Questions on congruences, linear diophantine equations, greatest common divisor, divisibility, etc.

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5
votes
3answers
48 views

Diophantine equation $(x+y)(x+y+1) - kxy = 0$

The following came up in my solution to this question, but buried in the comments, so maybe it's worth a question of its own. Consider the Diophantine equation $$ (x+y)(x+y+1) - kxy = 0$$ For $k=5$ ...
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Every collection of periodic sets $A_n \subset \Bbb{N}$ (minus a common point), that avoids…

Let $\{A_n\}$ be a set of subsets of $\Bbb{N}$ each of which are periodic except for a common point. That is to say, there exists one and only one $x_0$, such that for each $n$, if $x \in A_n, x \neq ...
-2
votes
1answer
37 views

Solving problem of abstract algebra [on hold]

The question is that if $n$ is not a multiple of 23 then the remainder when $n^{11}$ is divided by 23 is 1 or -1(mod 23). Is it true or false? Please answer me.
2
votes
0answers
63 views

Solving an equation $x^{22}\equiv2 \bmod 23$ [on hold]

I have an abstract algebra problem which I am unable to solve. The problem is, if $x^{22}\equiv2 \bmod 23$, then $x$ has how many solutions? Please explain me.
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Moebius Identity

Is there alternative proof of Moebius identity i.e. sum of moebius function over divisor of n is zero than as suggested n page: ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Dirichlet product is associative

Is there alternative proof of fact: Dirichlet product on arithmetic function is associative than given in Dirichlet's product with number theoretic functions
40
votes
3answers
2k views

If the decimal expansion of $a/b$ contains “$7143$” then $b>1250$

I recently stumbled upon this really interesting problem: Suppose we have a fraction $\frac{a}{b}$ where $a,b \in \mathbb{N}$ and we know that the decimal fraction of $\frac{a}{b}$ has the ...
3
votes
1answer
30 views

Let $a$ and $m$ be positive integers such that gcd$(a,m)=1$. Show that: $a^m+1$ is not a prime.

Let $a$ and $m$ be positive integers such that gcd$(a,m)=1$. Show that: $a^m+1$ is not a prime. Though I didn't check the statement with so many integers, but it looks like the equation never ...
6
votes
3answers
182 views

Conjectured compositeness tests for $N=k \cdot 2^n \pm c$

How to prove that these conjectures are true ? Definition : $\text{Let}~ P_m(x)=2^{-m}\cdot \left(\left(x-\sqrt{x^2-4}\right)^{m}+\left(x+\sqrt{x^2-4}\right)^{m}\right)~ , \text{where}~ m ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

How to prove the sum of squares larger than 1/n without induction? [duplicate]

known that: $1\geq R_1 \geq R_2 \geq \dots \geq R_n \geq 0$ and $\sum_{i=1}^n R_i=1$ To prove: $\sum_{i=1}^n R_i^2 \geq \frac{1}{n}$ Using induction, the problem can be easily proved. I'd like to ...
7
votes
3answers
221 views

Conjectured Primality Test for $N=8\cdot 3^n-1$

Definition Let $P_m(x)=2^{-m}\cdot \left(\left(x-\sqrt{x^2-4}\right)^{m}+\left(x+\sqrt{x^2-4}\right)^{m}\right)$ , where $m$ and $x$ are nonnegative integers . Conjecture Let $N=8\cdot 3^n-1$ ...
0
votes
2answers
26 views

Number 9 and age of mother when child is born.

If a mother's age is divisible by 9 when a child is born then once you go to the next decade,n every 11 years the child's age and mother's age are always the same two numbers in reverse order. For ...
0
votes
1answer
63 views

Proof concerning specific class of Proth numbers

Is this proof acceptable ? Theorem Let $N = k\cdot 2^n+1$ with $n>1$ , $k<2^n$ , $k$ odd and $3 \nmid k $ , thus $N$ is prime iff $3^{\frac{N-1}{2}} \equiv -1 \pmod N$ Proof Necessity ...
0
votes
2answers
52 views

“Proof” that $(2n)!$ is divisible by $2^n 5^{n-3}$ for $n\ge3$

Please explain, as clearly as possible, what is wrong with the following "proof" by induction that $\hspace{1.4 in}$$(2n)!$ is divisible by $2^n 5^{n-3}$ for $n\ge3$. (There clearly must be an ...
-5
votes
2answers
39 views

4th Grade Common Core question [on hold]

In the number $2,119$ if you move from the $1$ in the hundreds place to the $1$ in the tens place, what happens to the value of the $1$?
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Prove that for every $k$ there exist fibonnaci number that ends with $k$ zeros.

Let $F_1 = F_2 = 1$ and $F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ for $n > 2$. Prove that for every $k$ there exist $F_m$ that ends with $k$ zeros. I tried using pigeonhole principle, but with no effect.
1
vote
4answers
288 views

Prove that $\log_9 15$ is irrational

Im having trouble with the following proof... Ill post what I have completed so far.. Prove that $\log_915$ is irrational. Ill attempt by contradiction assuming $\log_915$ is rational. So, ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Lehmer's totient problem generalization (adding a constant )

Lehmer's conjecture is an well-known open problem which states that the divisibility : $$\phi(n) \mid n-1$$ holds only for primes . This motivated me to ask the following : For which ...
11
votes
3answers
919 views

Intermediate digits of 34!

Problem: Given that $34!=295232799cd96041408476186096435ab000000$. Find $a, b, c, d$. $a, b, c, d$ are single digits. I am able to find $a$ and $b$ but cant find $c, d$. I did the prime factorisation ...
4
votes
3answers
101 views

Prove $\log_7 n$ is either an integer or irrational

I have been trying to prove a certain claim and have hit a wall. Here is the claim... Claim: If $n$ is a positive integer then $\log_{7}n$ is an integer or it is irrational Proof ...
3
votes
4answers
2k views

A number when successively divided by $9$, $11$ and $13$ leaves remainders $8$, $9$ and $8$ respectively

A number when successively divided by $9$, $11$ and $13$ leaves remainders $8$, $9$ and $8$ respectively. The answer is $881$, but how? Any clue about how this is solved?
5
votes
3answers
1k views

Is integer division uniquely defined in mathematics?

I am currently studying java programming and am a bit shaken up by the concept of integer division. I guess it is just a matter of getting used to that $1/2=0$, but I am afraid it might take some ...
2
votes
3answers
92 views

If $\gcd(ab,c)=d$ and $c|ab$ then $c=d$

For all positive integers $a$, $b$, $c$ and $d$, if $\gcd(ab, c) = d$ and $c | ab$, then $c = d$. Need help proving this question, I know that $abx + cy = d$ for integers $x,y$ and that $c|ab$ can be ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Is this a good generating function for Sum-of-divisors function?

I have an expression for the sum-of-divisors function defined as $$\sigma(n)=\sum_{d\mid n}d.$$ However I do not know how nontrivial or practical it actually is. Let us define ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

Maximum of $xy^3z^7$ in the plane $x+y+z=1$

A friend gave to me this problem and on having seen that I could not solve it in the first instance helped me with the hint of using the AM-GM inequality. PROBLEM.- To maximize the product $xy^3z^7$ ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Conjectured new primality test for Mersenne numbers

How to prove that this conjecture about a new primality test for Mersenne numbers is true ? Definition: Let $M_{q}=2^{q}-1 , S_{0} = 3^{2} + 1/3^{2} , \ and: \ S_{i+1} = S_{i}^{2}-2 \pmod{M_{q}}$ ...
3
votes
1answer
179 views
+50

Conjectured primality test for specific class of $N=k\cdot 6^n-1$

How to prove that this conjecture is true ? Definition : $\text{Let}~ P_m(x)=2^{-m}\cdot \left(\left(x-\sqrt{x^2-4}\right)^{m}+\left(x+\sqrt{x^2-4}\right)^{m}\right)~ , \text{where}~ m ~\text{and}~ x ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Randomly picking 2 integers to compute a third one with equiprobability

I have a problem, that might be simple but I just don't see it for the moment. Supposing you have a finite set of integers $S_1$, I am looking for a simple function that when randomly picking two ...
6
votes
2answers
65 views

Does every prime of the form $4k+1$ divide a number of the form $4^n+1$?

While playing around with Fermat's little theorem I was asking myself the question in the title and I can't answer it...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

If $a, b \mid c \text { and } \gcd(a, b) = d, \text { then } ab \mid cd $

$a \mid c \to c = ak \text { and } b \mid c \to c = bj.$ $ak + bj = 2c = d \to c \mid d.$ $d \mid a \to a = dj.$ $c = ak = d(jk) \to d \mid c.$ So, $c = d.$ $a \mid c \text { and } b \mid c ...
5
votes
2answers
68 views

In the $x + 1$ problem, does every positive integer $x$ eventually reach $1$?

I know that the more famous $3x + 1$ problem is still unresolved. But it seems to me like the similar $x + 1$ problem, with the function $$f(x) = \begin{cases} x/2 & \text{if } x \equiv 0 ...
4
votes
1answer
21 views

Basic question on equivalence relations.

Show that the following relation is an equivalence relation on the given set. $m \sim n$ in $\mathbb{Z}$ if $m \equiv n\,(\text{mod}\,6)$.
0
votes
0answers
42 views

Is it true that this number is not prime?

Let $p=2^{4n}+1$. It follows that $p\equiv2,3,5 \mod{7}$. If $p$ is prime can we do better? I mean is it true that if $p\equiv 2 \mod{7}$ then $p$ is not prime? This is equivalent to prove that ...
8
votes
1answer
128 views
+50

Determine all one to one functions $f:\mathbb{N}^* \rightarrow \mathbb{N}^*$ having the following property:

Determine all one to one functions $f:\mathbb{N}^* \rightarrow \mathbb{N}^*$ (where $\mathbb{N}^*$ means all positive integers) having the following property: For all $S$, where $S$ is a finite set ...
-4
votes
3answers
50 views

Prove or disprove divisibility claims? [on hold]

a) If $x^2$ is a multiple of $4$, then $x$ is a multiple of $4$ b) If $x^3$ is a multiple of $2$, then $x$ is a multiple of $2$
5
votes
4answers
89 views

Proving $n! = n \Rightarrow (n = 1 \quad or \quad n = 2)$

I want to know whether my proof is correct. Any elegant proofs are welcome. $n\in\mathbb{N}.\quad$Prove $ (n!=n) \Rightarrow (n=1\quad or\quad n=2)$ $ (n!=n) \Rightarrow (n=1\quad or\quad n=2) ...
4
votes
2answers
47 views

Suppose $p, p+2, p+4$ are prime numbers. Prove that $p = 3$ not using division algorithm.

Suppose $p, p+2, p+4$ are prime numbers. Prove that $p = 3$ not using division algorithm. Hint: why can't $p = 5$ or 7? So I have done the two hints and in both cases I get a 9 in my set of numbers, ...
2
votes
0answers
18 views

How to pigeonhole the primes between $p_n$ and $p_{n+1}^2$ for twin prime conjecture?

For any full list of the primes up to the $n$th prime: $P = \{2, 3,5,\dots, p_n\}$, any natural number $q$ such that $ p_n \lt q \lt p_{n+1}^2$ that is not sieved by a prime in $P$ is also a prime. ...
2
votes
3answers
111 views

For each positive integer $a$, does there exist a positive integer $b$ such that $2b^2 + b \gt ab^2$?

The problem is this: Prove or give a counterexample to the following statement. For each positive integer $a$, there exists a positive integer $b$ such that $2b^2 + b \gt ab^2$. I've tried a couple ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Lower bound for $\Pi(n)$ - viability of probabilistic theory

Can somebody check the validity of my arguments below, and tell me why its wrong or right? Consider the sequence of non-negative integers. Let $a_0=0, a_1=1, ..., a_i=i,...$ Divisiblilty of $a_i$ ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views
2
votes
4answers
65 views

Show that there is a number on the form $11 \dots 000 \dots 0$ divisible by 2014

Show that there is a number on the form $11 \dots 000 \dots 0$ (some number of $1$s followed by $0$s) divisible by $2014$. I'm helping someone practise for the math olympiad, and this question has me ...
2
votes
1answer
102 views

Difficult sets of Equations, counting

Let $ m$ be the number of solutions in positive integers to the equation $ 4x+3y+2z=2009$, and let $ n$ be the number of solutions in positive integers to the equation $ 4x+3y+2z=2000$. Find the ...
3
votes
1answer
71 views

Prove that $s(n-1)s(n)s(n+1)$ is always an even number

Let $n$ be a natural number, and let $s(n)$ denote the sum of all positive divisors of $n$. Show that for any $n>1$ the product $s(n-1)s(n)s(n+1)$ is always an even number. I calculated the sum of ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Formula for reversing digits of positive integer $n$

I was able to work out the cases for $n$ having up to $4$ digits and was wondering if someone could verify my generalization to $m$ digits. Here I am assuming that when a reversal results in there ...
-1
votes
1answer
38 views

Find the natural number $n>2$ such that $\frac{n!}{(n-1)!} + \frac{n!}{3!(n-3)!} = 2\frac{n!}{2!(n-2)!}$ [on hold]

I'm unsure how I'm supposed to solve the equation: $$\frac{n!}{(n-1)!} + \frac{n!}{3!(n-3)!} = 2\frac{n!}{2!(n-2)!} $$ given that $n>2.$
1
vote
3answers
82 views

How do you simplify $n!-(n-1)!$ [on hold]

I'm unsure how to simplify the expression $n!-(n-1)!$. Working as well as the final answer would be preferable.
19
votes
2answers
168 views

For all $n$ there exists $x$ such that $\varphi(x)<\varphi(x+1)<\ldots<\varphi(x+n)$

Let $\varphi$ be the Euler's function, i.e. $\varphi(n)$ stands for the number of integers $m \in \{1,\ldots,n\}$ such that $\text{gcd}(m,n)=1$. Let $n\ge 2$ be a positive integer. Show that there ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Find a criterion for divisibility

Find a criterion such that $\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^ni$ divides $\displaystyle\prod_{i=1}^ni^2$ for $n\in\mathbb N$. What I have done so far, $\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^ni=\frac{n(n+1)}{2}$ and ...
0
votes
2answers
45 views

Weird question about natural numbers. Obvious or not?

Given any subset $A,C \subset \Bbb{N}$, there exists a maximal subset $B \subset \Bbb{N}$ such that for all $b \in B, a \in A, \ |b - a| \in C$. For instance $A = \{3,5\}$, $C = \{2,4\}$, then ...