Use this tag for questions about distributions (or generalized functions). For questions about "probability distributions", use (probability-distributions). For questions about distributions as sub-bundles of a vector bundle, use (differential-geometry).

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12
votes
3answers
1k views

Dirac Delta or Dirac delta function?

Is Dirac delta a function? What is its contribution to analysis? What I know about it: It is infinite at 0 and 0 everywhere else. Its integration is 1 and I know how does it come.
17
votes
2answers
2k views

Sobolev space is an algebra

How do you prove that the Sobolev space $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is an algebra if $s>\frac{n}{2}$, i.e. if $u,v$ are in $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$, then so is $uv$? Actually I think we should also have $||uv||...
7
votes
2answers
191 views

Dirac's delta in 3 dimensions: proof of $\nabla^2(\|\boldsymbol{x}-\boldsymbol{x}_0\|^{-1})=-4\pi\delta(\boldsymbol{x}-\boldsymbol{x}_0)$

If $T_f$ is a distribution, i.e. a linear functional, continuous according to the convergence defined here, defined on the space $K$ of the functions of class $C^\infty$ that are null outside a ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Tensor products of functions generate dense subspace?

Let $X$ and $Y$ be two spaces in certain category, $F(\cdot)$ a functor associating each space with a function space (with certain topology). Assume that for any $f\in F(X)$ and $g\in F(Y)$, $f\otimes ...
9
votes
4answers
10k views

what is product of delta function with itself?

what is the product of delta function with itself ? what is the dot product with itself ?
9
votes
6answers
2k views

Distribution theory book

I'm looking for a good book on distribution theory (in the Schwartz sense), I have the basic knowledge as given in Grafakos' Classical Fourier Analysis, but I want to know more about it. Is the ...
3
votes
3answers
421 views

distribution with point support

Let $u$ be a distribution on $\mathbb{R}^n$ with support = $\left\{0\right\}$. Then there exists $N$ such that $u$ has order $N$. Let $\chi\in C_0^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ a smooth function with $\chi(...
8
votes
3answers
3k views

Property of Dirac delta function in $\mathbb{R}^n$

How does one prove the following identity? $$\int _Vf(\pmb{r})\delta (g(\pmb{r}))d\pmb{r}=\int _S\frac{f(\pmb{r})}{|\text{grad} g(\pmb{r})|}d\sigma$$ where $S$ is the surface inside $V$ where $g(\...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

The constant distribution

If $u$ is a distribution in open set $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^n$ such that ${\partial ^i}u = 0$ for all $i=1,2,\ldots,n$. Then is it necessarily that $u$ is a constant function?
12
votes
5answers
3k views

Is the Dirac Delta “Function” really a function?

I am given to understand that the Dirac delta function is strictly not a function in the conventional sense and it is a "functional or a distribution". The part which I can not understand why the ...
8
votes
4answers
3k views

How to prove that the derivative of Heaviside's unit step function is the Dirac delta?

Here is a problem from Griffith's book Introduction to E&M. Let $\theta(x)$ be the step function $$\theta = \begin{cases} 0, & x \le 0, \\ 1, & x \gt 0. \end{cases} $$ The ...
10
votes
4answers
342 views

Iterated Limits Schizophrenia

Consider the functions $g_n(x)$, with $n\in\mathbb{N}$, $n \ge 1$ and $x\in\mathbb{R}$, defined as follows: $$ g_n(x) = \begin{cases} 2n^2x & \text{if }0 \le x < 1/(2n) \\ ...
1
vote
1answer
518 views

Delta Dirac Function

Show that $\delta$, function of Dirac, defined than $\left<{\delta_0,\phi}\right> = \phi(0)$ belongs to $W^{-1,p}(]-1,1[)$ and $\delta_0 \notin L^p(-1,1)$ $\forall p\geq 1$. How I will be able ...
0
votes
2answers
301 views

Discontinuity of Dirac Delta distribution

I know that the following holds for Step function, but not sure if it holds for the distribution too. Does the following hold for the Dirac delta distribution too? $\delta$ is a linear functional ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

On distributions over $\mathbb R$ whose derivatives vanishes

Let $I \subset \mathbb R$ be open, $u \in \mathcal D'(I)$ be a distribution whose distributional derivatives vanishes (i.e. is zero for all test functions, which we may assume to be complex valued ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Laplacians and Dirac delta functions

It is often quoted in physics textbooks for finding the electric potential using Green's function that $$\nabla ^2 \left(\frac{1}{r}\right)=-4\pi\delta^3({\bf r}),$$ or more generally $$\nabla ^...
5
votes
1answer
536 views

Topologies of test functions and distributions

I'm wondering about some of the topological properties of $\mathcal D(\Omega)$ and $\mathcal D'(\Omega)$: I know $\mathcal D(\Omega)$ is not metrizable, so not first countable (right?). However, my ...
9
votes
1answer
233 views

Growth of Tychonov's Counterexample for Heat Equation Uniqueness

Define a function $\varphi$ on $\mathbb{R}_{+}$ by $$\varphi(t):=\begin{cases}e^{-1/t^{2}}, & {t>0}\\ 0, & {t\leq 0}\end{cases}\tag{1}$$ It is well-known that $\varphi$ is $C^{\infty}(\...
8
votes
4answers
1k views

Dirac delta of nonlinear multivariable arguments

How does one compute a dirac delta function with a multivariable argument? For example, compute: $$ \int^{\infty}_{-\infty}{\rm d}x\,{\rm d}y\, \delta\left(x^{2} + y^{2} - 4\right) \delta\left(\left[...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

Dirac delta in polar coordinates

Given $$x=r\,\cos\theta\\y=r\,\sin\theta$$ and $$x'=r'\,\cos\theta'\\y'=r'\,\sin\theta'$$ how can I express $$\delta(x'-x)\delta(y'-y)$$ in terms of the polar coordinates? And the more general ...
4
votes
1answer
3k views

Clear explanation of heaviside function fourier transform

I know that fourier transform of Heaviside function is : $\hat{H}(x) = \pi \delta(\omega) + i (v.p. \frac{1}{\omega})$ How can i proof this result?
10
votes
2answers
798 views

Distributions on manifolds

Wikipedia entry on distributions contains a seemingly innocent sentence With minor modifications, one can also define complex-valued distributions, and one can replace $\mathbb{R}^n$ by any (...
10
votes
0answers
289 views

Two possible definitions of “vector-valued distribution”

Let $X$ be a reflexive Banach space. Define $$\tag{1} \mathcal{D}^\star(0, T; X)=\left\{ u\colon \mathcal{D}(0, T)\to X\ \text{linear and continuous}\right\} $$ where the topology on the space of ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Which functions are tempered distributions?

Today's problem originates in this conversation with Willie Wong about the Fourier transform of a Gaussian function $$g_{\sigma}(x)=e^{-\sigma \lvert x \rvert^2},\quad x \in \mathbb{R}^n;$$ where $\...
3
votes
2answers
660 views

Distribution of infinite order

This is an exercise from Functional Analysis By Walter Rudin on page 178 from chapter Test functions and Distribution. I am having trouble arguing for 2nd part. Question: For $\Omega=(0, \infty)$ $...
3
votes
1answer
283 views

Gauss–Ostrogradsky formula for Distributions

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N$ be a bounded domain and $u\in W^{1,p}(\Omega)$, $v\in L^{p'}(\Omega)^N$ with $p\in (1,\infty)$. Let $\operatorname{div}(v)$ be the divergence of $v$ in the sense of ...
6
votes
3answers
760 views

Derivatives distribution

Let $f$ be a distribution on $\mathbf{R}^n$ (in the Schwartz sense) such that $$\frac{\partial f}{\partial x_i} = 0 \text{ for $i = 1, \ldots, n$.}$$ Then how to prove that $f$ is a constant? I had ...
5
votes
4answers
5k views

On the derivative of a Heaviside step function being proportional to the Dirac delta function

I am learning Quantum Mechanics, and came across this fact that the derivative of a Heaviside unit step function is Dirac delta function. I understand this intuitively, since the Heaviside unit step ...
5
votes
1answer
164 views

Sobolev spaces in one-dimensional vs multidimensional

Here in Wikipedia, it is said that in the one-dimensional case, it is enough to assume that the $(k-1)$-th derivative of the function $f$, is differentiable almost everywhere and is equal almost ...
4
votes
2answers
743 views

Convergence of test-functions is not induced by any metric.

By $\mathcal{D}(\mathbb{R})$ we denote linear space of smooth compactly supported functions. We say that $\{\varphi_n:n\in\mathbb{N}\}\subset\mathcal{D}(\mathbb{R})$ converges to $\varphi\in\mathcal{D}...
3
votes
0answers
147 views

No consistent theory can define a product of distributions: why?

I have been told there cannot be a consistent theory defining a distribution product. Googling for information, I found 1 and 2. Number 1 gives interesting hints on what might happen, and defines a ...
3
votes
1answer
166 views

Fourier transform of unit step function

It is well known that the fourier transform for unit step $U(t)$ is \begin{equation} F(U(t))=\frac{1}{j\omega}+\pi \delta(\omega) \end{equation} When I try to arrive to this expression from the ...
3
votes
1answer
136 views

$\nabla^2(\|\boldsymbol{x}-\boldsymbol{x}_0\|^{-1})=-4\pi\delta(\boldsymbol{x}-\boldsymbol{x}_0)$ with distributions defined on Schwartz space

I know, from a recent enlightening answers received here, that, if we define the distribution represented by Dirac's $\delta$ on the space $K$ of test functions of class $C^\infty$ whose support is ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

Products of distributions ill-defined

This question concerns distributions, as often encountered in PDE theory, which are defined as continuous linear functionals on the space $C_0^{\infty}(\Omega)$ of test functions. The product of two ...
0
votes
2answers
97 views

Does delta distribution remain continuous with respect to quasinorm?

I am thinking the accepted answer which is found here: When viewing $\delta: \mathbb{S} \to \mathbb{R}$ (linear and continuous with respect to the usual semi-norms on the Schwartz-space – or ...
-2
votes
1answer
90 views

Is $\delta : \mathcal{S}(\mathbf{R}) \to \mathbf{C}$ continuous with usual seminorm?

I am thinking again the accepted answer which is found here: When viewing $\delta: \mathbf{S} \to \mathbf{R}$ (linear and continuous with respect to the usual semi-norms on the Schwartz-space ...
5
votes
2answers
464 views

Square root of compactly supported C-infinity function

Given $u \in \mathcal{C}^\infty_0(\mathbb{R}^n)$, $u \geq 0$ everywhere, is $v(x) = \sqrt{u(x)}$ also in $\mathcal{C}^\infty_0$? It is clear that the only problematic points are the boundary of the ...
2
votes
1answer
155 views

Tempered distributions and convolution

I remember that if $f,g \in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ , then it is well-defined \begin{align*} \displaystyle (f \ast g)(x)= \int_{\mathbb{R}^n} g(x-y)f(y)dy=\int_{\mathbb{R}^n} (\tau_x \widetilde{g})...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Given a $C_c^∞(G)$-valued random variable, is $C_c^∞(G)∋φ↦\text E[\langle\xi,φ\rangle]$ an element of the dual space of $C_c^∞(G)$?

Let $G\subseteq\mathbb R^d$ and $$\mathcal D:=C_c^\infty(G)$$ be equipped with some topology $\tau$ $\mathcal D'$ be the dual space of $\mathcal D$ and $\langle\;\cdot\;,\;\cdot\;\rangle$ denote the ...
1
vote
0answers
52 views

Represent Dirac distruibution as a combination of derivatives of continuous functions?

It seems from Rudin's functional analysis (P168, Thm6.27), the Dirac distribution $\delta_0$ on $R^1$ can be written as $$ \delta_0=f_0+f'_1+f''_2, $$ for $\{f_i\}_{i=0}^2\in C(R^1)$, there $'$ ...
7
votes
2answers
5k views

Dirac Delta function

I know that $\int_{-\epsilon}^\infty f(x)\delta(x)dx=f(0)$ but what about $\int_0^\infty f(x)\delta(x)dx$? I suppose we have to do this by definition since the lower limit is bang on $0$?
9
votes
1answer
240 views

Why do we give $C_c^\infty(\mathbb{R}^d)$ the topology induced by all good seminorms?

Briefly, my question boils down to the following: What benefits do we gain from considering the space of test functions in the topology induced by all "good" seminorms, as opposed to other topologies ...
6
votes
2answers
559 views

Fractional derivatives of delta function $ \delta (x) $

How can I define the fractional derivative of the Delta function? I mean $D^{\alpha}= \frac{d^{\alpha}}{dx^{\alpha}} $ where $\alpha$ can be any real number, then if we define $D^{\alpha} \delta (x) ...
10
votes
2answers
545 views

Origin of the name 'test functions'

This is a very simple question really: where did the name 'test functions', used nowadays when speaking of infinitely differentiable and compactly supported functions, come from? More to the point: is ...
8
votes
1answer
681 views

Sequential and topological duals of test function spaces

Given a test function space, in particular $\mathcal{S}=\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ (the Schwartz space) or $\mathcal{D}=\mathcal{D}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ (the space of compactly supported smooth test ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

When can one expect a classical solution of a PDE?

When solving a PDE, there may be a classical solution or a weak solution (or distribution solution). But I am wondering that when people talk about "finding a solution" to some PDE, what do they refer ...
7
votes
2answers
8k views

Proof of Dirac Delta's sifting property

A common way to characterize the dirac delta function $\delta$ is by the following two properties: $$1)\ \delta(x) = 0\ \ \text{for}\ \ x \neq 0$$ $$2)\ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\delta(x)\ dx = 1$$ I ...
1
vote
1answer
270 views

Dirac delta distribution & integration against locally integrable function

I was reading the a lecture note online about distribution theory and it said: The Dirac delta distribution $\delta \in D'$ is defined as $\delta(\varphi)= \varphi(0) $, and there's no locally ...
8
votes
1answer
138 views

Delta distributions with nonlinear arguments

I am confused by the use of nonlinear arguments with the Dirac $\delta$ distribution that I am encountering in the literature. This looks like a widespread use, but for concreteness let us focus on a ...
5
votes
1answer
171 views

Specific problem on distribution theory.

*****Note: Parts A, C and D I managed. Only need help on part B now would really would appreciate the help on B Hi, in my summer real analysis (or measures and real analysis as my instructor refers ...