Use this tag for questions about Schwartz distributions, also known as Generalised Functions. For questions about "probability distributions", use (probability-distributions). For questions about distributions as sub-bundles of a vector bundle, use (differential-geometry).

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-1
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1answer
17 views

Proof that the distibution sequence $\int_{0}^{\infty}(tanh(nx)-1)\phi(x)dx \to 0$

Let $T:\phi \mapsto \langle T_f,\phi\rangle =\int _{-\infty}^{\infty}f(x)\phi(x)dx$, where $\phi(x)$ is a test function, be a distribution. I would like to prove that the sequence of distributions: ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

A question involving weak convergence in $\sigma(L^1, L^\infty)$

Exercise 4.15 from H. Brezis - "Functional analysis..." Let I = (0, 1) and $f_n = n e^{-n x}$ a sequence of functions. Show that $$ f_n \;\; \text{does not converge weakly to} \;\; 0 \;\; \text{in} ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

How to check a linear map between topological space is continuous?

I am reading something about distributions, and I have a question. I think it is not hard, but I don't know how to explain it rigorously. Suppose $M$ is a smooth manifold, $V$ is a Fréchet space, and ...
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Order of a distribution and its derivatives

For $\varphi\in C_{0}^{\infty}(\mathbb{R}^{3})$ , define $u(\varphi):=\int\partial^{\alpha}\varphi(x,0,0)dx$ for some multiindex $\alpha$ . It's pretty clear to me that $u$ is a distribution. ...
1
vote
2answers
27 views

A sequence of distributions converges to a certain distribution.

Given the sequence of functions: \begin{equation} f_n(x)=tanh(nx) \end{equation} and knowing that: \begin{equation} \lim_{x \to \pm \infty}f_n(x)=f(x)=\begin{cases} -1, & x<0 \\ 1, & ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

Dirac delta and non-test functions

Normalization of the delta function (distribution) is often informally written as an integral $$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \delta(x) \, dx = 1$$ An attempt to write this formally would be expression ...
0
votes
2answers
33 views

Has any $L^1(\mathbb{R})$ function a distributional derivative?

If I remember correctly, $L^1(\mathbb{R})$ functions can be identified with distributions via $$L^1(\mathbb{R}) \hookrightarrow D'(\mathbb{R})$$ defined as $f\mapsto T_f\in D'(\mathbb{R})$ and then ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

If solution of NLS is smooth and decaying at infinity; how to justify it satisfy the conservation law?

We consider the cubic nonlinear Shr\"odinger equation(NLS) $iu_{t}+\frac{1}{2} \Delta u = |u|^{2}u, \ u(x, 0)= u_0(x), (x\in \mathbb R^{d}, t\in \mathbb R)$ I have been trying to understand the ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

Confusion about inclusions of dual spaces

We have the triple inclusions $H^1_0(\Omega)\subset L^2(\Omega)\subset H^{-1}(\Omega)$, where the second inclusion is not literal but in the sense of distributions. Related to this answer, why is the ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Introducing an operator by a bilinear form

Let $I = (0, 1)$ and $H_0^2 (I)$ the closure of $C_c^\infty (I)$ in $W^{2, 2} (I)$. Consider $$a : H_0^2 (I) \times H_0^2 (I) \to \mathbb{R}$$ defined by $$a(u, v) = \int\limits_I u''(x) v''(x) \, ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Support of Distribution Function

Suppose I have a distribution function $$C(u,v)$$ with domain $I^2$. Let us define the support of this function as the complement of the union of all open subsets of $I^2$ with C-measure zero. Based ...
0
votes
2answers
22 views

Problem on multiplication of distributions with test functions

This question comes from Grubb's Distributions and Operators, question 3.8(b): Consider $u\in \mathcal{D}'(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and $\phi\in C^{\infty}_0(\mathbb{R}^n)$. Find out whether one of the ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Elementary properties of Fourier transform on the space of tempered distributions.

I'm trying to prove that some of the basic facts of Fourier transform on $L^1(\mathbb{R}^n)$ also holds on the space of tempered distributions. For example: Suppose that $F\in \mathcal{S}^\prime$, ...
1
vote
2answers
23 views

Can $\sum_{a = -\infty}^{\infty} e^{i\omega aT_0}$ be represented by dirac delta functions?

The usual definition of dirac delta function says that $\delta(x-\alpha)=\frac{1}{2\pi} \int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{ip(x-\alpha)}\ dp $. The appearance similarity makes me think that it may be possible ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Non-standard examples of Distributions

Can somebody point me to examples of distributions which are not sums of delta functions or derivatives thereof. Also of course not integrals with local integrable functions. Additional: is there a ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

Weak convergence in $D^{1,p}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ and in $\mathcal{M}(\mathbb{R}^n)$

What it means: $$u_n\rightharpoonup u ~\text{weakly in }~ D^{1,p}(\mathbb{R}^n)\\ |\nabla(u_n-u)|^p\rightharpoonup\mu ~\text{weakly in}~ \mathcal{M}(\mathbb{R}^n)\\|u_n-u|^{p^{*}}\rightharpoonup\nu ...
2
votes
1answer
27 views

$k^2 e^{ikx} \rightharpoonup 0$ in the Sense of Distributions

So I'm concerned showing $k^2 e^{ikx} \rightharpoonup 0$ in the sense of distributions or in other words for any $\phi \in C_c^{\infty}(\mathbb{R})$ we have for any $\epsilon > 0$ $$ \left\lvert ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Differentiating the Dirac Delta distribution

More generally, let $\psi (D)$ denote a pseudodifferential operator on $\mathbb{R}^n$ given by the function $\psi \in S^m_{\rho, \eta}$, the usual symbol class. My question is: can we interpret $\psi ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Fourier transformation of Principal value distribution [duplicate]

I have the principal value distribution defined as $pv(\frac{1}{x})(\phi)=\int^\infty_0\frac{1}{x}(\phi(x)-\phi(-x))dx$ and I want to show that the fourier transform is given by $-\pi i\cdot ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Does pointwise convergence imply convergence in distribution? Counterexample?

$f_1,f_2,\dots ,$ and $f$ are in $L_{loc}^1(U)$. I'm trying to give a counterexample where $f_n\to f$ pointwise, but not $f_n\to f$ in $\mathcal{D}^\prime (U)$, where ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Does convergence in $L^p$ imply convergence in distribution?

$f_1,f_2,\dots ,$ and $f$ are in $L_{loc}^1(U)$. Prove that if $f_n\in L^p(U)(1\leq p\leq \infty)$ and $f_n\to f$ in the $L^p$ norm or weakly in $L^p$, then $f_n\to f$ in ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Distribution agreeing with function

I'm trying to figure out how to show distributions agree with a given function on some domain. For instance, let $f \in C(\mathbb{R^n}\setminus\{0\})$ such that $f(rx) = r^{-n}f(x)$ and $\int f ...
5
votes
0answers
50 views

Why do we give $C_c^\infty(\mathbb{R}^d)$ the topology induced by all good seminorms?

Briefly, my question boils down to the following: What benefits do we gain from considering the space of test functions in the topology induced by all "good" seminorms, as opposed to other topologies ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Expand a distribution to a linear differential form

A linear differential operator $P$ is defined as: $$ PT=\sum_{\alpha=0}^\infty p_{\alpha} \partial^\alpha T $$ A distribution $Q$ which satisfies $P \delta = Q$ is given, where $\delta$ is the Dirac ...
1
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0answers
42 views

Negative index Sobolev spaces, properties

I was hoping to find some references for the following facts: Let $\Omega$ be a bounded domain with smooth boundary in $\mathbb{R}^n$. (i) If $\nabla p$ is a distribution in $H^{-1}(\Omega)$ then ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Tempered distributions

Let P be a vector whose componentes are polynomials in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and harmonics. its true that exists a polinomial T that $\nabla T = P$? I think this has something to be with fourie transform, ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Applications of Banach-Alaoglu theorem in the theory of distributions?

Are there some interesting applications of Banach-Alaoglu theorem in the theory of distributions? The theorem provides compact subsets in the $w^*$-topology, so distributions seem a great place for ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Entire function of exponential type $1$ bounded by $1/(1+|x|)$

Let $f$ be an entire function of exponential type $1$ such that $|f(x)| \leq \frac{1}{1+|x|}$ for all $x\in \mathbb{R}$. First, I have to show that $|f(z)| \leq \frac{Ce^{|Im(z)|}}{1+|z|} z\in ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

fourier transform and principal values

Fourier transform and principal values Can anyone tell me from how can i get the fouries transformation of prinicipal value of (1/x) $$p.v\int \frac{1}{x}\Bigg(\int e^{-wix}\varphi(w)dw\Bigg)dx$$
2
votes
1answer
32 views

distributions whose derivative is zero?

I just learned about the notion of tempered distributions $\mathcal{S}'(\mathbb{R})$. But it is unclear that if such a distribution has a 0 derivative (of course in the distribution sense) then it ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

Distributional solution of this equation

I am having trouble finding the distributional solutions $u$ of: $x^2u = \delta$. Could somebody help? Thanks in advance
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Proving the absolute value of a smooth function is $W^{1,p}$ [duplicate]

How could one prove the following: Take $u \in C^1_c(\mathbb{R}^n)$ Then, $|u|$ is in $W^{1,p}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, $p \in [1;\infty)$. The problem is to show that the derivative in the distribution sens ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Show that the limit of distributions is Dirac delta

I would like to show that the following statement is true $ \lim_{a\searrow 0} \theta(x)\frac{x^{1-a}}{\Gamma(a)} = \delta(x). $ $\Gamma$ is the gamma function. The above limit is in the sense of ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Convergence of $f_n(x)=n^2f(nx)$ in the sense of distributionas

Let $f$ be a test function such that $\int_{-\infty}^\infty f(x)dx=0$ and $f_n(x)=n^2f(nx)$. Find the distributional limit $\lim_{n\to\infty}f_n$. How can I use the Dominated Convergence Theorem ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Distribution equation (x-a)T=0

I have to solve the equation $(x-a)T=0$ , T is a distribution. By definition : $(x-a)\int T(x)\varnothing (x)=0$ I know if I pose $X=x-a$ I find $XT(X)=0$ and $T(X)=\delta(X)$. But I stuck to find ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Seminorms in distribution theory are norms, right?

In distribution theory the seminorms that you use there $p_m( \phi) := \max_{|\alpha| \le m} \sup_{x \in \Omega} |(\partial^{\alpha}(\phi) (x)|, \phi \in C_c^{\infty}(\Omega)$. Those guys are norms ...
1
vote
1answer
20 views

Bound on the set of compactly supported distributions with support in the same compact set

Consider the set of all compactly supported distributions $v\in\mathcal{\mathcal{E}^{\prime}}(\mathbb{R}^{n})=\left(C^{\infty}\right)^{*}$ with compact support in a fixed compact set $\Omega$ . ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

A variant of the fundamental lemma of calculus of variation

If $F$ is a distribution and its distributional derivative is equal to 0, how can I show that $F$ is (represented by) a constant function i.e. there exists a constant $c$ such that $F(\phi)=c\int\phi$ ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

Distributional linear differential equations

What are the most general distributional solutions $u \in \mathcal{D}'(\mathbb{R})$ to $-\frac{d^n u}{dx^n} + c_{n-1}\frac{d^{n-1}u}{dx^{n-1}} + ... + c_0 u = 0$; $-x\frac{d^n u}{dx^n} + ...
0
votes
0answers
45 views

Complex distributions - what are the appropriate test functions?

In the theoretical physics literature on conformal field theory, one encounters distributional formulas like $$ \frac{1}{\pi}\partial_{\bar z}\frac{1}{z} = \delta(z), $$ where $\partial_{\bar z}$ is ...
7
votes
3answers
206 views

Distribution theory and differential equations.

How does distribution theory plays role in solving differential equations? This question might seem to be very general. I will try to explain, please bear with me. I understand, distributions make it ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Sign mistake in Fourier transform of $\frac{x}{1+x^2}$.

I want to calculate the distributional Fourier transform of $u(x) = \frac{x}{1+x^2}$ in one dimension in the distributional sense as $u\notin L^1$. I use the distributional definition of the Fourier ...
5
votes
2answers
41 views

How to prove this simple fact without using distribution theory?

Suppose function $f(x) $ is normalized to unity, i.e., $$ \int dx |f(x)|^2 =1 . $$ Now consider the Fourier transform of $f$, i.e., $$ F(k) = \int d x f(x) e^{-i k x} . $$ Here we assume that $f $ ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

Show that the distribution is of the form $C \delta + f$

I'm trying to solve this problem: Let $ u = p.v.(1/x)$, $\phi$, $\psi \in C^{\infty}_c$. I want to show that the distribution $(\phi u )* (\psi u)$ is of the form $C \delta + f$ for some constant C ...
2
votes
1answer
133 views

Generalized Functions (Distributions) over Manifolds

What is the right way of making sense of generalized functions over manifolds? For concreteness, let me restrict my question to the dirac delta function. The article on Wikipedia on Dirac delta ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

$\lim\limits_{n\to \infty} \arctan(nx)$ and set-valued limit?

Consider the sequence $a_n(x)=\dfrac{2}{\pi}\arctan(nx)$. $(a_n)$ converges pointwise to $1$ if $x>0$, $-1$ if $x<0$ and $0$ if $x=0$. It does not converge uniformly as the limit function is ...
2
votes
1answer
79 views

$\langle u,\phi\rangle=0$ when ${\rm supp}(u)\cap{\rm supp}(\phi)^\circ=\emptyset$?

I know that $\langle u,\phi\rangle=0$ if ${\rm supp}(u)\cap{\rm supp}(\phi)=\emptyset$. For some while I wondered whether it's enough that $\phi$ vanishes on ${\rm supp}(u)$ but that's not true, as ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Dirac's delta, infinite series and integral

Why $\int_{-\infty}^x\sum_{i=1}^{+\infty} p^{i-1}\delta(\alpha-i)d\alpha = \sum_{i=1}^{+\infty}\int_{-\infty}^x p^{i-1}\delta(\alpha-i)d\alpha$ where $\delta$ is the Dirac's delta and $p \in ]0;1[$ ...
7
votes
1answer
92 views

Proving that a family of functions limits to the Dirac delta.

For each $\epsilon > 0$, define $f_\epsilon:\mathbb R\to \mathbb R$ as follows: \begin{align} f_\epsilon(k) = \frac{1}{\pi}\frac{\epsilon}{\epsilon^2+k^2}. \end{align} How does one rigorously ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

two dimensional delta function

Is it correct to write $\delta(x,y)=\delta(x)\delta(y)$ where $\delta(x,y)$ is the delta function in two dimensions? Or are there some cases where the above fails to give the correct results when ...