The study of discrete mathematical structures. Consider using a more specific tag instead, such as: (combinatorics), (graph-theory), (computer-science), (probability), (elementary-set-theory), (induction), (recurrence-relations), etc.

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149
votes
19answers
12k views

Zero to the zero power - Is $0^0=1$?

Could someone provide me with good explanation of why $0^0 = 1$? My train of thought: $x > 0$ $0^x = 0^{x-0} = 0^x/0^0$, so $0^0 = 0^x/0^x = ?$ Possible answers: $0^0 * 0^x = 1 * 0^x$, so ...
44
votes
20answers
11k views

Proof that $\sum\limits_{k=1}^nk^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$?

I am just starting into calculus and I have a question about the following statement I encountered while learning about definite integrals: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$$ I really ...
4
votes
8answers
681 views

How to compute the formula $\sum \limits_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r$?

Given $$1\cdot 2^1 + 2\cdot 2^2 + 3\cdot 2^3 + 4\cdot 2^4 + \cdots + d \cdot 2^d = \sum_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r,$$ how can we infer to the following solution? $$2 (d-1) \cdot 2^d + 2. $$ Thank you
12
votes
8answers
2k views

Showing that an equation holds true with a Fibonacci sequence: $F_{n+m} = F_{n-1}F_m + F_n F_{m+1}$

Question: Let $F_n$ the sequence of Fibonacci numbers, given by $F_0 = 0, F_1 = 1$ and $F_n = F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}$ for $n \geq 2$. Show for $n, m \in \mathbb{N}$: $$F_{n+m} = F_{n-1}F_m + F_n F_{m+1}$$ ...
3
votes
3answers
555 views

Prove $f(S \cup T) = f(S) \cup f(T)$

$f(S \cup T) = f(S) \cup f(T)$ f(S) encompasses all x that is in S f(T) encompasses all x that is in T thus the domain being the same, both the LHS and RHS map to the same ys, since the function ...
17
votes
6answers
3k views

Why is mathematical induction a valid proof technique?

Context: I'm studying for my discrete mathematics exam and I keep running into this question that I've failed to solve. The question is as follows. Problem: The main form for normal induction over ...
8
votes
2answers
2k views

Prove that $\mathcal{P}(A)⊆ \mathcal{P}(B)$ if and only if $A⊆B$. [duplicate]

Here is my proof, I would appreciate it if someone could critique it for me: To prove this statement true, we must proof that the two conditional statements ("If $\mathcal{P}(A)⊆ \mathcal{P}(B)$, ...
27
votes
4answers
2k views

A stronger version of discrete “Liouville's theorem”

If a function $f : \mathbb Z\times \mathbb Z \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{+} $ satisfies the following condition $$\forall x, y \in \mathbb{Z}, f(x,y) = \dfrac{f(x + 1, y)+f(x, y + 1) + f(x - 1, y) +f(x, ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Show that $n$ lines separate the plane into $\frac{(n^2+n+2)}{2}$ regions…Induction!

Show that $n$ lines separate the plane into $\frac{(n^2+n+2)}{2}$ regions if no two of these lines are parallel and no three pass through a common point. I know we start with the base case, where, ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Counting number of moves on a grid

Imagine a two-dimensional grid consisting of 20 points along the x-axis and 10 points along the y-axis. Suppose the origin (0,0) is in the bottom-left corner and the point (20,10) is the top-right ...
37
votes
7answers
37k views

What is the best book for studying discrete mathematics?

As a programmer, mathematics is important basic knowledge to study some topics, especially Algorithms. Many websites, and my fellows suggest me to study Discrete Mathematics before going to ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Questions on “All Horse are the Same Color” Proof by Complete Induction

The following has been bugging me, and I can't go to sleep until I resolve it. Here is a summary of the document on page 109 of http://courses.csail.mit.edu/6.042/spring12/mcs.pdf. False ...
14
votes
3answers
587 views

Can $\sqrt{n} + \sqrt{m}$ be rational if neither $n,m$ are perfect squares?

Can the expression $\sqrt{n} + \sqrt{m}$ be rational if neither $n,m \in \mathbb{N}$ are perfect squares? I doesn't seem likely, the only way that could happen is if for example $\sqrt{m} = ...
6
votes
5answers
8k views

Number of relations that are both symmetric and reflexive

Consider a non-empty set A containing n objects. How many relations on A are both symmetric and reflexive? The answer to this is $2^p$ where $p=$ $n \choose 2$. However, I dont understand why this is ...
56
votes
3answers
14k views

Proof by contradiction vs Prove the contrapositive

What is the difference between a "proof by contradiction" and "proving the contrapositive"? Intuitive, it feels like doing the exact same thing. And when I compare an exercise, one person proves by ...
6
votes
2answers
229 views

recurrence relation $f(n)=5f(n/2)-6f(n/4) + n$

I've been trying to solve this recurrence relation for a week, but I haven't come up with a solution. $f(n)=5f(n/2)-6f(n/4) + n$ Solve this recurrence relation for $f(1)=2$ and $f(2)=1$ At first ...
4
votes
5answers
269 views

$A \oplus B = A \oplus C$ imply $B = C$?

I don't quite yet understand how $\oplus$ (xor) works yet. I know that fundamentally in terms of truth tables it means only 1 value(p or q) can be true, but not both. But when it comes to solving ...
3
votes
2answers
414 views

What is the probability that $x_1+x_2+…+x_n \le n$?

Given that $X_1, X_2...$ are mutually independent random variables. For each $i$ with $1\le i \le n$ the variable $X_i$ is equal to either $0$ or $n+1$ $E(X_i)$ = $1$ also.. if $X_i$ is equal to ...
10
votes
4answers
76k views

What five odd integers have a sum of $30$?

I've been asked the following question: What five odd integers from the set $\{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15\}$ that when summed together equals to $30$? Note that any integer can be used more than ...
1
vote
2answers
218 views

Let $(a,b)$ and $(c,d)$ be intervals in $\Bbb R$, and find an injective and surjective function from $(a,b)$ to $(c,d)$

So here is this question I got stuck on: Let $(a,b)$, $(c,d)$ be intervals (not sure if that's the correct term) on $\Bbb R$, so that $a<b$, $c<d$. Find an injective and surjective function ...
5
votes
4answers
5k views

What is the solution to the following recurrence relation with square root: $T(n)=T (\sqrt{n}) + 1$?

This looks like a question asked earlier, but it isn't. $$T(n)=\begin{cases} T (\sqrt{n}) + 1 \quad & \text{ if } n>1 \\ 1 & \text{ if }n=1\end{cases}$$ My professor gave this to me in ...
2
votes
3answers
125 views

How to prove this statement: $\binom{r}{r}+\binom{r+1}{r}+\cdots+\binom{n}{r}=\binom{n+1}{r+1}$

Let $n$ and $r$ be positive integers with $n \ge r$. Prove that Still a beginner here. Need to learn formatting. I am guessing by induction? Not sure what or how to go forward with this. Need help ...
6
votes
1answer
298 views

convoluted recurrence: $f(2n)=f(n)+f(n+1)+n, f(2n+1)=f(n)+f(n-1)+1$

For the recurrence relation: $f(0)=1$ $f(1)=1$ $f(2)=2$ $f(2n)=f(n)+f(n+1)+n\ \ \ (\forall n>1)$ $f(2n+1)=f(n)+f(n-1)+1\ \ \ (\forall n\ge 1)$ (the first numbers of the sequence are: 1, 1, 2, ...
5
votes
2answers
978 views

Number of combinations with repetitions (Constrained)

I would like to calculate the number of integral solutions to the equation $$x_1 + x_2 + \cdots + x_n = k$$ where $$a_1 \le x_1 \le b_1, a_2 \le x_2 \le b_2, a_3 \le x_3 \le b_3$$ and so on. ...
5
votes
4answers
1k views

Sum of cubes proof [duplicate]

Prove that for any natural number n the following equality holds: $$ (1+2+ \ldots + n)^2 = 1^3 + 2^3 + \ldots + n^3 $$ I think it has something to do with induction?
4
votes
4answers
2k views

Proving the sum of the first $n$ natural numbers by induction [duplicate]

I am currently studying proving by induction but I am faced with a problem. I need to solve by induction the following question. $$1+2+3+\ldots+n=\frac{1}{2}n(n+1)$$ for all $n > 1$. Any ...
4
votes
4answers
507 views

Determine whether $F(x)= 5x+10$ is $O(x^2)$

Please, can someone here help me to understand the Big-O notation in discrete mathematics? Determine whether $F(x)= 5x+10$ is $O(x^2)$
4
votes
2answers
301 views

Fermat's 2 Square-Like Results from Minkowski Lattice Proofs

Minkowski's Convex Body Theorem for lattices in the plane: Suppose $\mathfrak{L}$ is a lattice in $\mathbf{R}^2$ defined as $\mathfrak{L}=\{m\vec{v_1}+n\vec{v_2}:m,n\in\mathbf{Z}\}$, where ...
5
votes
2answers
7k views

Strong Mathematical Induction: Why More than One Base Case?

I am trying to understand this example of strong induction. I know normal induction. In normal induction, if base case is true then we assume some number $n$ to be true. Afterwards, we prove $n+1$ is ...
4
votes
3answers
966 views

Let $A$ be any uncountable set, and let $B$ be a countable subset of $A$. Prove that the cardinality of $A = A - B $

I am going over my professors answer to the following problem and to be honest I am quite confused :/ Help would be greatly appreciated! Let $A$ be any uncountable set, and let $B$ be a countable ...
4
votes
4answers
1k views

Prove by Mathematical Induction: $1(1!) + 2(2!) + \cdot \cdot \cdot +n(n!) = (n+1)!-1$

Prove by Mathematical Induction . . . $1(1!) + 2(2!) + \cdot \cdot \cdot +n(n!) = (n+1)!-1$ I tried solving it, but I got stuck near the end . . . a. Basis Step: $(1)(1!) = (1+1)!-1$ $1 = ...
18
votes
6answers
591 views

How to prove $\sum\limits_{k=0}^n{n \choose k}(k-1)^k(n-k+1)^{n-k-1}= n^n$?

How do I prove the following identity directly? $$\sum_{k=0}^n{n \choose k}(k-1)^k(n-k+1)^{n-k-1}= n^n$$ I thought about using the binomial theorem for $(x+a)^n$, but got stuck, because I realized ...
9
votes
4answers
298 views

Help with a recurrence with even and odd terms [duplicate]

I have the following recurrence that I've been pounding on: $$ a(0)=1\\ a(1)=1\\ a(2)=2\\ a(2n)=a(n)+a(n+1)+n\ \ \ (\forall n>1)\\ a(2n+1)=a(n)+a(n-1)+1\ \ \ (\forall n\ge 1) $$ I don't have much ...
21
votes
3answers
618 views

A (probably trivial) induction problem: $\sum_2^nk^{-2}\lt1$

So I'm a bit stuck on the following problem I'm attempting to solve. Essentially, I'm required to prove that $\frac{1}{2^2}+\frac{1}{3^2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{n^2} < 1$ for all $n$. I've been toiling ...
15
votes
3answers
2k views

Gay Speed Dating Problem

Here's an interesting problem that I came up with the other night. With straight speed dating, (assuming the number of men and women are equal) the number of iterations that need to be made before ...
2
votes
3answers
5k views

Using Euler's Totient Function, how do I find all values n such that $\phi(n)=12$?

How do I generalize the equation to be able to plug in any result for $\phi(n)=12$ and find any possible integer that works?
5
votes
4answers
272 views

Prove $\binom{n}{a}\binom{n-a}{b-a} = \binom{n}{b}\binom{b}{a}$

I want to prove this equation, $$ \binom{n}{a}\binom{n-a}{b-a} = \binom{n}{b}\binom{b}{a} $$ I thought of proving this equation by prove that you are using different ways to count the same set of ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Asymptotics for a partial sum of binomial coefficients

Good afternoon, I would like to ask, if anyone knows how to evaluate a sum $$\sum_{k=0}^{\lambda n}{n \choose k}$$ for fixed $\lambda < 1/2$ with absolute error $O(n^{-1})$, or better. In ...
4
votes
3answers
10k views

How many distinct functions can be defined from set A to B

In my discrete mathematics class our notes say that between set A (having 6 elements) and set b (having 8 elements), there are 8^6 distinct functions that can be formed, in other words: |b|^|a| ...
2
votes
2answers
96 views

(Counting problem) very interesting Modular N algebraic eqs - for combinatorics-permutation experts

Experts in algebra please help: we would like to know the number of solutions for this set of six of modular N algebraic equations: $$ (1) \quad x_1 y_2 \equiv x_2 y_1 \pmod{N}\\ (2) \quad x_1 y_3 ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Number of ways to put $n$ unlabeled balls in $k$ bins with a max of $m$ balls in each bin

The number of ways to put $n$ unlabeled balls in $k$ distinct bins is $$\binom{n+k-1}{k-1} .$$ Which makes sense to me, but what I can't figure out is how to modify this formula if each bucket has a ...
1
vote
3answers
5k views

Prove $(n^5-n)$ is divisible by 5 by induction.

So I started with a base case $n = 1$. This yields $5|0$, which is true since zero is divisible by any non zero number. I let $n = k >= 1$ and let $5|A = (k^5-k)$. Now I want to show $5|B = ...
2
votes
2answers
117 views

Divisibility of prime numbers

I have this exercise in my worksheet in the discrete mathematics course.I don't understand the part that deals with prime numbers in integer-divisibility. "Show that for a prime number $p$, if a ...
2
votes
3answers
477 views

number of ways to make $2.00

How many different ways can you make $2.00 using only 1 cent, 5 cent, 10 cent, and 25 cent pieces, and 1 and 2 dollar bills (there are 100 cents in a dollar)? I have worked out an equation: $$p + 5n ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

Discrete Math - Hasse Diagrams

This is one of many questions of similar type I have to do for an assignment and im troubled with what to do. The question is as follows: Consider a relation R defined on the set A = {−7, −6, −5, ...
32
votes
9answers
68k views

Maximum board position in 2048 game

A game called 2048 is making rounds on social media. I am trying to determine the maximum score attainable for this game. Let's assume WLOG that only 2s are returned (if 4s are possible the max score ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Combinatorial interpretation of Binomial Inversion

It is known that if $f_n = \sum\limits_{i=0}^{n} g_i \binom{n}{i}$ for all $0 \le n \le m$, then $g_n = \sum_{i=0}^{n} (-1)^{i+n} f_i \binom{n}{i}$ for $0 \le n \le m$. This sort of inversion is ...
13
votes
2answers
990 views

9 pirates have to divide 1000 coins…

A band of 9 pirates have just finished their latest conquest - looting, killing and sinking a ship. The loot amounts to 1000 gold coins. Arriving on a deserted island, they now have to split up the ...
7
votes
5answers
538 views

How does one find a formula for the recurrence relation $a_{1}=1,a_{2}=3, a_{n+2}=a_{n+1}+a_{n}?$

I am self-studying Discrete Mathematics, and I have two exercises to solve. Find a formula for the following recurrence relation: (translated from Portuguese) a) $a_{1}=3,a_{2}=5, ...
8
votes
3answers
4k views

Prove that if $2^n - 1$ is prime, then $n$ is prime for $n$ being a natural number

Prove that if $2^n - 1$ is prime, then $n$ is prime for $n$ being a natural number I've looked at http://math.stackexchange.com/a/19998 It is known that $2^n-1$ can only be prime if $n$ is ...