Use this tag for questions about Schwartz distributions, also known as Generalised Functions. For questions about "probability distributions", use (probability-distributions). For questions about distributions as sub-bundles of a vector bundle, use (differential-geometry).

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4
votes
1answer
145 views

Generalizing the weak derivative

I am wondering about the weak derivative in time. We say f has a weak derivative f' if $$\int_0^T f\phi' = -\int_0^T f'\phi$$ for all $\phi \in C_0^\infty(0,T)$. This definition uses the $L^2$ inner ...
1
vote
1answer
82 views

How to prove the density result?

How to prove that $C_c^\infty(R^n)$ is dense in $C^0(R^n)$,where the topology of $C^0(R^n)$ defined as follows $u_k\rightarrow 0$ in $C^0(R^n)$ if and only if $\forall K\subset\subset R^n$,$sup_{x\in ...
5
votes
2answers
668 views

Proving the integral of the Dirac delta function is 1

Was wondering if my solution is mathematically accurate enough: The question in the book yields: Derive $$ 1=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \delta(x-x_i)\ dx_i $$ From $$ ...
1
vote
3answers
2k views

Heaviside step function fourier transform and principal values

I found the following answer on SE: Fourier transform of unit step? However, it is still not clear to me and maybe somebody could explain it clearer. Problem I have the following in my notes of ...
-1
votes
1answer
236 views

Fundamental solutions of PDEs

I have two questions about solving PDEs. $L$ is an linear differntial operator In the complement of the origin, the equation $LE =\delta$ reduces to $LE = 0$. Why? What can say about solutions of $ ...
-1
votes
1answer
64 views

When Dirac function is in $H^{-m}(R^n)$?

If Dirac function $\delta\in H^{-m}(R^n)$,please give the range of $m$?
9
votes
1answer
357 views

How much can a weak derivative differ from a classical one?

Let $B$ denote the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and let $f\in C^1(B\setminus\{0\})\cap L^1(B)$. Denote with $\nabla_c f$ the classical gradient, which is defined in $B\setminus\{0\}$, and denote with ...
6
votes
1answer
283 views

Convolution between two distributions

I want to define the convolution $*$ between two distributions $S$ and $T$. For a test function $\varphi$, can I say: $$\langle S * T, \varphi \rangle \doteqdot \langle S, T*\varphi \rangle $$ where ...
3
votes
1answer
104 views

Equicontinuity and uniform boundedness for “distributions”

Exercise. (Rudin, Functional Analysis, chapter 2, pag. 53). Let us consider the space $$ \mathcal D :=\{f \in C^{\infty}(\mathbb R), \, \text{supp}f\subseteq [-1,1] \} $$ with the topology induced by ...
2
votes
1answer
111 views

Properties of Fourier transform of distributions

For distributions the scaling property, $f(ax) = \frac{1}{|a|} \mathcal{F(\frac{u}{a})}$, of the Fourier transform is no longer true. Is there a source that lists which properties of the Fourier ...
2
votes
1answer
209 views

weak derivative and continuous functions (functionals, distributions)

Suppose $\varphi \in C_c^\infty(0,T; H^1(\Omega))$ is a $H^1(\Omega)$-valued test function (it vanishes at $t=0$ and $t= T$), and $f \in C^1(0,T \times \Omega)$. Let $w \in L^2(0,T;H^1(\Omega)$ with ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

Function of the incremental ratio tends weakly to a distribution

Let $g:\mathbb{R}^3\to\mathbb{R^2}$ be a continuous function. Suppose that there exists $\Omega$ a neighborhood of $0$ where $Xg, Yg \in L^\infty(\Omega)$, with ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

Show continuity of a function?

Are there theorems or results to show that if for every $\varphi\in \mathcal{C}_0^\infty(\mathbb{R})$ we have, $$\int_{\mathbb{R}} \varphi^k(x)\mu(dx) \leq C$$ Then $\mu(dx) = f(x)dx$ and $f\in ...
0
votes
1answer
268 views

Questions related to distribution function and its “inverse”

Let $f: \mathbb R^n \to \mathbb R$ be a measurable fucntion. Define $F(t) = \mu \{x:|f(x)| >t\}$ Show that $F$ is nonincreasing and right-continuous (done). Define $F^\star(v)=\inf \{t: F(t)\leq ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

A particular product of distributions

Suppose you have two continuous functions $f,g: \mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$; is the product $f'g$ as a distribution, at least locally? I am interested in a local result, actually, so you can as well ...
0
votes
1answer
102 views

Composition of a distribution with a map

Suppose $\lambda \in C_c^\infty(\mathbb{R})^*$ is a distribution and $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous map of the real line. In addition assume $f$ has compact support. How can I make ...
1
vote
1answer
127 views

The Dirac impulse and Fourier transform

Here wikipedia it is said that the Dirac delta could be thought of as $$ \delta(x) = \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} \infty &, x = 0 \\ 0 &, x \ne 0 \end{array}\right. $$ and here that the ...
3
votes
0answers
336 views

Property of derivative of Dirac delta function in $\mathbb{R}^n$

With reference to Property of Dirac delta function in $\mathbb{R}^n$, is there a similar formula for $\langle g^*\delta', f \rangle$ (or even $\langle g^*\delta^{(n)}, f \rangle$)? By similar I mean a ...
1
vote
2answers
194 views

Distributional/weak time derivative basic question

Suppose we have $u \in L^2(0,T;H^1(\Omega))$, and $v \in L^2(0,T;H^{-1}(\Omega))$ is the weak time derivative of $u$, so by definition it satisfies $$\int_0^T u(t)\phi'(t) = -\int_0^T v(t)\phi(t)$$ ...
6
votes
1answer
285 views

Convolution square root of $\delta $

I want to somehow classify the distributional solutions of the equation $$ f \ast f = \delta $$ where $\delta = \delta _0$ is the Dirac delta distribution. Clearly, by Fourier transformation, we ...
2
votes
1answer
239 views

Proof that limit goes to zero without Riemann-Lebesgue lemma

Let $\varphi$ be a test function ($\varphi$ is smooth and has compact support - is zero outside some bounded interval). I know that the following $$ \lim_{\epsilon \to 0_+} ...
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Lebesgue-Stieltjes integral as a generalized function

Given some convex function $f(x)$, $x >0$ we can define a distribution $F \in \mathcal{D}'(0,\infty)$ using Lebesgue-Stieltjes integral $$ \langle F, \varphi \rangle ...
3
votes
1answer
230 views

Second derivative of convex function

Let $f(x)$, $x>0$ be a convex function. Then it's distributional second derivative is defined by the rule $$ \langle f''(x),\varphi(x)\rangle = \langle f(x), \varphi''(x)\rangle $$ for any ...
2
votes
1answer
177 views

Sobolev spaces of infinite order

I do have a question about the Sobolev spaces of infinite order. Let me first define them: Let $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ denote the Sobolev space of order $s \in \mathbb{R}$. We can naturally identify ...
2
votes
2answers
901 views

Principal value of 1/x- equivalence of two definitions

As far as I know, the principal value of a non-summable function like $1/x$, denoted $\mathcal{P}(1/x)$, is a distribution that that acts on some smooth function $f$ in some test-function space and ...
2
votes
2answers
99 views

particular solution by variation of constants

I have this ODE : $y^{''}(x)-Ay(x)=Bx \delta_{0}(x)$ where $A,B$ are constants and $\begin{equation} \delta_{0}= \begin{cases} \infty & \text{if $x=0$}, \\ 0& \text{else}. \end{cases} ...
1
vote
1answer
150 views

How to show that limit is a delta function

Let $\{\phi_{n}(t)\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a complete orthonormal system at $[a,b]$. Then $$ \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \phi_{n}(t)\phi_{n}(s) = \lim\limits_{N \to \infty} \sum\limits_{n=1}^{N} ...
1
vote
1answer
394 views

Singular support of distributions

I've read the following definition: Let $u \in \mathcal{D}^\prime(\mathbb{R}^n)$. We say that $y_0 \notin \mathrm{sing} \ \mathrm{supp} \ u$ if there exists $\phi \in ...
2
votes
1answer
160 views

Extension of formula for solution of heat equation on distributions

Consider a heat equation $$ u_{t} = u_{xx}+f(t,x),\; (x,t) \in (0,L)\times(0,T] \\ u(0,x) = 0, \; x \in [0,L] \\ u(t,0) = 0, \; t \in [0,T] \\ u(t,L) = 0, \; t \in [0,T]. $$ If $f(t,x)$ is ...
2
votes
0answers
74 views

Does multiplication commute with taking of fundamental solution (heat equation)

Let $\Phi(t,x)$ be a heat function, $$ \Phi(t,x) = \frac{1}{\sqrt{4 \pi t}} \exp\left(-\frac{x^2}{4t}\right). $$ Then $(\partial_{t} - \partial_{xx})\Phi(t,x) = \delta(t)\delta(x)$. Furthermore, ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

Representation of distribution by nonnegative measure

Let $T \in \mathcal{D}'(\mathbb{R}_{+})$ be a distribution on $\mathbb{R}_{+}$ such that for any $f \in \mathcal{D}(\mathbb{R}_{+})$, $f \geqslant 0$ we have $$ \langle f, T \rangle \geqslant 0 $$ ...
2
votes
0answers
91 views

Weak derivative and homeomorphisms commute

Suppose $\phi:H^1(S) \to H^2(R)$ is a linear homeomorphism, where $S$ and $R$ are compact surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^n$. Let $\varphi \in D(0,T;H^1(S))$ be a $H^1(S)$-valued $C_c^\infty(0,T)$ function. ...
1
vote
1answer
109 views

Convergence of distributions in $L^p$

If I understand correctly, distributions $F_n \in C^\infty_c(\mathbb{R})^*$ are defined based on how they act on test functions $\phi \in C^\infty_c(\mathbb{R})$. What does it mean then to say $F_n ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Solve an equality for distribution

I have an equality that holds for any $\lambda > 0$ $$ \int\limits_{0}^{\infty}{e^{-\lambda t^{\alpha}}} T(t)dt = \int\limits_{0}^{\infty}e^{-\lambda t^{\alpha}} dg(t), $$ where $\alpha > 0$ ...
5
votes
4answers
3k views

On the derivative of a Heaviside step function being proportional to the Dirac delta function

I am learning Quantum Mechanics, and came across this fact that the derivative of a Heaviside unit step function is Dirac delta function. I understand this intuitively, since the Heaviside unit step ...
2
votes
0answers
680 views

Distributions supported on a single point

Let $d=1$. (i) Show that if $\lambda$ is a distribution and $n\geq1$ is an integer, then $\lambda x^n=0$ if and only if $\lambda$ is a linear combination of $\delta:=\delta_{\{0\}}$ and its first ...
3
votes
1answer
121 views

What is the use of $H_s$ for non-integer $s$?

So we have the whole set of theory for Sobolev spaces \begin{equation} H_s(\mathbb{R}^d)=\{u\in D'(\mathbb{R}^d):(1+|y|^2)^{s/2}\hat{u}\in\mathcal{L}^2(\mathbb{R}^d)\}, \end{equation} and we know that ...
2
votes
1answer
69 views

Non-regularity of non-elliptic operator

Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^d$ be open,and $P(D)=\operatorname{\sum_{|\alpha|\le N}}f_{\alpha}D^{\alpha}$ be an elliptic differential operator. Rudin proves in Functional Analysis Part II the ...
3
votes
1answer
495 views

Show the usual Schwartz semi-norm is a norm on the Schwartz space

Let $f \in C^\infty(\mathbb R)$. Define the semi-norm $$ \|f\|_{a,b}=\sup_{x \in \mathbb R} |x^af^{(b)}(x)| $$ where $a,b \in \mathbb Z_+$, and $f^{(b)}$ is the $b$-th derivative of $f$. Show ...
4
votes
1answer
105 views

How to prove that $x \rightarrow e^{1/x}$ is not a restriction of any real distribution to $ \mathbb {R}_+$?

This is an excercise 2.2 from Hormander, vol. I: Does there exist a distribution $u$ on $\mathbb{R}$ with the restriction $x \rightarrow e^{1/x}$ to $\mathbb{R}_+$? The answer, provided in the book, ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

How to understand limit

Let $\chi(t)$ be the Heaviside function, i.e. $\chi(t) = 1$ for $t > 0$ and $\chi(t) = 0$ if $t \leq 0$. Reading a paper I faced with a statement that $$ \frac{t^{p-1}}{\Gamma(p)}\chi(t) \to ...
3
votes
1answer
285 views

Schwartz space: semi norm estimate on translation

the following family of semi norms is commonly used to introduce the space of Schwartz functions $\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^n)$: $$ \|\phi\|_N := \sup_{\substack{x \in \mathbb{R}^n \\ |\alpha|\,,|\beta| ...
0
votes
1answer
249 views

Fundamental solution of a particular differential operator

Show that he distribution given by the locally integrable function $\dfrac{1}{2} e^{|x|}$ is a fundamental solution of the differential operator $\begin{equation} -\dfrac{\partial^{2}}{\partial ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

Proving a sequence of distributions converge in $C^{-\infty}(\mathbb{R})$

Question: I have a sequence $(T_n)$, where $T_n$ is given by the locally integrable function $ne^{-\dfrac{n^{2}x^{2}}{2}}$, converges in $C^{-\infty}(\mathbb{R})$ and compute its limit. I suspect ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

So $k^2-\Delta: H_{s+2}\to H_{s}$ is a homeomorphism, but what does that tell us?

For each $t\in\mathbb{R}$, we define the Sobolev space \begin{equation} H_t=\{u\in\mathcal{S}':\int(1+|y|^2)^t|\hat{u}(y)|^2dy<+\infty\}, \end{equation} where $\mathcal{S}'$ is the space of ...
4
votes
1answer
621 views

Are smooth functions with compact support weakly-* dense in $L^\infty$?

My question is this : given $f \in L^\infty(\mathbb{R}^2)$, can we find a sequence $\phi_n$ of smooth, compactly supported functions (test functions) such that for any $g \in L^1(\mathbb{R}^2)$, ...
1
vote
2answers
68 views

Easy question about Bochner space

Question Suppose $u$ and $v$ are in $L^1(0,T; X)$ where $X$ is Banach. Suppose v = u' in the distributional sense. I want to show that, for $w \in X^*$, that $$\frac{d}{dt}\langle w, u \rangle = ...
1
vote
1answer
104 views

How does a myopic interpret Wiener's Tauberian?

I just read about this post on the intuition behind convolution. In Terence Tao's answer convolution is interpreted as the blur of image in near-sighted eyes. In Harald Hanche-Olsen's it is made ...
1
vote
1answer
179 views

Singular support of a tempered distribution is compact?

I am reading Introduction to the Theory of Distributions by Friedlander and Joshi. As definition 8.6.1, they define the singular support of a tempered distribution $u$ to be the complement of {$x$: ...
1
vote
1answer
193 views

Weak derivative of $\operatorname{sgn}(x_1)$

Let $x\in \mathbb{R}^{n}, x = (x_1,\ldots,x_n)$, and $f(x) = \operatorname{sgn}(x_{1})$. Is $f$ weakly differentiable on $U = B(0,1)$, i.e. unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$, and what is the weak ...