,17,19$

A number is divisible by $2$ if it ends in $0,2,4,6,8$. It is divisible by $3$ if sum of ciphers is divisible by $3$. It is divisible by $5$ if it ends $0$ or $5$. These are simple criteria for ...
23
votes
9answers
4k views

Prove $2^{1/3}$ is irrational.

Please correct any mistakes in this proof and, if you're feeling inclined, please provide a better one where "better" is defined by whatever criteria you prefer. Assume $2^{1/2}$ is irrational. ...
6
votes
2answers
457 views

Bijection between an ideal class group and a set of classes of binary quadratic forms.

Let $F = ax^2 + bxy + cy^2$ be a binary quadratic form over $\mathbb{Z}$. We say $D = b^2 - 4ac$ is the discriminant of $F$. If $D$ is not a square integer and gcd($a, b, c) = 1$, we say $ax^2 + bxy + ...
39
votes
3answers
1k views

How come the number $N!$ can terminate in exactly $1,2,3,4,$ or $6$ zeroes but never $5$ zeroes? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Highest power of a prime $p$ dividing $N!$ How come the number $N!$ can terminate in exactly $1,2,3,4,$ or $6$ zeroes but never $5$ zeroes?
10
votes
3answers
922 views

Motivation behind the definition of GCD and LCM

According to me, I can find the GCD of two integers (say $a$ and $b$) by finding all the common factors of them, and then finding the maximum of all these common factors. This also justifies the ...
1
vote
4answers
668 views

How to use fundamental theorem of arithmetic to conclude that $\gcd(a^k,b^n)=1$ for all $k, n \in$ N whenever $a,b \in$ N with $\gcd(a,b)=1$?

How to use fundamental theorem of arithmetic to conclude that $\gcd(a^k,b^n)=1$ for all $k, n \in$ N whenever $a,b \in$ N with $\gcd(a,b)=1$? Fundamental theorem of arithmetic: Each number $n\geq 2$ ...
11
votes
3answers
8k views

How to find solutions of linear Diophantine ax + by = c?

I want to find a set of integer solutions of Diophantine equation: $ax + by = c$, and apparently $gcd(a,b)|c$. Then by what formula can I use to find $x$ and $y$ ? I tried to play around with it: $x ...
2
votes
3answers
1k views

GCD Proof with Multiplication: gcd(ax,bx) = x$\cdot$gcd(a,b)

I was curious as to another method of proof for this: Given $a$, $b$, and $x$ are all natural numbers, $\gcd(ax,bx) = x \cdot \gcd(a,b)$ I'm confident I've found the method using a generic common ...
19
votes
8answers
4k views

Division of Factorials

I have a partition of a positive integer $(p)$. How can I prove that the factorial of $p$ can always be divided by the product of the factorials of the parts? As a quick example $\frac{9!}{(2!3!4!)} ...
39
votes
7answers
2k views

Is $1$ a prime number?

Is 1 classified as a prime number? And if so, why? If not, why not?
5
votes
5answers
703 views

Determine the Set of a Sum of Numbers

I want to determine the set of natural numbers that can be expressed as the sum of some non-negative number of 3s and 5s. $$S=\{3k+5j∣k,j∈\mathbb{N}∪\{0\}\}$$ I want to check whether that would be: ...
2
votes
4answers
1k views

How can I prove that all rational numbers are either terminally real or repeating real numbers?

I am trying to figure out how to prove that all rational numbers are either terminally real or repeating real numbers, but I am having a great difficulty in doing so. Any help will be greatly ...
6
votes
8answers
2k views

Why is $\gcd(a,b)=\gcd(b,r)$ when $a = qb + r$?

Given: $a = qb + r$ Then it holds that $\gcd(a,b)=\gcd(b,r)$. That doesn't sound logical to me. Why is this so? Addendum by LePressentiment on 11/29/2013: (in the interest of ...
4
votes
2answers
928 views

Order of an Element Modulo $n$ Divides $\phi(n)$

How can I show that the order of an element modulo $n$ divides $\phi(n)$? I know that if $a$ and $n$ are relatively prime, then the least positive integer $x$ such that $a^x\equiv1\pmod n$ is its ...
1
vote
1answer
159 views

General method for solving $ax\equiv b\pmod {n}$ without using extended Euclidean algorithm?

Consider the linear congruence equation $$ax\equiv b\pmod { n}.$$ One way to solve it is solving a linear Diophantine equation $$ ax+ny=b. $$ I saw somebody solved it by another method somewhere I ...
15
votes
5answers
1k views

How do we prove $n^n \mid m^m \Rightarrow n \mid m$?

I'm not sure I've got this right. When proving $a^n \mid b^n \Rightarrow a \mid b$, can we do this indirectly? In short, "Suppose $a$ does not divide $b$, this implies that $a^n$ does not divide ...
5
votes
6answers
1k views

$-1$ is a quadratic residue modulo $p$ if and only if $p\equiv 1\pmod{4}$

I came across this problem and I believe Lagrange's theorem is the key to its solution. The question is: Let $p$ be an odd prime. Prove that there is some integer $x$ such that $x^2 \equiv −1 ...
10
votes
4answers
862 views

How do I compute $a^b\,\bmod c$ by hand?

How do I efficiently compute $a^b\,\bmod c$: When $b$ is huge, for instance $5^{844325}\,\bmod 21$? When $b$ is less than $c$ but it would still be a lot of work to multiply $a$ by itself $b$ times, ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Elementary central binomial coefficient estimates

How to prove that $\quad\displaystyle\frac{4^{n}}{\sqrt{4n}}<\binom{2n}{n}<\frac{4^{n}}{\sqrt{3n+1}}\quad$ for all $n$ > 1 ? Does anyone know any better elementary estimates?
3
votes
3answers
1k views

A number when successively divided by $9$, $11$ and $13$ leaves remainders $8$, $9$ and $8$ respectively

A number when successively divided by $9$, $11$ and $13$ leaves remainders $8$, $9$ and $8$ respectively. The answer is $881$, but how? Any clue about how this is solved?
46
votes
7answers
4k views

Prove every odd integer is the difference of two squares

I know that I should use the definition of an odd integer ($2k+1$), but that's about it. Thanks in advance!
12
votes
5answers
2k views

If $n$ is composite, then $n$ divides $(n-1)!$.

I have a proof and need some feedback. It seems really obvious that the statement is true but it is always the obvious ones that are a little trickier to prove. So I would appreciate any feedback. ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Derive a formula to find the number of trailing zeroes in $n!$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How come the number $N!$ can terminate in exactly $1,2,3,4,$ or $6$ zeroes but never $5$ zeroes? I know that I have to find the number of factors of $5$'s, $25$'s, ...
1
vote
5answers
2k views

Proof of Extended Euclidean Algorithm?

There exist x and y such that: gcd (a,b) = xa + yb Why is this true? What's the reasoning behind it?
3
votes
2answers
6k views

Sum of n consecutive numbers [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Proof for formula for sum of sequence $1+2+3+\ldots+n$? Is there a shortcut method to working out the sum of n consecutive positive integers? Firstly, starting at $1 ...
48
votes
7answers
6k views

What makes $9$ special?

I don't know if this is a well know fact but I have observed that every number no matter how large that is equally divided by $9$, will equal $9$ if you add all the numbers it is made from until there ...
20
votes
5answers
8k views

If $a^2$ divides $b^2$, then $a$ divides $b$

Let $a$ and $b$ be positive integers. Prove that: If $a^2$ divides $b^2$, then $a$ divides $b$. Context: the lecturer wrote this up in my notes without proving it, but I can't seem to figure out ...
16
votes
6answers
4k views

prove that $(2n)!/(n!)^2$ is even if $n$ is a positive integer

Prove that $(2n)!/(n!)^2$ is even if $n$ is a positive integer. For clarity: the denominator is the only part being squared. My thought process: The numerator is the product of the first n even ...
5
votes
1answer
910 views

Probability that two random numbers are coprime

This is a really natural question for which I know a stunning solution. So I admit I have a solution, however I would like to see if anybody will come up with something different. The question is ...
8
votes
3answers
518 views

Prove that a primitive root of $p^2$ is also a primitive root of $p^n$ for $n>1$.

For an odd prime, prove that a primitive root of $p^2$ is also a primitive root of $p^n$ for $n>1$. I have proved the other way round that any primitive root of $p^n$ is also a primitive ...
6
votes
2answers
903 views

On the factorial equations $A! B! =C!$ and $A!B!C! = D!$

I was playing around with hypergeometric probabilities when I wound myself calculating the binomial coefficient $\binom{10}{3}$. I used the definition, and calculating in my head, I simplified to this ...
6
votes
5answers
281 views

How to solve $100x +19 =0 \pmod{23}$

How to solve $100x +19 =0 \pmod{23}$, which is $100x=-19 \pmod{23}$ ? In general I want to know how to solve $ax=b \pmod{c}$.
2
votes
2answers
296 views

Order of numbers modulo $p^2$

Let $p$ be an odd prime and let $g$ be a primitive root modulo $p$. Prove that either $\,p+g\,$ or $\,g\,$ has order $\,p^2-p\,\pmod{p^2}$. Remark: We know $\,g^{\frac{p-1}{2}}=-1\,$.
2
votes
0answers
142 views

The homomorphism defined by the system of genus characters

Let $F = ax^2 + bxy + cy^2$ be a binary quadratic form over $\mathbb{Z}$. We say $D = b^2 - 4ac$ is the discriminant of $F$. It is easy to see that $D \equiv 0$ (mod $4$) or $D \equiv 1$ (mod $4$). If ...
1
vote
6answers
584 views

$ p^{\frac1n} $ is irrational if $p $ is prime and $n>1$ [closed]

How can we prove that $ p^{\frac1n} $ is irrational if $p $ is prime and $n>1$?
1
vote
4answers
104 views

Find $ord_m b^2$ if $ord_m a = 10$ and $ab\equiv 1\pmod m$

If $ab \equiv 1 \pmod {m}$ and if $ord_ma=10$, find $ord_mb^2$. Could somebody give me a hint? What I know is that $ab \equiv 1 \pmod {m}$ can be used when finding the multiplicative inverse. Would ...
-2
votes
3answers
825 views

How to show that $\gcd(ab,n)=1$?

Let $\gcd(a,n)=\gcd(b,n)=1$. How to show that $\gcd(ab,n)=1$? This is a problem that is an exercise in my course.
94
votes
9answers
4k views

What does $2^x$ really mean when $x$ is not an integer?

We all know that $2^5$ means $2\times 2\times 2\times 2\times 2 = 32$, but what does $2^\pi$ mean? How is it possible to calculate that without using a calculator? I am really curious about this, so ...
17
votes
10answers
5k views

Do infinity and zero really exist?

I'm not going to prove something, this is just a question. From the first day which I went to University until now I had some root problems in some basic mathematical assumptions and concepts. Please ...
8
votes
1answer
4k views

Last non Zero digit of a Factorial

I ran into a cool trick for last non zero digit of a factorial. This is actually a recurrent relation which states that: If $D(N)$ denotes the last non zero digit of factorial, then ...
6
votes
2answers
909 views

Multiples of an irrational number forming a dense subset

Say you picked your favorite irrational number $q$ and looking at $S = \{nq: n\in \mathbb{Z} \}$ in $\mathbb{R}$, you chopped off everything but the decimal of $nq$, leaving you with a number in ...
25
votes
9answers
5k views

Prove that $\sqrt 2 + \sqrt 3$ is irrational

I have proved in earlier exercises of this book that $\sqrt 2$ and $\sqrt 3$ are irrational. Then, the sum of two irrational numbers is an irrational number. Thus, $\sqrt 2 + \sqrt 3$ is irrational. ...
10
votes
3answers
142 views

Showing that $a^n - 1 | a^m - 1 \iff n | m$

Let $a\ge 2$ be an integer. Show that for positive integers $m,n$, we have $a^n - 1$ divides $a^m - 1$ if and only if $n$ divides $m$. I am having trouble showing this. I've seen a similar ...
9
votes
5answers
918 views

Prove that all even integers $n \neq 2^k$ are expressible as a sum of consecutive positive integers

How do I prove that any even integer $n \neq 2^k$ is expressible as a sum of positive consecutive integers (more than 2 positive consecutive integer)? For example: ...
9
votes
3answers
2k views

How to solve the equation $\phi(n) = k$?

Let $\phi(n) $ is the numbers of number that are relatively prime to n. Then, how could we solve the equation $\phi(n) = k, k > 0?$ For example: $\phi(n) = 8 $ I can use computer program ...