For questions about approximating real numbers by rational numbers.

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75
votes
14answers
10k views

Can the golden ratio accurately be expressed in terms of e and $\pi$

I was playing around with numbers when I noticed that $\sqrt e$ was very somewhat close to $\phi$ And so, I took it upon myself to try to find a way to express the golden ratio in terms of the ...
43
votes
3answers
2k views

Does the series $ \sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^{1 + |\sin(n)|}} $ converge or diverge?

Does the following series converge or diverge? I would like to see a demonstration. $$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^{1 + |\sin(n)|}}. $$ I can see that: $$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^{1 + ...
31
votes
0answers
1k views

Irrationality of $e$

I have a question about the irrationality of $e$: In proving the irrationality of $e$, one can prove the irrationality of $e^{-1}$ by using the series $$e^x = 1+x+\frac{x^2}{2!} + \cdots + ...
29
votes
4answers
3k views

Proving that $m+n\sqrt{2}$ is dense in R

I am having trouble proving the statement: Let $S = \{m + n\sqrt 2 : m, n \in\mathbb Z\}$. Prove for every $\epsilon > 0$, The intersection of $S$ and $(0, \epsilon)$ is nonempty.
23
votes
2answers
874 views

Is there any real number except 1 which is equal to its own irrationality measure?

Is there any real number except $1$ which is equal to its own irrationality measure? If so, then what is the cardinality of the set of all such numbers? Is the set dense on any interval? Is it ...
21
votes
1answer
517 views

Irrationality of $\sum_{p\in\mathbb{P}} \frac{1}{2^{p}}$

Let $\mathbb{P}$ be the set of prime numbers, and consider $m=\displaystyle\sum_{p\in\mathbb{P}} \frac{1}{2^{p}}$. Is $m$ irrational? In the following paper, the author recalls several sufficient ...
20
votes
5answers
5k views

Fermat's Last Theorem near misses?

I've recently seen a video of Numberphille channel on Youtube about Fermat's Last Theorem. It talks about how there is a given "solution" for the Fermat's Last Theorem for $n>2$ in the animated ...
16
votes
1answer
284 views

Does $ \sqrt[n]{\left\lvert \sin(2^n) \right\rvert} $ have a limit?

The entire question is essentially given in the title: For $ n $ a positive integer, does the sequence $ x_n = \sqrt[n]{\left\lvert \sin(2^n) \right\rvert} $ have a limit as $ n \to \infty $? ...
15
votes
1answer
686 views

Is there a 'far' irrational number?

I recently learned of so-called 'far' numbers at a talk. In the talk, it was proven that there is a dense subset of the interval $[0,1]$ of far numbers (however, far numbers were only a minor point of ...
15
votes
1answer
362 views

Why is an irrational number's algebraic complexity the opposite of its Diophantine complexity?

Definition 1. Given $x \in \Bbb{R}$, the algebraic degree of $x$ is the degree of the minimal polynomial of $x$ over $\Bbb{Q}$. If $x$ is transcendental, we will define its algebraic degree to be ...
15
votes
0answers
410 views

Two questions about weakly convergent series related to $\sin(n^2)$ and Weyl's inequality

By using partial summation and Weyl's inequality, it is not hard to show that the series $\sum_{n\geq 1}\frac{\sin(n^2)}{n}$ is convergent. Is is true that ...
14
votes
1answer
615 views

Does the sequence $\{\sin^n(n)\}$ converge?

Does the sequence $\{\sin^n(n)\}$ converge? Does the series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty \sin^n(n)$ converge?
14
votes
1answer
470 views

$\pi^4 + \pi^5 \approx e^6$ is anything special going on here?

Saw it in the news: $$(\pi^4 + \pi^5)^{\Large\frac16} \approx 2.71828180861$$ Is this just pigeon-hole? DISCUSSION: counterfeit $e$ using $\pi$'s Given enough integers and $\pi$'s we can ...
13
votes
3answers
879 views

Calculate $\lim_{n \to \infty} \sqrt[n]{|\sin n|}$

I am having trouble calculating the following limit: $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \sqrt[n]{|\sin n|}\ .$$
13
votes
2answers
156 views

Accumulation points of $ \{x_n \in \mathbb{R}, n \in \mathbb{N} \ \ | \ x_n = n\sin(n) \}$? [duplicate]

A younger student asked me: What are accumulation points of the following set? $$ \{x_n \in \mathbb{R}, n \in \mathbb{N} \ \ | \ x_n = n\sin(n) \}$$ I really can't answer this question, could ...
12
votes
3answers
577 views

When is a sequence $(x_n) \subset [0,1]$ dense in $[0,1]$?

Weyl's criterion states that a sequence $(x_n) \subset [0,1]$ is equidistributed if and only if $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{1}{n}\sum_{j = 0}^{n-1}e^{2\pi i \ell x_j} = 0$$ for ever non-zero integer ...
11
votes
1answer
202 views

What is the sum of the squares of the differences of consecutive element of a Farey Sequence

A Farey sequence of order $n$ is a list of the rational numbers between 0 and 1 inclusive whose denominator is less than or equal to $n$. For example $F_6= ...
11
votes
2answers
348 views

How was this approximation of $\pi$ involving $\sqrt{5}$ arrived at?

The Wikipedia article for Approximations of $\pi$ contains this little gem: $$ \pi \approx \frac{63}{25}\times\frac{17 + 15\sqrt{5}}{7 + 15\sqrt{5}} $$ which is clearly in $\mathbb{Q[\sqrt{5}]}$. ...
10
votes
3answers
182 views

Why does $29^2 : 31^2 : 41^2$ have a close integer approximation with small numbers?

"Everybody knows" that such coincidences as $$2\times2\times\overbrace{41\times41} = 6724 \approx 6728 = 2\times2\times2\times\overbrace{29\times29}$$ (And why did I bother with the first two ...
10
votes
1answer
429 views

For a trigonometric polynomial $P$, can $\lim \limits_{n \to \infty} P(n^2) = 0$ without $P(n^2) = 0$?

Disclaimer: The original version of this question focused on $2^n$ in lieu of $n^2$. It is in the hope that the question is easier with $n^2$ that I changed it. I have an always-nonnegative (on the ...
9
votes
3answers
579 views

A series to prove $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$

After T. Piezas answered Is there a series to show $22\pi^4>2143\,$? a natural question is Is there a series that proves $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$? One such series may be found combining ...
8
votes
2answers
216 views

Convergence of the sequence $\frac{1}{e^k \sin{k}}$

Does the sequence $\frac{1}{e^k \sin{k}}$ converge? If $\sin{k}$ acts as a random variable (taking on values in $(-1, 1)$), then it seems like we should be able to prove that the sequence converges ...
8
votes
2answers
693 views

Applying the Thue-Siegel Theorem

Let $p(n)$ be the greatest prime divisor of $n$. Chowla proved here that $p(n^2+1) > C \ln \ln n $ for some $C$ and all $n > 1$. At the beginning of the paper, he mentions briefly that the ...
8
votes
1answer
112 views

Near-integer solutions to $y=x(1+2\sqrt{2})$ given by sequence - why?

EDIT: I've asked the same basic question in its more progressed state. If that one gets answered, I'll probably accept the answer given below (although I'm uncertain of whether or not this is the ...
8
votes
1answer
114 views

Do best lower approximations of a quadratic irrational always form a linear recurrence sequence?

Let $\theta$ be an irrational number and let $$ {\cal L}= \bigg\lbrace (a,b) \in {\mathbb Z} \times {\mathbb N}^{*} \bigg| \frac{a}{b} \leq \theta \bigg\rbrace $$ and $$ {\cal B}= \bigg\lbrace ...
7
votes
5answers
788 views

Is π unusually close to 7920/2521?

EDIT: One can look at a particular type of approximation to $\pi$ based on comparing radians to degrees. If you try to approximate $\pi$ by fractions of the form $180n/(360k+1)$, you can find that ...
7
votes
2answers
173 views

Lower bound on $|a+b \sqrt{2} + c \sqrt{3}|$

I have stumbled across this question: Let $a,b,c$ be integers, not all $0$ such that $\max(|a|,|b|,|c|)<10^6$. Prove that $|a+b \sqrt{2} + c \sqrt{3}| > 10^{-21}$. Could anybody help by ...
7
votes
1answer
196 views

Floor function inequality $\lfloor a\sqrt{2}\rfloor\lfloor b\sqrt{7}\rfloor <\lfloor ab\sqrt{14}\rfloor$

Let $a,b$ be positive integers. Show that $\lfloor a\sqrt{2}\rfloor\lfloor b\sqrt{7}\rfloor <\lfloor ab\sqrt{14}\rfloor$. [Source: Russian competition problem]
7
votes
1answer
189 views

Diophantine equation $x^3+x+y^3+y = z^3 + z$ for $x,y,z>0$

Consider the Diophantine equation $x^3+x+y^3+y = z^3 + z$ for positive integer $x,y,z$. I tried small values and got some near equalities : $(5,6,7)$ and $(12,16,18)$ are true up to value $2$. $( 5^3 ...
7
votes
1answer
48 views

How to write $\sqrt{4x^2 - 3}$ in the ring $\mathbb{Q}[x]/(x^3 - x - 1)$?

Consider the irreducible cubic equation $x^3 - x - 1 = 0$ and suppose we one of the roots $x$. The other two are $a,b$ such that $x + a + b = 0$ and $xab = 1$. Then $a$ and $b$ satisfy a quadratic ...
7
votes
1answer
157 views

badly approximated numbers on the real line form a meagre set

Let $S$ be the set of real numbers $x$ such that there exist infinitely many (reduced) rational numbers $p/q$ such that $$\left\vert x-\frac{p}{q}\right\vert <\frac{1}{q^8}.$$ I would like to prove ...
6
votes
1answer
931 views

Cube roots don't sum up to integer

My question looks quite obvious, but I'm looking for a strict proof for this. (At least, I assume it's true what I claim.) Why can't the sum of two cube roots of positive non-perfect cubes be an ...
6
votes
1answer
162 views

Finding near-integers in a range

I have a (transcendental) constant $\alpha$ and a fixed parameter $\varepsilon>0.$ I'd like to find all positive integers $n<\ell$ for which $\|n\alpha\|<\varepsilon,$ where $\|x\|$ is the ...
6
votes
2answers
75 views

Specification of Hurwitz's Theorem

Hurwitz's Theorem in Number Theory states that for every irrational number $\xi$, the equation $$\left|\xi-\frac{p}{q}\right|<\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}q^2}$$ has infinitely many solutions $(p,q)$ ...
6
votes
0answers
105 views

An integral for $2\pi+e-9$

Motivation Lucian asked about the almost-integer $2\pi+e\approx9$ in a comment to a partially answered why question about $e\approx H_8$. This is more involved than approximations to $\pi$ and ...
5
votes
2answers
78 views

Closeness of $n! \ x$ to integers for irrational $x$

This question came up in the comments to another question. Is there an irrational number $x$ such that, for sufficiently large $n$, the product $$ n! \ x $$ is arbitrarily close to an integer? More ...
5
votes
1answer
59 views

Can finite sums of two numbers come arbitrarily close to zero?

Given two real numbers $a$ and $b$, define an $a$-$b$-sum as a finite sum of $a$'s and $b$'s, i.e. a sum: $$m\cdot a + n\cdot b$$ where $m,n$ are non-negative integers. Is there a pair of numbers ...
5
votes
2answers
240 views

The real part of $z^n$

Prove that $${\displaystyle\lim \limits_{n \to +\infty}{|r^ncos(nθ)|}}=+\infty,$$ where $n$ is integer, $r>1$, $θ/π$ is irrational. I got this problem from here $1+x+\ldots+x^n$ perfect square , ...
5
votes
1answer
184 views

Estimating $\#\{\{\alpha k\} < 1/\sqrt{k} : k \leq n\}$ for irrational $\alpha$

Suppose $\{\alpha n\}$ is the fractional part of $\alpha n$. Put $$A_{\alpha}(n) = \#\{\{\alpha k\} < 1/\sqrt{k} : k \leq n\}.$$ If $\alpha$ is irrational, can I find some constant $K$ such that ...
5
votes
1answer
115 views

Intuition behind proof in the Rudin book that there is no largest/smallest real number. [duplicate]

In Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis (3rd ed), he proves (at the very beginning: example 1.1) that the set $A$ of all positive rationals $p$ such that $p^2<2$ contains no largest number ...
5
votes
1answer
456 views

Discrete rational rotations on the two dimensional torus

It is well known (Kronecker's Theorem) that "irrational rotations" are dense on $[0,1)$. That is, the set $$ \{ x+nr\mod 1 : n \in \mathbb{N} \} $$ is dense on $[0,1)$, provided that $r$ is ...
5
votes
0answers
176 views

Diophantine approximation with additional constraints

I am trying to compute best rational approximations to various transcendental numbers $c$, subject to the following constraints: $$\frac {i j} {2^k} = c + \epsilon, \space\space2^n \le i, j \lt ...
5
votes
0answers
76 views

finding very small values of $r + s\sqrt p + t\sqrt q$

For integers $p$, $q$ I'm interested in finding good approximations to $0$ of the form $r + s\sqrt p + t\sqrt q$ for rational $r$, $s$ and $t$. In particular, I'd like to generate approximations ...
4
votes
2answers
219 views

Is $e^{e^9}$ an integer?

I mean, of course $e^{e^9}$ is not an integer, but can we prove this? If you're thinking of asking Wolfram|Alpha, be warned: it gives different answers to the questions "is exp(exp(9)) an integer" (WA ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

Approximation of irrational numbers?

Problem Suppose $\theta>1$ is an irrational algebraic integer, i.e. $\theta\not\in\mathbb Z$ but satisfies a monic polynomial with integer coefficients, and $\{a_n\}_{n\ge0}$ is a sequence of ...
4
votes
1answer
72 views

Problem with inequality: $ \left| \sqrt{2}-\frac{p}{q} \right| > \frac{1}{3q^2}$

Prove that for for all $p,q\in \mathbb{Z}$, $q>0$ we have: $$ \left| \sqrt{2}-\frac{p}{q} \right| > \frac{1}{3q^2}. $$ To be honest, I do not know where to start - any help would be ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

Prove that powers of any fixed prime $p$ contain arbitrarily many consecutive equal digits.

Prove that powers of any fixed prime $p$ contain arbitrarily many consecutive equal digits. It is an intuitive re-statement of Baltic Way 2012 (I think there are shortlists in Baltic Way every ...
4
votes
1answer
54 views

An uncountable and closed subset of the Liouville Numbers

I am trying to "find" a closed and uncountable subset of the Liouville's numbers. $x\in L$ means that for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$ exists $p,q\in \mathbb{Z}$ with $q>1$ such that $$0<\vert ...
4
votes
1answer
362 views

Kronecker's theorem - converse

I don't know how to prove that Kronecker's theorem is false if $\alpha_{1}$, $\alpha_{2}$, $\dots$, $\alpha_{M}$ are not independent. Kronecker's theorem Suppose that $\alpha_{1}$, ...
4
votes
1answer
64 views

Proving that sequence elements satisfy inequality involving $\mod{1}$

I'm trying to prove that $n(3-\sqrt{8}) \; (\!\!\! \mod{1}) < m(3-\sqrt{8}) \; (\!\!\! \mod{1})\;\; \forall \; m < n \;|\;n,m \in \mathbb{N}$ $\leftrightarrow n \in ...