Questions on finding integer/rational solutions of polynomial equations.

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231
votes
12answers
29k views

Unusual 5th grade problem, how to solve it

Find a positive integer solution $(x,y,z,a,b)$ for which $$\frac{1}{x}+ \frac{1}{y} + \frac{1}{z} + \frac{1}{a} + \frac{1}{b} = 1\;.$$ Is your answer the only solution? If so, show why. I was ...
49
votes
6answers
4k views

$x^y = y^x$ for integers $x$ and $y$

We know that $2^4 = 4^2$ and $(-2)^{-4} = (-4)^{-2}$. Is there another pair of integers $x, y$ ($x\neq y$) which satisfies the equality $x^y = y^x$?
46
votes
5answers
2k views

Golden Number Theory

The Gaussian $\mathbb{Z}[i]$ and Eisenstein $\mathbb{Z}[\omega]$ integers have been used to solve some diophantine equations. I have never seen any examples of the golden integers ...
45
votes
3answers
713 views

Finding triplets $(a,b,c)$ such that $\sqrt{abc}\in\mathbb N$ divides $(a-1)(b-1)(c-1)$

When I was playing with numbers, I found that there are many triplets of three positive integers $(a,b,c)$ such that $\color{red}{2\le} a\le b\le c$ $\sqrt{abc}\in\mathbb N$ $\sqrt{abc}$ divides ...
40
votes
6answers
2k views

Is $\sqrt[3]{p+q\sqrt{3}}+\sqrt[3]{p-q\sqrt{3}}=n$, $(p,q,n)\in\mathbb{N} ^3$ solvable?

In this recent answer to this question by Eesu, Vladimir Reshetnikov proved that $$ \begin{equation} \left( 26+15\sqrt{3}\right) ^{1/3}+\left( 26-15\sqrt{3}\right) ^{1/3}=4.\tag{1} \end{equation} $$ ...
39
votes
5answers
942 views

Generalizing the sum of consecutive cubes $\sum_{k=1}^n k^3 = \Big(\sum_{k=1}^n k\Big)^2$ to other odd powers

We have, $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^3 = \Big(\sum_{k=1}^n k\Big)^2$$ $$2\sum_{k=1}^n k^5 = -\Big(\sum_{k=1}^n k\Big)^2+3\Big(\sum_{k=1}^n k^2\Big)^2$$ $$2\sum_{k=1}^n k^7 = \Big(\sum_{k=1}^n ...
37
votes
3answers
1k views

Triangular Factorials

I came across a statement online and have been looking for a proof : It states that 1, 6 and 120 are the only numbers which are both triangular and factorials. Is there any way I can prove this? ...
37
votes
3answers
1k views

Solutions to $\binom{n}{5} = 2 \binom{m}{5}$

In Finite Mathematics by Lial et al. (10th ed.), problem 8.3.34 says: On National Public Radio, the Weekend Edition program posed the following probability problem: Given a certain number of ...
35
votes
2answers
2k views

Decomposing polynomials with integer coefficients

Can every quadratic with integer coefficients be written as a sum of two polynomials with integer roots? (Any constant $k \in \mathbb{Z}$, including $0$, is also allowed as a term for simplicity's ...
35
votes
2answers
580 views

Is $n(n+1)$ ever a factorial?

Brocard's problem asks if $(n-1)(n+1)$ is ever a factorial. My question is similar: is $n(n+1)$ ever a factorial? This can be seen as the special case $k=2$ of the question: for $2\le k\le n-2,$ when ...
33
votes
2answers
1k views

Any positive integer solutions to $x^6+y^{10}=z^{15}$?

This question might be easy. The hard question is this: prove that if $a,b,c\geq3$ then there are no solutions in positive integers $x,y,z$ to $x^a+y^b=z^c$ with $x,y,z$ coprime. This implies Fermat, ...
33
votes
4answers
920 views

Conjecture: Only one Fibonacci number is the sum of two cubes

As the title says, I need help proving or disproving that there is only one Fibonacci number that's the sum of two (positive) cubes, $2$. I did a small brute force test with Fibonacci numbers below ...
31
votes
2answers
715 views

Finding integer solutions for trigonometric equation $8\sin^2\left(\frac{(k+1)\pi}{n}\right)=n\sin\left(\frac{2\pi}{n}\right)$

I thought up the problem of finding a regular $n$-sided polygon that has a diagonal with lenght $d_k$ such that the area of the polygon equals ${d_k}^2$. By doing some easy trigonometry within the ...
29
votes
2answers
896 views

Does $2x^2-1=y^5$ have a solution in integers, with $y>1$?

In my solution to this MSE problem, I noted that $2x^2-1=y^5$ is unlikely to have solutions in integers with $y>1$. Recently, I've tried to find a proof, without success. Following Thomas ...
29
votes
2answers
2k views

Does the equation $x^4+y^4+1 = z^2$ have a non-trivial solution?

The background of this question is this: Fermat proved that the equation, $$x^4+y^4 = z^2$$ has no solution in the positive integers. If we consider the near-miss, $$x^4+y^4-1 = z^2$$ then this has ...
28
votes
2answers
518 views

Find $a,b,c,d,e$ such that $\dfrac{s}a+1,\dfrac{s}b+1,\dfrac{s}c+1,\dfrac{s}d+1,\dfrac{s}e+1$ are all perfect squares $ (s=abcde)$

Are there five distinct positive integers $a,b,c,d,e$ such that $\dfrac{s}a+1,\dfrac{s}b+1,\dfrac{s}c+1,\dfrac{s}d+1,\dfrac{s}e+1$ are all perfect squares ? $ (s=abcde)$ If ...
28
votes
1answer
511 views

For integers $a\ge b\ge 2$, is $f(a,b) = a^b + b^a$ injective?

Given two integers $a \ge b \ge 2$, can we encode them as a unique integer $a^b + b^a$? This question was asked a few weeks ago, but did not rule out the trivial cases. For example, if we ...
26
votes
5answers
655 views

When is $1^5 + 2^5 + \ldots + n^5$ a square?

When is $1^5 + 2^5 + \ldots + n^5$ a square? I found that this happens sometimes: $n=13$ gives $1001^2$, $n=133$ gives $9712992^2$ and $n=1321$ gives $942162299^2$. I feel that the ...
26
votes
2answers
2k views

Diophantine applications of Spec?

Let $f(\bar x)$ be a multivariable polynomial with integer coefficients. The zeros of that polynomial are in bijection with the homomorphisms $\mathbb Z[\bar x] \rightarrow \mathbb Z$ that factor ...
25
votes
1answer
2k views

How to compute rational or integer points on elliptic curves

This is an attempt to get someone to write a canonical answer, as discussed in this meta thread. We often have people come to us asking for solutions to a diophantine equation which, after some clever ...
24
votes
4answers
710 views

Minimum of $n$? $123456789x^2 - 987654321y^2 =n$ ($x$,$y$ and $n$ are positive integers)

What is the minimum of $n$? $x$,$y$ and $n$ are positive integers, find the minimum of $n$, such that: $123456789x^2 - 987654321y^2 =n$
24
votes
6answers
615 views

Examples of Diophantine equations with a large finite number of solutions

I wonder, if there are examples of Diophantine equations (or systems of such equations) with integer coefficients fitting on a few lines that have been proven to have a finite, but really huge number ...
23
votes
3answers
19k views

How to find solutions of linear Diophantine ax + by = c?

I want to find a set of integer solutions of Diophantine equation: $ax + by = c$, and apparently $\gcd(a,b)|c$. Then by what formula can I use to find $x$ and $y$ ? I tried to play around with it: ...
23
votes
3answers
716 views

Find integer in the form: $\frac{a}{b+c} + \frac{b}{c+a} + \frac{c}{a+b}$

Let $a,b,c \in \mathbb N$ find integer in the form: $$I=\frac{a}{b+c} + \frac{b}{c+a} + \frac{c} {a+b}$$ Using Nesbitt's inequality: $I \ge \frac 32$ I am trying to prove $I \le 2$ to implies ...
23
votes
2answers
1k views

Does an elementary solution exist to $x^2+1=y^3$?

Prove that there are no positive integer solutions to $$x^2+1=y^3$$ This problem is easy if you apply Catalans conjecture and still doable talking about Gaussian integers and UFD's. However, can this ...
22
votes
8answers
2k views

Variation of Pythagorean triplets: $x^2+y^2 = z^3$

I need to prove that the equation $x^2 + y^2 = z^3$ has infinitely many solutions for positive $x, y$ and $z$. I got to as far as $4^3 = 8^2$ but that seems to be of no help. Can some one help me ...
22
votes
1answer
360 views

Is there any integer solutions of $3x^3+3x+7=y^3$?

$3x^3+3x+7=y^3$ $x, y \in \mathbb{N}$ Having thought about it two hours, and I'm still not sure how to show there actually aren't any integer solutions. EDIT Another formulation of this problem: ...
21
votes
6answers
3k views

Integral solution for $|x | + | y | + | z | = 10$

How can I find the number of integral solution to the equation $|x | + | y | + | z | = 10.$ I am using the formula, Number of integral solutions for $|x| +|y| +|z| = p$ is $(4P^2) +2 $, So the ...
20
votes
3answers
2k views

Find all the integral solutions to $x^6-y^6+3x^4y-3y^4x+y^3+3x^2+3x+1=0$

If $x,y\in\mathbb{Z}_{+}$, then find all the integral solutions to: $$x^6-y^6+3x^4y-3y^4x+y^3+3x^2+3x+1=0$$ I tried solving this question for an hour but still couldn't get it. I tried ...
20
votes
1answer
504 views

Integer solutions of $x! = y! + z!$

There was an interesting problem asked about triples $(x,y,z)$ which are solutions of $$x! = y! + z!.$$ Here $(2,1,1)$ is a solution because $2! = 1! + 1!$, as are $(2,1,0)$ and $(2,0,1)$. Now I ...
20
votes
3answers
1k views

Finding all integer solutions of $5^x+7^y=2^z$

Find all integers $x,y,z$ such that $5^x+7^y=2^z$. This one comes from an online contest that I arranged some years ago, and I can assure that a completely elementary solution exists.
18
votes
2answers
346 views

All positive integer solutions to $\frac{1}{x_1}+\frac{1}{x_2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{x_n}+\frac{1}{x_1 x_2 \cdots x_n}=1$

As the title states, how would I go about finding the positive integer solutions of $$\frac{1}{x_1}+\frac{1}{x_2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{x_n}+\frac{1}{x_1 x_2 \cdots x_n}=1$$? Thank you for your help. ...
17
votes
3answers
370 views

Is it possible that $(x+2)(x+1)x=3(y+2)(y+1)y$ for positive integers $x$ and $y$?

Let $x$ and $y$ be positive integers. Is it possible that $(x+2)(x+1)x=3(y+2)(y+1)y$? I ran a program for $1\le{x,y}\le1\text{ }000\text{ }000$ and found no solution, so I believe there are none.
17
votes
1answer
525 views

More elliptic curves for $x^4+y^4+z^4 = 1$?

(Note: This has been updated to be similar with this MO post.) There are exactly 22 known primitive solutions to, $$a^4+b^4+c^4 = d^4\tag{1}$$ with $d<10^{11}$. Noam Elkies showed that $(1)$ as, ...
17
votes
1answer
491 views

Finding solutions to equation of the form $1+x+x^{2} + \cdots + x^{m} = y^{n}$

Exercise $12$ in Section $1.6$ of Nathanson's : Methods in Number Theory book has the following question. When is the sum of a geometric progression equal to a power? Equivalently, what are ...
17
votes
2answers
369 views

Are there $a,b>1$ with $a^4\equiv 1 \pmod{b^2}$ and $b^4\equiv1 \pmod{a^2}$?

Are there solutions in integers $a,b>1$ to the following simultaneous congruences? $$ a^4\equiv 1 \pmod{b^2} \quad \mathrm{and} \quad b^4\equiv1 \pmod{a^2} $$ A brute-force search didn't turn up ...
16
votes
2answers
1k views

Find all integer solutions for the equation $|5x^2 - y^2| = 4$

In a paper that I wrote as an undergraduate student, I conjectured that the only integer solutions to the equation $$|5x^2 - y^2| = 4$$ occur when $x$ is a Fibonacci number and $y$ is a Lucas number. ...
16
votes
3answers
1k views

Prove that $x^3 + y^3 = z^3$ has no integer solutions as briefly as possible

Can someone provide the proof of the special case of Fermat's Last Theorem for $n=3$, i.e., that $$ x^3 + y^3 = z^3, $$ has no positive integer solutions, as briefly as possible? I have seen some ...
16
votes
5answers
4k views

Fermat's Last Theorem near misses?

I've recently seen a video of Numberphille channel on Youtube about Fermat's Last Theorem. It talks about how there is a given "solution" for the Fermat's Last Theorem for $n>2$ in the animated ...
16
votes
2answers
405 views

Integer values of $\frac{x}{y}+\frac{y}{z}+\frac{z}{x}$?

What are the possible integer values of $$\frac{x}{y}+\frac{y}{z}+\frac{z}{x}$$ where $x$, $y$, and $z$ are positive integers? My suspicion is the the only integer values are $3$ and $5$, the former ...
16
votes
2answers
293 views

Do there exist an infinite number of integer-solutions $(x,y,z)$ of $x^x\cdot y^y=z^z$ where $1\lt x\le y$?

Question : Do there exist an infinite number of integer-solutions $(x,y,z)$ of $x^x\cdot y^y=z^z$ where $1\lt x\le y$ ? Motivation : After struggling to find a solution, I've just got one solution, ...
16
votes
2answers
758 views

$(x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)=ex$

We can verify that $x=125,162,343$ are the roots of equation $(x-105)(x-210)(x-315)=2584x$. My question is,Could you find five positive integers $a,b,c,d,e$, which $(x-a)(x-b)(x-c)(x-d)=ex$ has four ...
15
votes
5answers
1k views

Linear diophantine equation $100x - 23y = -19$

I need help with this equation: $$100x - 23y = -19.$$ When I plug this into Wolfram|Alpha, one of the integer solutions is $x = 23n + 12$ where $n$ is a subset of all the integers, but I can't seem ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

Are there integer solutions to $9^x - 8^y = 1$?

This came up in proving non-regularity of a certain language (powers of 2 over the ternary alphabet). Any clue to the above equation could help me move forward. Edit: Of course, $x = 1, y = 1$ is a ...
15
votes
4answers
2k views

$n!+1$ being a perfect square

One observes that $4!+1 =25=5^{2}$, $5!+1=121=11^{2}$ is a perfect square. Similarly for $n=7$ also we see that $n!+1$ is a perfect square. So one can ask the truth of this question: Is $n!+1$ a ...
15
votes
2answers
379 views

Solution in integers to $2^n+n=3^m$

How to find all positive integers $m,n$ such that $2^n+n=3^m$ ? We have by inspection $(m,n)=(0,0)$ and $(1,1)$ And there are no more for m and n both less then $100$.
14
votes
4answers
1k views

Can n! be a perfect square when n is an integer greater than 1?

Can n! be a perfect square when n is an integer greater than 1?
14
votes
2answers
868 views

What is the simplest ellipse that goes through exactly 13 lattice points?

The ellipse $-30 x + 3 x^2 - 10 y - 3 x y + 4 y^2$ goes through exactly 11 lattice points. Another such ellipse is $4 - 30 x + 2 x^2 - 5 y - x y + 3 y^2$. What is the simplest ellipse that goes ...
14
votes
3answers
563 views

$x,y$ are integers satisfying $2x^2-1=y^{15}$, show that $5 \mid x$

Let $x, y >1$ be integers satisfying $2x^2-1=y^{15}$. How can I prove that $5 \mid x$?
14
votes
4answers
554 views

Tricky positive diophantine equation

Find all positive integer solutions to the equation $x^3=y^5+100$. Notice that $7^3=3^5+100$ is a solution, but I can't find any more. Thanks for your help! P.S. I don't know any advanced number ...