For questions about approximating real numbers by rational numbers.

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1answer
44 views

$d^{1/3}$ badly approx. $\iff$ $d^{2/3}$ is badly approx.

Let $d$ be an integer, that is not a cube of any integer. Show that $d^{1/3}$ is badly approximable iff $d^{2/3}$ is also. Badly approximable means that, there is a contant $C$ s.t. $\lvert \beta-\...
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0answers
46 views

Non-constructive proofs for the rationality of a number

One of the key ideas in transcedental number theory is proving that a number is transcedental (i.e. not the root of any polynomial with integer coefficients) by showing a sequence of rational numbers ...
2
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1answer
56 views

Hardy- Littlewood Circle Method

I'm currently trying to get to grips with the Hardy Littlewood circle method so I'm working through Vaughan's book. In the past I've been very bad for leaving a point behind if I don't follow it so I'...
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1answer
37 views

A step on the proof of Liouville's theorem on approximation

I'm having trouble following one step in the proof of Liouville's theorem on approximation of real algebraic numbers, from Murty and Rath's book "Transcendental Numbers". The step is: $$|\alpha-\...
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0answers
34 views

Prove that there are only finitely many rational numbers $p/q$ satisfying $|\frac{p}{q}-\sqrt[d]{b}|\leq \frac{C}{q^3}$.

This is a problem from Silverman & Tate's Rational Points on Elliptic Curves. The following is the Diophantine Approximation theorem by Thue which is proved in Chapter 5: Theorem. Let $b$ be a ...
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0answers
33 views

Solution of diophantine equation with lowest c

Lets say I have a diophantine equation , aX - bY = c Now, for some (a,b,c) I may not have any integer solution at all. But lets say , I write the equation in this way , aX - bY = c + p p is an ...
6
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2answers
200 views

Kernel of a Vandermonde like matrix

I am wondering how to show that the following matrix has trivial kernel: $$\begin{bmatrix} 1&1&1&1&1&1 \\ s_1&s_2&s_3&s_4&s_5&s_6 \\ s_1^2&s_2^2&...
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1answer
33 views

Product of denominators exceed $n$ in Farey sequence

Why in the $n$-th Farey sequence the product of the denominators of $2$ adjacent fractions exceed $n$ ($0$ and $1$ are excluded) ? I have a theorem of Hurwitz which states: For every irrational ...
3
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1answer
54 views

Infinitely many rationals with $|a-\frac pq|<\frac1{q^2}$

If $a$ is irrational, there are infinitely many $\frac pq$ s.t $|a-\frac pq|<\frac1{q^2}\tag1$ I have the proof but don't understand it: Take a finite set of rationals $S$ then for sufficiently ...
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3answers
57 views

Rational approximation of square roots

I'm trying to find the best way to solve for rational approximations of the square root of a number, given some pretty serious constraints on the operations I can use to calculate it. My criteria for ...
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0answers
14 views

Recursive definition of Minkowski ?(x) function

There is a fact that $?(\frac{a+b}{c+d}) = (?(\frac {a}{c}) + ?(\frac{b}{d})) / 2$ if a/c and b/d are adjanced elements of Farey sequence. How to prove it? I don't have any ideas at all.
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18 views

Intuition in understanding Minkowski question mark ?(x) function

There are 3 definitions of Minkowski function: 1) If $[a_0; a_1, ...]$ is a continuous function representation of n 2) Consider the different ways of interpreting an infinite string of bits ...
0
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1answer
30 views

Thue-Siegel-Roth Type Theorem

Dirichlet's approximation theorem says that for every real $\alpha$ and every positive integer $N$, there exist integers $p,q$ with $1 \leq q \leq N$ such that $$ |q\alpha - p| < \frac{1}{N}. $$ ...
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3answers
593 views

A series to prove $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$

After T. Piezas answered Is there a series to show $22\pi^4>2143\,$? a natural question is Is there a series that proves $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$? One such series may be found combining ...
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1answer
38 views

Finding irrational numbers in given interval

If $~\xi~$ is irrational number then it is known that the set $~\{ p \xi + q ~ | ~ p,q \in \mathbb{Z} \}~$ is dense in $~\mathbb{R}$. Thus given some reals $~a~$ and $~b~$ one can find integers $~p~$ ...
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0answers
93 views

Why does $63725\pi$ give four approximations to $\pi$?

The fraction $\frac{355}{113}$ was first used for approximating $\pi$ by the Chinese mathematician and astronomer Zu Chongzhi in the 5th century (see Milü). An isolated case? The almost-integer $113\...
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2answers
354 views

How was this approximation of $\pi$ involving $\sqrt{5}$ arrived at?

The Wikipedia article for Approximations of $\pi$ contains this little gem: $$ \pi \approx \frac{63}{25}\times\frac{17 + 15\sqrt{5}}{7 + 15\sqrt{5}} $$ which is clearly in $\mathbb{Q[\sqrt{5}]}$. ...
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4answers
4k views

Proving that $m+n\sqrt{2}$ is dense in R

I am having trouble proving the statement: Let $S = \{m + n\sqrt 2 : m, n \in\mathbb Z\}$. Prove for every $\epsilon > 0$, The intersection of $S$ and $(0, \epsilon)$ is nonempty.
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3answers
186 views

Why does $29^2 : 31^2 : 41^2$ have a close integer approximation with small numbers?

"Everybody knows" that such coincidences as $$2\times2\times\overbrace{41\times41} = 6724 \approx 6728 = 2\times2\times2\times\overbrace{29\times29}$$ (And why did I bother with the first two ...
2
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1answer
190 views

Existence of a simultaneous rational approximation of real numbers in (0,1)

I have a simple question the rational approximation of real vectors. Dirichlet's simultaneous approximation theorem states: Given any $d$ real numbers $\alpha_1,\ldots,\alpha_d$ and for every ...
3
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0answers
133 views

A particular Diophantine approximation of $\pi/2$.

Recently I was playing around with the sequence $$\frac{1}{n\sin(n)},\ n\in\mathbb{N}.$$ After some computations, I was led to the following question: let $p_n,q_n$ be two sequences of natural ...
6
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0answers
108 views

An integral for $2\pi+e-9$

Motivation Lucian asked about the almost-integer $2\pi+e\approx9$ in a comment to a partially answered why question about $e\approx H_8$. This is more involved than approximations to $\pi$ and ...
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1answer
32 views

Representations of some primes as $x^2-2y^2$?

I am looking for (elementary) proofs (idea of the proofs is also OK) or references to proofs of the followings: $$ p\equiv\pm1(\mod8)\longrightarrow p=x^2-2y^2 $$ Any help appreciated.
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1answer
485 views

$\pi^4 + \pi^5 \approx e^6$ is anything special going on here?

Saw it in the news: $$(\pi^4 + \pi^5)^{\Large\frac16} \approx 2.71828180861$$ Is this just pigeon-hole? DISCUSSION: counterfeit $e$ using $\pi$'s Given enough integers and $\pi$'s we can ...
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0answers
85 views

A double inequality for $\frac{\pi}{2}$

Approximating $\frac{\pi}{2}$ from above Since $$\left(\frac{\pi}{2}\right)^9\approx 58.220897$$ the root $$58^\frac{1}{9}\approx 1.5701$$ is not far from $$\frac{\pi}{2}\approx 1.570796$$ This ...
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1answer
29 views

Show that $\{p/q:|\frac{\sqrt5+1}{2}-p/q|<\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}q^2}\}=\{\frac{F_{2n+1}}{F_{2n}}:n\in\mathbb N\}$

Show that $\{p/q:|\frac{\sqrt5+1}{2}-p/q|<\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}q^2}\}=\{\frac{F_{2n+1}}{F_{2n}}:n\in\mathbb N\}$, where $F_n$ is the $n$-th Fibonacci number $2$ things to show $1$st, $\frac{F_{2n+1}}...
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2answers
28 views

General solution expressed in $a_0$ and $a_1$ of a Fibonacci-like sequence?

What is the general solution expressed in $a_0$ and $a_1$ of a Fibonacci-like sequence ? I mean if $a_0,a_1$ are given and $a_{n+1}:=a_n+a_{n-1}$ $(\begin{array}{cc}a_n&a_{n-1}\end{array})=(\...
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1answer
260 views

Series and integrals for inequalities and approximations to $\pi$

Fundamentals Two beautiful expressions that relate $\pi$ to its convergents are Dalzell integral $$\frac{22}{7}-\pi=\int_0^1\frac{x^4(1-x)^4}{1+x^2}dx$$ (see Why do we need an integral to prove ...
2
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1answer
114 views

Series and integrals for inequalities and approximations to $\log(n)$

The following series and integrals relate log(2) to its third and fourth convergents, $\frac{2}{3}$ and $\frac{7}{10}$. $$\begin{align} \log\left(2\right)-\frac{2}{3} &= \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{...
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2answers
155 views

A series of positive terms to prove $\pi>\frac{333}{106}$

This is a consequence of the answer to that question. A proof that $\pi > \frac{333}{106}$ is given by the series of positive terms $$\pi-\frac{333}{106} \\ =\frac{48}{371} \sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{...
4
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1answer
73 views

Problem with inequality: $ \left| \sqrt{2}-\frac{p}{q} \right| > \frac{1}{3q^2}$

Prove that for for all $p,q\in \mathbb{Z}$, $q>0$ we have: $$ \left| \sqrt{2}-\frac{p}{q} \right| > \frac{1}{3q^2}. $$ To be honest, I do not know where to start - any help would be appreciated....
77
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14answers
10k views

Can the golden ratio accurately be expressed in terms of e and $\pi$

I was playing around with numbers when I noticed that $\sqrt e$ was very somewhat close to $\phi$ And so, I took it upon myself to try to find a way to express the golden ratio in terms of the ...
1
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1answer
19 views

Diophantine approximation and covers

Suppose $\alpha > 2$. Let F be the set of real numbers $x \in [0,1]$ for which the inequality $||qx|| \le q^{1-\alpha}$ is satisified by infinitely many positive integers q. For each q, let $G_q$ ...
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0answers
36 views

What does $\log^3$ stand for in this paper by K. Győry?

In this paper from 1980 K. Győry proved an upper bound for the absolute value of the solutions to a given Thue-Mahler equation, but I don't understand what he meant with $\log^3$. Namely, consider a ...
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0answers
1k views

Irrationality of $e$

I have a question about the irrationality of $e$: In proving the irrationality of $e$, one can prove the irrationality of $e^{-1}$ by using the series $$e^x = 1+x+\frac{x^2}{2!} + \cdots + \frac{x^...
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1answer
48 views

finding rational complex numbers in a disk with least denominators

Suppose that I have a disk of radius $r$ around some complex $\alpha\in\mathbb{C}$: How would one find a complex number $g$ in that disk besides $\alpha$ such that $\mathrm{Re}(g)\in\mathbb{Q}$ ...
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1answer
64 views

Proving that sequence elements satisfy inequality involving $\mod{1}$

I'm trying to prove that $n(3-\sqrt{8}) \; (\!\!\! \mod{1}) < m(3-\sqrt{8}) \; (\!\!\! \mod{1})\;\; \forall \; m < n \;|\;n,m \in \mathbb{N}$ $\leftrightarrow n \in \{a_k:(a_k=6a_{k-1}-a_{...
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1answer
112 views

Near-integer solutions to $y=x(1+2\sqrt{2})$ given by sequence - why?

EDIT: I've asked the same basic question in its more progressed state. If that one gets answered, I'll probably accept the answer given below (although I'm uncertain of whether or not this is the ...
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2answers
93 views

Question on a constructive proof of irrationality of $\sqrt 2$

Here is the constructive proof of $\sqrt 2 \not \in \mathbb Q$ found on this page : Given positive integers $a$ and $b$, because the valuation (i.e., highest power of 2 dividing a number) of $2b^2$...
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0answers
35 views

Average of a certain diophantine function

Yesterday I was browsing math.se and came across this question. It was answered by a few people and the best answer was already accepted so I just read the question and the solutions to it. Then I ...
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0answers
38 views

Three-gap problem, easy version.

Let $N$ be a positive integer and $\theta$ an angle in $(0, 2\pi)$. Consider the map$$f: \{0, 1, 2, \dots, N-1, N\} \to \text{unit circle}, \text{ }f(k) = k\theta \text{ }(\text{mod } 2\pi).$$Show ...
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2answers
77 views

Specification of Hurwitz's Theorem

Hurwitz's Theorem in Number Theory states that for every irrational number $\xi$, the equation $$\left|\xi-\frac{p}{q}\right|<\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}q^2}$$ has infinitely many solutions $(p,q)$ ...
5
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1answer
72 views

Can finite sums of two numbers come arbitrarily close to zero?

Given two real numbers $a$ and $b$, define an $a$-$b$-sum as a finite sum of $a$'s and $b$'s, i.e. a sum: $$m\cdot a + n\cdot b$$ where $m,n$ are non-negative integers. Is there a pair of numbers $a&...
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1answer
55 views

An uncountable and closed subset of the Liouville Numbers

I am trying to "find" a closed and uncountable subset of the Liouville's numbers. $x\in L$ means that for all $n\in \mathbb{N}$ exists $p,q\in \mathbb{Z}$ with $q>1$ such that $$0<\vert x-\frac{...
4
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0answers
27 views

Approximation of a rational number with values of polynomial

Given two positive integers $p,\space q$, prove that there exist a polynomial $P(x)\in\mathbb{Z}[x]$ and interval $I\subseteq\mathbb{R}$ of length $\frac{1}{q}$ such that $\forall x\in I\space\space\...
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5answers
88 views

$10^9 \times \sqrt{3}$ what are first two digits after the decimal point?

Because of floating point error, my computer basically says $10^9 \sqrt{3} \approx 1.73205 \times 10^9$ so that if we ignore the numbers before the decimal point, the fractional part is: $$\{ 10^9 \...
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1answer
40 views

Best lower bounds on difference between powers

Let $a,b\in\Bbb N$ be fixed. What are the best known lower bounds on $|a^n-b^m|$ for $n,m\in\Bbb N$, provided the difference is not $0$? If $\frac{\log a}{\log b}$ is rational, then $a,b$ are of the ...
2
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1answer
49 views

Equation $x^2=y^p+1$

can you help me please for solving this dophantine equation $$x^2=y^p+1$$ and if you can give me a general method to studying such equation $$x²=y^p+t$$ Thanks
0
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1answer
45 views

How to find cases where $m^2$ is near to $2^A$?

In another problem here in MSE I ran into the question how I can (practically, in a program) find (positive) integer $m$ such that they are "near" to perfect powers of $2$, so $$ (0 \lt ) \qquad d_m ...
1
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2answers
71 views

Show that $\left| \sqrt2-\frac{h}{k} \right| \geq \frac{1}{4k^2},$ for any $k \in \mathbb{N}$ and $h \in \mathbb{Z}$.

Show that $$\left| \sqrt2-\frac{h}{k} \right| \geq \frac{1}{4k^2},$$ for any $k \in \mathbb{N}$ and $h \in \mathbb{Z}$. I tried many different ways to expand left side and estimate it but always got ...