1
vote
1answer
27 views

Existence of ergodic joining

Let $\underline{X}=(X,\mathcal{B},\mu,T)$ and $\underline{Y}=(Y,\mathcal{B},\mu,S)$ be ergodic measure preserving systems on Borel probability spaces. A joining of $\underline{X}$ and $\underline{Y}$ ...
3
votes
1answer
28 views

Definition of strong mixing and definition of measure-preserving

I have a few questions regarding measure-preserving dynamical systems $(X,\mathcal{A},\mu,T)$. 1) The definition of measure preserving is always stated as $$\mu(T^{-1}B)=\mu(B),$$ for all $B$. I ...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

Measure of intermediate local/pointwise dimension is not ergodic for $T_\beta(x)=\beta \cdot x \mod 1$ if $\beta \not \in \mathbb{N}$

Let $\mu$ be an ergodic measure for the map $T_a(x)=a \cdot x \mod 1$ for $a \in \mathbb{N}$ with $a \geq 2$ and invariant for $T_{a^{\frac{1}{n}}}$ for some $n \in \mathbb{N}$ (and thus also ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

Question on Gauss map - application of Birkhoff's ergodic theorem

Take a Gauss map $G: [0,1] \longrightarrow [0,1]$ which is $$G(x) = \frac{1}{x} \mod 1, 0<x<1$$ and $0$ if $x=0$. Let $\mu$ be the Gauss measure. For $x \in [0,1]$ let $[a_{1}(x), ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Topological entropy, spanning sets and expansiveness of simple maps on a torus

I am trying to solve the following problem. Take the torus $\mathbb{T}^{2}$ and define the map $T(x,y)=(x + \alpha$ mod 1, $x+y$ mod $1)$, where $(x,y) \in [0,1]^{2}$. By induction, we have ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

What connections between machine learning and dynamical systems?

I have a background of ("pure") dynamical systems and ergodic theory, but I am switching to machine learning. Can some machine learning questions be treated from a dynamical systems/ergodic theory ...
1
vote
0answers
25 views

Application of Poincare recurrence to Baker's map?

Please see figures at http://www.mpipks-dresden.mpg.de/mpi-doc/kantzgruppe/wiki/projects/Recurrence.html. I heard that one of the applications of the Poincare recurrence theorem (which I do not ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

A question on Bernoulli measures and mixing

this is a question on ergodic theory. Suppose I have an integer $N \geq2$ and a probability space $(\sum^{+} , B, \mu_{p})$, where $\mu_{p}$ is the Bernouilli measure with respect to probability ...
4
votes
1answer
52 views

A question on ergodic theory: topological mixing and invariant measures

This is a question on dynamical systems. Suppose I have a compact metric space $X$, with $([0,1], B, \mu)$ a probability space, with $B$ a (Borel) sigma algebra, and $\mu$ the probability measure. ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Ergodic Theory, Bernoulli Measure, Cylinder Set

Let $N\geq2$ be an integer and consider the probability space ($\Sigma^+$,B, $\mu_p$) where $\mu_p$ is the Bernoulli measure with respect to probability vector $\ p = (p_1,...,p_N)$ . Show that for ...
3
votes
0answers
37 views

Ergodicity and Appropiate Partition of the Space

I'm trying to solve the following problem. Let $(X, \mathcal{B}, \mu)$ be a probability space and let $T \colon X \to X$ be a measure preserving function. Prove that if $T^n \colon X \to X$ is ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Physical interpretation of Ergodicity.

If $R_{\alpha}:[0,1] \to [0,1]$ is defined by $$R_{\alpha}(x)=x+\alpha $$ then $R_{\alpha} $is called a circle rotation, and it is known that $R_{\alpha}$ is ergodic iff $\alpha$ is irrational. I ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Question about Kronecker factor

In his paper Ergodic methods in additive combinatorics, Bryna Kra said that the Kronecker factor $(Z_1, \mathcal{Z}_1, m, T)$ of $(X, \mathcal{X},\mu,T)$ is the sub-$\sigma$-algebra of $X$ spanned by ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Does any measure preserving system have an invertible extension?

Let $\mathsf{X} = \left\{ X,\mathcal{B},\mu,T \right\}$ be any measure preserving system. A sub-$\sigma$-algebra $\mathcal{A}\subseteq \mathcal{B}_X$ with $T^{-1}\mathcal{A}=\mathcal{A}$ modulo $\mu$ ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

How do you get a measure space out of a dynamical system?

I'm reading a book on ergodic theory (by Cesar Silva), and also have read Stein and Shakarchi's third book on undergraduate analysis, where there is a section devoted to some ergodic theory. Both ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Ergodic Rotation of the Torus

Consider the measure preserving dynamical system $(\mathbb{R}^2 / \mathbb{Z}^2, \mathcal{B} \otimes \mathcal{B}, \lambda \otimes \lambda, R_{(\alpha, \beta)})$. This is the torus with the borel ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

What is “abstract” ergodic theory?

This is just a question about the usage of the term "abstract". What kind of questions in ergodic theory is considered "abstract" and what's a "regular" question? From some seminars it seems that ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

What is the density of the SRB measure conditioned to unstable manifolds?

I have a question regarding the SRB measure. As Lai-Sang Young puts it, the SRB-measure is the invariant ergodic invariant measure most compatible with volume. (see [ ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Circle rotation (dynamic system)

Here's a passage of my script I do not understand. Define $\Omega:=\left\{z\in\mathbb{C}: \lvert z\rvert =1\right\}$ and consider $a\in [0,1)$. Then $$ T_a:=\Omega\to\Omega, z\mapsto ...
3
votes
0answers
24 views

Unique ergodicity a spectral invariant?

Suppose $f:X\to X$ and $g:Y\to Y$ are two automorphism of measure spaces. Suppose there is an unitary operator $V:L^2(X)\to L^2(Y)$ satisfying $VU_fV^*=U_g$, here $U_f$ and $U_g$ are the Koopman ...
5
votes
1answer
79 views

Is there a characterization of the shift-invariant ergodic measures?

Consider probability measures $\mu$ on the space $\{0,1\}^\mathbb{N}$ that are shift-invariant with respect to the left-shift map. Is there a nice characterization of the ergodic shift-invariant ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Koopman is not surjective

I want to prove that the Koopman operator $U_f : L^2 (\mu) \rightarrow L^2 (\mu)$ such that $U_f(\phi) =\phi \circ f$ is not surjective. Where $ \mu $ is a measure preserving mapping $f$. I was ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

How can I prove this equivalence concerning ergodicity?

I write you, because I have a problem to show two equivalences. But before writing them down, I give you all the definitions we had as background: (I) The Quadruple $(\Omega,\mathcal{A},\mu,T)$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

almost periodic visits of a compact set of a circle group rotation

Let $\mathbb{T}$ be the circle group and $R:\mathbb{T\rightarrow T}$ an irrational rotation (hence a minimal system). Suppose there exists a compact set $K\subset\mathbb{T}$ such that for every ...
4
votes
0answers
54 views

Shift and ergodic measures

Let $X = \{0,1\}^{\mathbb{N}}$ endowed with the product topology and $\sigma : \left\{ \begin{array}{ccc} X & \to & X \\ (\epsilon_n) & \mapsto & (\epsilon_{n+1}) \end{array} \right.$. ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

If $g$ is invariant under an ergodic map then it's almost everywhere constant

Let $(X,B(X),\mu)$ be a probability space, where $X$ is compact metrizable, and $B(X)$ are the Borel sets. Let $f:X\to X$ be a measurable function such that: i) $\forall A\in B(X)$ ...
4
votes
1answer
59 views

what is so great about having an invariant measure?

I am a student who just started to learn basic concepts of ergodic theory. It seems like that given a dynamical system, people are very excited to find various invariant measures of the system. But ...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

Unique Ergodic Measure

From <http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ErgodicMeasure.html> "If there is only one ergodic measure, then $T$ is called uniquely ergodic. An example of a uniquely ergodic transformation is the map ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

compactness of the set of invariant measures

Suppose that we have a dynamical system on some compact space $X$ with discrete time space and transformation given by some $\phi : X \rightarrow X$. My question is when is the set $Prob(\phi)$ of all ...
8
votes
1answer
117 views

An ergodic theorem on the circle

Let $S^1$ be a circle (i.e. a closed $1$-dim. manifold) and let $F$ be a non-vanishing smooth vector field on $S^1$. Denote by $(t,x) \mapsto \Phi_t^x$ the flow generated by $F$. I want to show ...
0
votes
1answer
158 views

How does chaos arise in Hamiltonian systems?

I have a question about how chaos arises in Hamiltonian systems. I've been taking a upper year undergrad class on dynamics and it has focused on chaos a lot. So far however we have only seen the more ...
4
votes
1answer
241 views

The Denjoy Theorem

I'm currently studying Denjoy's theorem, which says the following: Theorem If $f$ is a diffeomorphism of $S^1$ with a irrational number rotation $ \rho$ and the variation of $f^{'}$ (denoted by ...
4
votes
1answer
241 views

Liouville's theorem: How to get an invariant measure?

Liouville's theorem states that the `natural' 2-from is preserved under the Hamiltonian flow. Apparently this leads to an invariant measure $\mu$ as follows \begin{equation} d\mu = \frac{d\sigma}{|| ...
10
votes
1answer
216 views

Non-ergodic measure

Is there an easy way to see that if $\mu$ and $\nu$ are $T$-invariant measures on the same space $X$, and $\mu \neq \nu$, then $\frac{1}{2}(\mu+\nu)$ is NOT ergodic? I know that ergodic measures are ...
2
votes
1answer
73 views

Eigenfunction of $T^n$ vs. eigenfunction of $T$ when $T$ is ergodic

Let $(X, \mathcal{B}, \mu, T)$ be an ergodic system, and suppose $f \in L^2(X, \mathcal{B}, \mu)$ is an eigenfunction of $T^n$ for some integer $n > 1$. Is it possible to write $f$ as a linear ...
3
votes
2answers
142 views

Ergodic theory question about the support of a measure.

I am trying to work through some problems from " Ergodic theory with view towards number theory" but I am finding it a tad more difficult than expected. In particular, I have the following question: ...
6
votes
2answers
136 views

Recurrent point of continuous transformation in a compact metric space

Given a metric space $(X,d)$ and a transformation $T:X\rightarrow X$, a point $x\in X$ is said to be recurrent iff it belongs to the closure of its orbit $\{T(x), T^2(x),...\}$: more precisely, ...
3
votes
0answers
87 views

Are geodesic flows on surfaces with negative curvature Anosov?

I'm just going through the original book by Anosov, where he tries to proof this result. I don't quite understand it. So let $\phi_t:TM\rightarrow TM$ be a geodesic flow on a compact surface $M$ of ...
0
votes
1answer
166 views

Unfolding a Billiard Trajectory

The following image is from page 1019 of http://www-fourier.ujf-grenoble.fr/~lanneau/references/masur_tabachnikov_chap13.pdf From what I understand about unfolding billiards we are representing the ...
2
votes
0answers
128 views

Bernoulli shift on $S^\mathbb{Z}$

Why is the Bernoulli shift ergodic? I know the proof for $S^\mathbb{N}$. The best would be if you could argue from this fact to the integer case, so that way I can see how one usually goes from ...
1
vote
1answer
206 views

Ergodic Theory (Weak Mixing)

If $T$ is weak mixing then we know that $T\times T \times \ldots \times T$ is also weak mixing. Does anyone know if this is true for $T\times T \times \ldots$?
8
votes
5answers
263 views

High-School Level Introduction to Dynamical Systems

In one month I'll be giving a talk to motivated high schools students on a topic of my choice from dynamical systems and/or ergodic theory. I'm having trouble coming up with a topic compelling enough ...
5
votes
1answer
43 views

Historical behavior of the Birkhoff averages

Birkoff Ergodic Theorem: Let be $(X,\mathcal{A},\mu)$ a probability space, $T:X\to X$ a measurable tranformation preserving $\mu$ and $f\in L^{1}(\mu)$, then there exists a $\Sigma \subset X$ and ...
2
votes
1answer
179 views

Measurable Partition and Ergodic Decomposition

I need some background before asking the question: Let $\mathcal{P}$ is called a measurable partition if there is a measurable set $M_0\subset M$ with full probability measure such that, restric to ...
0
votes
1answer
32 views

Finding a minimal non-empty closed $G$-invariant set of a compact metric space

Let $G$ the abelian group generated by commuting homeomorphisms $f_1,\dots,f_q:M\rightarrow M$, where $M$ is a compact metric space. Show that there is $X\subset M$ minimal with respect to the ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

pointwise ergodic theorem and mean sojourn time

Let $G$ be a group and let $F_i$ be a sequence of finite subsets of $G$. Suppose $G$ acts on a probability measure space $(X,\mu)$ in a measure preserving way, and suppose that this action is ergodic. ...
5
votes
1answer
75 views

How to check the strong ergodicity of the $SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$-action on the torus?

Suppose $\Gamma\subset SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$ is a non-amenable subgroup, especially, $\Gamma=SL_2(\mathbb{Z})$. Consider the natural action of $\Gamma$ on $S^1\times S^1=T^2$. How to check that this ...
1
vote
2answers
218 views

Von Neumann's ergodic theorem

Where can I find the proof of Von Neumann's ergodic theorem? Please, give me references or write names of books where I can find it.
2
votes
2answers
93 views

Can the time mean over a dense orbit equal the space mean for arbitrary functions?

Let $\varphi : M \to M$ be a measure-preserving map of a measure space $M$ with measure $\mu$, and let $f \in L^1(\mu)$ be arbitrary. If $p$ is the starting point of an orbit that is dense in $M$, ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Lyapunov Exponent

Suppose $(X,A,\mu)$ a probability space, where $X$ is a compact Riemann manifold, $T:X\to X$ a diffeomorphism and $T$ is a measure-preserving transformation( over the borel $\sigma$ algebra). Prove ...