Differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. It is closely related to differential geometry and together they make up the geometric theory of differentiable manifolds.

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Image of smooth manifold is a submanifold

It's know that if $M$ is a compact, smooth manifold of dimension $n$ and the map $f: M \to \mathbb{R^m}$ is injective, smooth, $n \le m$ and $Jf(a)$, the Jacobian, has rank $n$ for every $a \in M$, ...
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Differential of a Sobolev map between manifolds

Let $\Sigma, M$ be compact Riemannian manifolds. By embedding $M$ isometrically into $\mathbb{R}^N$, one can define the Sobolev spaces $W^{k,p}(\Sigma, M)$ by $$W^{k,p}(\Sigma,M) = \{ u \in ...
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Is there any notion for a certain type of embedding of a smooth curve in a 2-d euclidean space?

There is a smooth 1-manifold (a smooth curve of infinite arc length) embedded in a 2 dimensional euclidean space. This curve (of infinite arc length) is such that, there is one and only one point $P$ ...
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1k views

Good textbook or lecture notes on Seiberg-Witten theory.

I am looking for a good introductory book for Seiberg-Witten theory. The only textbook I have now is Morgan's "The Seiberg-Witten Equations and Applications to the Topology of Smooth Four-Manifolds". ...
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149 views

$f$ a differentiable map between manifolds of same dimension; $df(p)$ is nonsingular - show $f$ is an open map

Let $f: X \to Y$ be a differentiable map of manifolds where $dim \;X = dim\;Y = n$. If $df(p)$ is nonsingular for all $p \in X$, show $f$ is an open map. So here is what I was thinking: As $df(p)$ ...
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77 views

The decomposition of open set

If $U$ is an open set in $\mathbb R^n$, then there exists a sequence of open sets $\{U_i\}$, such that a.$U_i\subset \subset U_{i+1}$ (that is, ${\overline U _i}$ is compact and ${\overline U _i} ...
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196 views

Why don't we have many differential topologist

I am interested in learning differential topology as Milnor, Guillemin, Pollack, Hirsch, Kosinski, etc.. did it. However, I am in University of Toronto as an undergraduate and none of colleges (or ...
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78 views

A question on the kernel of the differential of two transverse maps

Let $P,Q,M$ be smooth manifolds, $f:P \rightarrow M$, $g:Q \rightarrow M$ be two smooth maps, which are transverse to each other. Denote by $Z$ the fiber product of $f$ and $g$, $Z=\{(p,q) \in P ...
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1answer
274 views

Method for showing a quotient map is locally homeomorphic

I'm new to Topology and need a little help in working out a general intuition of how to build proofs. I have a question that is asking me to show that a quotient map (from a topology onto it's ...
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253 views

Self Intersection and Euler characteristic

Reading the "Differential Topology" of V.Guillemin and A.Pollack, i found a definition of the Euler Characteristic different from the other one using the simplicial complex and betti number (ex. for ...
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204 views

The first fundamental form can NOT be identity

Let $f:V \to S^{2} \subset \mathbb{R}^{3}$ be a surface whose image is an open subset of the usual unit sphere $S^2$. Prove that there is NOT a change of variables $\phi: U \to V$ such that in the new ...
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241 views

Transversality condition

From my textbook: "If we examine linearizations of $f_\mu (x)$, (where $\dot{x}=f_\mu(x) \ x\in \mathbb{R}^n, \mu\in \mathbb{R}^2$) at the equilibria $f_\mu(x)=0$, then we can formulate a ...
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819 views

Transversal intersection.

In my textbook, it says: "Consider two curves in the plane, one of which is the x-axis, the other being the graph of a function $f(x)$. The two curves intersect transversally at a point x if $f(x)=0$ ...
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133 views

Highest DeRahm Cohomology

Let $X$ be a $C^\infty$ manifold, compact oriented and connected of dimension $n$. How do you prove that the integration map $$\int_X: \omega \mapsto \int_X \omega $$ from $H^n_{DR}(X)$ to ...
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1answer
93 views

Local compactness of $C^k(M,N)$ strong space.

Let $M$ and $N$ be two $C^k$ manifolds with $k\geq 1$, with $M$ non compact. I know that $C^k(M,N)$ with its strong (Whitney) topology isn't metrizable and that it's a Baire space. Can I prove that ...
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366 views

Intuition about pullbacks in differential geometry

I am struggling to understand the role of pullbacks after noticing that they are used when defining an integral of $k$-forms on a manifold. Let $F:M \to N$ be a map between differentiable manifolds. ...
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357 views

Smooth closed real plane curve intersecting itself at infinitely many points

Can a smooth closed real plane curve intersect itself at infinitely many points? It seems intuitively obvious that the answer should be no, yet I have no idea how to prove this or construct a ...
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1answer
192 views

Taking Differential Topology concurrently with Analysis

So I'm trying to finalize my schedule for this semester. I can't decide whether I should enroll in a grad level Differential Topology (Milnor) class or just the undergrad general topology one. The ...
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1answer
294 views

How to show the height function of a torus has 4 critical points

In $\mathbb{R}^3$, let $h$ be the height function of a torus standing vertically on the top of the table. A critical point of a function is those point where the differential of the function is a zero ...
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161 views

Lemma 6.3 of Milnor's Lectures on the h-cobordism theorem

Milnor's statement is: "Let $M^r$ and $N^s$ be sub-manifolds of $V^{r+s}$ which are all smooth, compact, oriented and without boundary. If $p$ is a point of $M^r$ contained in an $r$-cell $U$, ...
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123 views

smooth function $\mu:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\!\mathbb{R}$ with $\mu(0)>\varepsilon$, $\:\mu_{[2\varepsilon,\infty)}=0$, $\:-1<\mu'\leq 0$

How can I prove (preferrably without the use of any heavy theorems) the existence of a smooth function $\mu\!:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\!\mathbb{R}$ with properties $\mu(0)\!>\!\varepsilon$, ...
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319 views

Explain the Stokes -theorem from differential from into Integral form

I want to understand the Stokes -theorems deeper. I am trying to understand the operation from $$\nabla \times \mathbf{E} = -\frac{\partial \mathbf{B}} {\partial t}$$ to ...
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Homology of submanifold

Let $M$ be a manifold space, Let $H^1(M,\mathbb R)=\{0\}$, then is it possible to get a submanifold $S$ of $M$. such that $H^1(S, \mathbb R)\neq \{0\}$. If $M$ is simply connected then we can ...
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67 views

domain of surface of revolution

Let $0<b<a,(u,v) \in \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R}$. Then the map $g(u,v):=((a+b\cos u)\cos v,(a+b\cos u)\sin v,b\sin u)$ defines a torus. I wonder for $g$ to be a surface does it really need ...
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1answer
84 views

map that is the time 1 of a flow

I have a very general question. If I have a smooth map $\phi:X\to X$ with $X$ compact, what kind of strategics should I try to prove that $\phi$ is the time 1 of a flow in $X$? Any information or ...
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277 views

Morse function with indices of only $0$ and $n$

Q1: If a Morse function on a smooth closed $n$-manifold $X$ has critical points of only index $0$ and $n$, does it follow that $X\approx \mathbb{S}^n\coprod\ldots\coprod\mathbb{S}^n$? I think the ...
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1answer
85 views

Grassmanians $Gr_k(\mathbb R^n) \cong Gr_{n-k}(\mathbb R^n)$

I am trying to prove that the Grassmanians $Gr_{n-k}(\mathbb R^n)$ and $Gr_{k}(\mathbb R^n)$ are homeomorphic. Intuitively, this makes sense; specifying a $k$-dimensional subspace is equivalent to ...
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98 views

$P^1$ not a regular level surface of a $C^1$ function on $P^2$

I'm working through the first chapter of Morris Hirsch's "Differential Topology". On Chapter 1, section 3 exercise 11, I encountered the following question. "Regarding $S^1$ as the equator of $S^2$, ...
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$\{(x,y)\!\in\!\mathbb{B}^n; -\varepsilon\leq-\|x\|^2\!+\!\|y\|^2\leq\varepsilon\}\approx\mathbb{B}^k\!\times\!\mathbb{B}^{n-k}$

The question is motivated by the notion of handle attachment, Morse theory, critical points of index $k$, Morse lemma, sublevel sets, etc. For $0\!\leq\!k\!\leq\!n$ and ...
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Variants of isotopy extensions

I am interested in slight variations of the usual isotopy extension theorems. In short, my question is the following : Can one extend isotopies of $C \subseteq M$, where $C$ is compact and $M$ is a ...
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Computing the homology and cohomology of connected sum

Suppose $M$ and $N$ are two connected oriented smooth manifolds of dimension $n$. Conventionally, people use $M\#N$ to denote the connecte sum of the two. (The connected sum is constructed from ...
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Morse theory and homology of an algebraic surface (example)

Let $T_n$ denote the $n$-th Chebyshev polynomial and define $f_n(x,y,z)\!:=\!T_n(x)\!+\!T_n(y)\!+\!T_n(z)$ and $$Z_n:=\mathcal{Z}(f_n) \subseteq \mathbb{R}^3,$$ the Bachoff-Chmutov surface, where in ...
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Morse functions are dense in $\mathcal{C}^\infty(X,\mathbb{R})$.

In Shastri's Elements of Differential Topology, p.210-211, there is written: Why do we get a Morse function $f_u$ on $X$? We know that for any $f\!\in\!\mathcal{C}^\infty(X,\mathbb{R})$, there is ...
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227 views

Pullback of differential form on the double covering

On a double covering there is a differential form $\omega$ arises by the pullback of a differential form under the projection iff it is the pullback of $\omega$ under the map $i$, where $i$ is the map ...
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A fiber bundle over Euclidean space is trivial.

What's the easiest way to see this? The only thing I could think to do was try to patch together trivializations. I couldn't find a way to make that work. Thank you! edit: For the record, here's why ...
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Neighborhood Retraction of Boundary

Here is the problem: If $M$ is a manifold with boundary, then find a retraction $r:U \rightarrow \partial M$ where $U$ is a neighborhood of $\partial M$. I realize that the collar neighborhood ...
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Are close maps homotopic?

Consider a smooth manifold $M = M^m$ and a smooth submanifold $N = N^n \subset M$. Suppose that two maps $f, g: M \to N$ are close to each other, in the sense that there exists $\epsilon > 0$ such ...
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If $f\!: X\simeq Y$, then $X\!\cup_\varphi\!\mathbb{B}^k \simeq Y\!\cup_{f\circ\varphi}\!\mathbb{B}^k$.

How can I prove that if two spaces $X$ and $Y$ are homotopy equivalent, then the corresponding spaces obtained by gluing a $k$-cell are also equivalent? In detail, if ...
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1answer
359 views

A star shaped open set in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is diffeomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^n$

After googling this fact (which is used in Bott and Tu to show the existence of good covers of manifolds) I've gotten the impression this is somewhat difficult to prove. But I also came across this ...
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180 views

Manifold/Topology Notation

I have a basic notation related doubt as follows: Let $M\subset \mathbb{R}^N$ be a manifold. What does $C^\infty(M)$ denote in $f \in C^\infty(M)$?
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Showing a certain form is exact

I'm trying to solve the following: Let $f: S^{2n - 1} \rightarrow S^n$ be a smooth map, and let $\omega$ be an n-form on $S^n$ such that $\int_{S^n} \omega = 1$. Show that $f^*\omega$ is exact, and ...
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Strong deformation retraction $\mathbb{I}\!\times\!\mathbb{B}^l \longrightarrow \{1\}\!\times\!\mathbb{B}^l\cup \mathbb{I}\!\times\!\{0\}$?

In Shastri's Elements of Differential Topology, p. 225, there is written: I don't understand this map $R$. Why is $\theta\!\in\!\mathbb{S}^{l-1}$, shouldn't we have $\theta\!\in\!\mathbb{B}^l$? ...
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1answer
122 views

Every $1$-manifold is orientable

How to prove that every $1$-manifold is orientable? Can I use Zorn's Lemma and produce a maximal orientable manifold that will have to be all M?
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734 views

Geometric meaning of a nondegenerate critical point

Let $f\!:M\!\rightarrow\!\mathbb{R}$ be a smooth function on a manifold and $p\!\in\!M$. Is there any way to geometrically/visually characterize the conditions $p$ is a critical point (i.e. ...
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161 views

Transform flat surface into paraboloid

Is it possible to transform a flat surface into a paraboloid $$z=x^2+y^2$$ such that there is no strain in the circular in the circular cross section (direction vector A)? If the answer is yes, is ...
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248 views

Why is there no foliations of the 2-sphere, or a genus two surface?

I'm trying to see why there is no (one-dimensional) foliation of $S^2$ or an orientable surface of genus two. Originally I was thinking that such a foliation could give me a non-vanishing vector ...
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161 views

How to calculate the degree of this Gauss map?

In reviewing the familiar Poincare-Hopf theorem I come across the following question: Suppose $x$ an isolated 0 of $V$. Pick up a disk around $x$ in its neighborhood. Calculate the degree of the map ...
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251 views

Confusion on Cech cohomology

From Harvard math qualification exam, 1990. Let $X$ be a smooth manifold with an open cover $N<\infty$ sets $\{B_{n}\}^{N}_{1}$ which are contractible. Assume that $$\pi_{0}(B_{n}\cap B_{m})\le ...
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383 views

Prerequisites for studying smooth manifold theory?

I am attending first year graduate school in about three weeks and one of the courses I am taking is an introduction to smooth manifolds. Unfortunately, my topology knowledge is minimal, limited to ...
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151 views

Averaging differential forms

Let $M$ be a manifold with a circle action, i.e. with a 1-parameter group of diffeomorphisms $\phi_t:M\to M$ of period 1. I think of the average of a differential form $\omega \in \Omega^n(M)$ with ...