Questions on congruences, linear diophantine equations, greatest common divisor, divisibility, etc.

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15
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4answers
299 views

Find $x,y,z \in \mathbb Q$ such that $x + \frac 1y, y + \frac 1z, z+ \frac 1x \in \mathbb Z$

Find $x,y,z \in \mathbb Q$ such that: $$x + \frac 1y, y + \frac 1z, z+ \frac 1x \in \mathbb Z$$ Here is my thinking: $$x + \frac 1y, y + \frac 1z, z+ \frac 1x \in \mathbb Z\\ \implies \left ( x ...
15
votes
2answers
574 views

Formula for number of solutions to $x^4+y^4=1$, from Ireland and Rosen #8.18.

There is a sequence of three exercise in Ireland and Rosen's Introduction to Modern Number Theory, Chapter 8, page 106. I can do the first two, but can't finish the third. I can include the proofs to ...
15
votes
3answers
628 views

Finding when $(a-n)(b-n)|(ab-n)$

Given $n$ and $k$, find the number of pairs of integers $(a, b)$ which satisfy the conditions $n < a < k, n < b < k$ and $(ab-n)$ is divisible by $(a-n)(b-n)$. Given: $0 ≤ n ≤ 100000, \ n ...
15
votes
2answers
335 views

Question from Putnam '89: Primes of the form $101\ldots01$

I'm not a math major, but would like to compete in the Putnam. As suggested in other questions here, I'm working some old contest problems. I'd like some input on this attempted proof--general input ...
15
votes
1answer
154 views

How to sum this infinite series

How to sum this series: $$\frac{1}{1}+\frac{1}{11}+\frac{1}{111}+\frac{1}{1111}+\cdots$$ My attempt: Multiply and divide the series by $9$ ...
15
votes
1answer
309 views

When is $(x^n-1)/(x-1)$ a prime number?

Let $x > 1$ and let $n$ be a prime. I'm wondering if a characterization of this is known. That is, what are sufficient and necessary conditions for $$ \dfrac{x^n-1}{x-1} = 1 + x + x^2 + \cdots + ...
15
votes
1answer
545 views

Prove that the product of some numbers between perfect squares is $2k^2$

Here's a question I've recently come up with: Prove that for every natural $x$, we can find arbitrary number of integers in the interval $[x^2,(x+1)^2]$ so that their product is in the form of ...
14
votes
13answers
3k views

Can the factorial function be written as a sum?

I know of the sum of the natural logarithms of the factors of n! , but would like to know if any others exist.
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Show that these two numbers have the same number of digits

I want to show that for $n>0$, $2^n$ and $2^n + 1$ have the same number of digits. What I did was I found that the formula for the number of digits of a number $x$ is $\left ...
14
votes
3answers
3k views

Largest prime number with all digits different

What is the largest prime with distinct digits? (It is certainly less than ten digits long.Can you explain it why?
14
votes
4answers
1k views

Linear diophantine equation $100x - 23y = -19$

I need help with this equation: $$100x - 23y = -19.$$ When I plug this into Wolfram|Alpha, one of the integer solutions is $x = 23n + 12$ where $n$ is a subset of all the integers, but I can't seem ...
14
votes
7answers
698 views

$n^5-n$ is divisible by $10$?

I was trying to prove this, and I realized that this is essentially a statement that $n^5$ has the same last digit as $n$, and to prove this it is sufficient to calculate $n^5$ for $0-9$ and see that ...
14
votes
2answers
891 views

how to prove $437\,$ divides $18!+1$? (NBHM 2012)

I was solving some problems and I came across this problem. I didn't understand how to approach this problem. Can we solve this with out actually calculating $18!\,\,?$
14
votes
3answers
1k views

Any two positive integers are co-prime if their sum is a prime number [duplicate]

Any two positive integers are co-prime if their sum is a prime number Is this a trivial thing to say? I have a proof, but I don't want to bore anyone if it's just a trivial matter-of-fact thing about ...
14
votes
5answers
437 views

Alternate proof that for every natural number $n,\ \left\lfloor\left(\frac{7+\sqrt{37}}{2}\right)^n\right\rfloor$ is divisible by $3$

Original Problem: Prove that for every natural number $n$,$$\left\lfloor\left(\frac{7+\sqrt{37}}{2}\right)^n\right\rfloor$$ is divisible by $3$. I found the problem in the book Winning ...
14
votes
3answers
274 views

Showing that $1^k+2^k + \dots + n^k$ is divisible by $n(n+1)\over 2$

For any odd positive integer $k\geq1$, the sum $1^k+2^k + \dots + n^k$ is divisible by $n(n+1)\over 2$. I used induction principle for the solution but cannot prove it. I took $P(k) = ...
14
votes
2answers
840 views

Puzzle: $(\Box @)+(\Box @) = (\Box\bigstar\Box$)

Some ETs follow a positional number system, with the same base as the number of fingers on their hand. The following inscription is all the evidence we have: $$(\Box @)+(\Box @) = \Box\bigstar\Box ...
14
votes
4answers
514 views

Why do repunit primes have only a prime number of consecutive $1$s?

Repunit primes are primes of the form $\frac{10^n - 1}{9} = 1111\dots11 \space (n-1 \space ones)$. Each repunit prime is denoted by $R_i$, where $i$ is the number of consecutive $1$s it has. So far, ...
14
votes
2answers
806 views

Evidence against Goldbach's Conjecture?

It recently occurred to me that, unless I'm much mistaken, Goldbach's conjecture can easily be seen to be equivalent to a seemingly more general statement: Every number $n$ divisible by any ...
14
votes
2answers
375 views

$x^3+y^4=7$ has no integer solutions

I am trying to prove that $x^3+y^4=7$ has no integer solutions, but i have no idea how to start, please helps. I have tried to consider mod 7 to restrict the number of possible $x^3$ because $x^3 ...
14
votes
1answer
870 views

Is there a prime number between every prime and its square?

For each prime number $p$, is there always an other prime number between $p$ and $p^2$ ? I tested it for prime numbers $< 500,000,000$, but I wanted to know if there is any mathematical proof of ...
14
votes
1answer
428 views

German sofa primes: Can both $q$ and $\frac{q^3+1}{2}$ be prime?

Is there an odd prime integer $\displaystyle q$ such that $\displaystyle p= \frac{q^3+1}{2}$ is also prime? A quick search did not find any, nor a pattern in the prime factorization of p. This ...
14
votes
2answers
244 views

Prove that $\left (\frac{a^2 + b^2 +c^2}{a+b+c} \right) ^ {(a+b+c)} > a^a b^b c^c$

Prove that $\left (\dfrac{a^2 + b^2 +c^2}{a+b+c} \right) ^ {(a+b+c)} > a^a b^b c^c$ if $a$, $b$ and $c$ are distinct natural numbers. Is it possible using induction?
14
votes
2answers
3k views

Why is there no explicit formula for the factorial?

I am somewhat new to summations and products, but I know that the sum of the first positive n integers is given by: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k = \frac{n(n+1)}{2} = \frac{n^2+n}{2}$$ However, I know that no ...
14
votes
1answer
239 views

Prime pair points slope approaches 1

Take the list of primes, $$2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61, 67, 71, \ldots$$ and create ordered $(x,y)$ pairs by grouping in sequence, $$(2, 3), (5, 7), (11, 13), ...
14
votes
3answers
398 views

Is computing distance a lesser capability than computing square roots?

Let $F$ be a field. Consider the following three abilities: (SQRT) Given $a\in F$, find $x\in F$ such that $a = x^2$ (when such $x$ exists). (NORM) Given $a,b\in F$, find $x\in F$ such that ...
14
votes
1answer
1k views

Would proof of Legendre's conjecture also prove Riemann's hypothesis?

Legendre's conjecture is that there exists a prime number between $n^2$ and $(n+1)^2$. This has been shown to be very likely using computers, but this is merely a heuristic. I have read that if this ...
14
votes
2answers
1k views

Asking 2011 Putnam B6

I wish to ask today's Putnam problem B6: Suppose $p$ is an odd prime. Prove that for $n\in \{0,1,2...p-1\}$, at least $\frac{p+1}{2}$ number of $\sum^{p-1}_{k=0} k! n^{k}$ is not divisble by $p$. ...
14
votes
2answers
341 views

A question about integers.

Let $a,b,c$ be positive integer,and $\cfrac{a}{b}+\cfrac{b}{c}+\cfrac{c}{a}$ and $\cfrac{b}{a}+\cfrac{c}{b}+\cfrac{a}{c}$ are integers, how to show $a=b=c$?
13
votes
4answers
720 views

Prove that e is irrational

Prove that e is an irrational number. Recall that e $=\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{1}{n!},\,\,$ and assume $\mathrm{e}$ is rational. Then $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^\infty \frac{1}{k!} = ...
13
votes
8answers
878 views

Approximation of $e$ using $\pi$ and $\phi$?

$$e \approx \frac{4 \phi +3 \pi-5}{4}$$ where $~\phi~$ is a Golden ratio . Is it possible to construct better approximation of $e$ using $\pi$ , $\phi$ and integers ?
13
votes
3answers
939 views

Numbers are too large to show $65^{64}+64^{65}$ is not a prime

I tried to find cycles of powers, but they are too big. Also $65^{n} \equiv 1(\text{mod}64)$, so I dont know how to use that.
13
votes
6answers
662 views

Show that $\frac{(3^{77}-1)}{2}$ is odd and composite

The question given to me is: Show that $\large\frac{(3^{77}-1)}{2}$ is odd and composite. We can show that $\forall n\in\mathbb{N}$: $$3^{n}\equiv\left\{ \begin{array}{l l} 1 & \quad ...
13
votes
9answers
3k views

How to prove $n^5 - n$ is divisible by 30 without reduction

How can I prove that prove $n^5 - n$ is divisible by 30? I took $n^5 - n$ and got $n(n-1)(n+1)(n^2+1)$ Now, $n(n-1)(n+1)$ is divisible by 6. Next I need to show that $n(n-1)(n+1)(n^2+1)$ is ...
13
votes
5answers
1k views

Prove $a+b+c+d $ is composite

Let $a,b,c,d$ be natural numbers with $ab=cd$. Prove that $a+b+c+d$ is composite. I have my own solution for this (As posted) and i want to see if there is any other good proofs.
13
votes
3answers
540 views

How can I calculate $\sin\left(10^{10^{100}} - 10\right)^\circ$?

How can I calculate the sine of a googolplex minus 10 degrees?
13
votes
8answers
1k views

Does the formula $\sqrt{ 1 + 24n }$ always yield prime?

I did some experiments, using C++, investigating the values of $\sqrt{1+24n}$. ...
13
votes
5answers
3k views

If $n$ is composite, then $n$ divides $(n-1)!$.

I have a proof and need some feedback. It seems really obvious that the statement is true but it is always the obvious ones that are a little trickier to prove. So I would appreciate any feedback. ...
13
votes
6answers
1k views

Is there any book/resource which explain the general idea of the proof of Fermat's last theorem?

I look for a book/resource which display the general idea of the proof of Fermat last theorem in a simple manner for the public. I mean, books which is not for mathematicians but for the general ...
13
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4answers
1k views

Can n! be a perfect square when n is an integer greater than 1?

Can n! be a perfect square when n is an integer greater than 1?
13
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3answers
2k views

Infinity Hotel problem

Q. Welcome to the infinity hotel has an infinite number of rooms $1,2,3,4,...$ The manager notices all of the rooms have the lights on. He flips the switch every other one. (Rooms $2, 4, 6, …$) Then ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

How do I compute $a^b\,\bmod c$ by hand?

How do I efficiently compute $a^b\,\bmod c$: When $b$ is huge, for instance $5^{844325}\,\bmod 21$? When $b$ is less than $c$ but it would still be a lot of work to multiply $a$ by itself $b$ times, ...
13
votes
2answers
269 views

Can my MSE reputation be any positive integer?

As far as I know there are five kinds of vote $+2$ for an edit $-2$ for a downvote $+10$ for an answer $+15$ for an accepted answer $+5$ for a question Suppose that this is true. Can a MSE ...
13
votes
4answers
707 views

“If $1/a + 1/b = 1 /c$ where $a, b, c$ are positive integers with no common factor, $(a + b)$ is the square of an integer”

If $1/a + 1/b = 1 /c$ where $a, b, c$ are positive integers with no common factor, $(a + b)$ is the square of an integer. I found this question in RMO 1992 paper ! Can anyone help me to prove ...
13
votes
2answers
189 views

When is $2^n -7$ a perfect square?

This came up while solving another ENT problem. I want to ask when is: $$2^n -7 \text{ where } n\geq 3$$ a perfect square? Specifically, I also wanted to know what would be the solutions when $n$ is ...
13
votes
2answers
431 views

For $n \geq 2$, show that $n \nmid 2^{n}-1$

Here is a problem which i have not been able to do for quite sometime. For $n \geq 2$, show that $n \nmid 2^{n}-1$. I have thought of proving this in two ways: One by using induction which didn't ...
13
votes
5answers
2k views

product of six consecutive integers being a perfect square

A 1939 paper of Erdos (Note on Products of Consecutive Integers, J. London Math. Soc. 14 (1939), 194–198) shows that a product of consecutive positive integers cannot be a perfect square. He ...
13
votes
2answers
158 views

Identity of a Mathematician Mentioned in Euler

I and several others are in the process of translating one of Euler's papers from Latin to English, in particular the one that the Euler Archive lists as E36. In it Euler proves the Chinese Remainder ...
13
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2answers
2k views

Multiples of an irrational number forming a dense subset

Say you picked your favorite irrational number $q$ and looking at $S = \{nq: n\in \mathbb{Z} \}$ in $\mathbb{R}$, you chopped off everything but the decimal of $nq$, leaving you with a number in ...
13
votes
1answer
2k views

Prime with digits reversed is prime?

Well, just another idea came up into my mind and i have no idea how to solve it :D Is there infinitely many prime numbers, which are not repunits and their inverse is also prime? (For example, inverse ...