Differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds. It is closely related to differential geometry and together they make up the geometric theory of differentiable manifolds.

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Equivalent definitions of Euler characteristic for closed manifolds

It is well-known that the Euler characteristic of a closed manifold $M^n$, which can be defined as $\chi(M)=\sum_{k=0}^n (-1)^k \operatorname{dim}H^k(M)$, equals the intersection number $I(\Delta,\...
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Show that $R^n -X$ has at most 2 connected component without using the Jordan-Brouwer theorem.

Here is what I got but my professor say it's wrong Let $X$ be a compact, connected hyperspace in $R^n$, then $ R^n-X$ consist of 2 open sets $D_0$ – the outside component and $D_1$ the inside ...
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70 views

Basis for a line bundle

I have a basic confusion. The following is drawn from Huybrechts' Complex Geometry text: "Let $L$ be a holomorphic line bundle on a complex manifold $X$ and suppose that $s_0,\dots, s_n \in H^0(X, L)$...
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185 views

Prove directly Morse lemma for real line $\mathbb{R}$

The exercise 9 section 7 chapter 1 in Guillemin & Pollak state the next Prove directly Morse lemma for real line $\mathbb{R}$.(Hint:Use this elementary calculus lemma: for any function on $\...
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Lie group quotient structure

Let $G$ be a Lie group and $H$ a normal finite subgroup. Let $\pi : G \to G/H$ be the quotient surjection. How would one show that $G/H$ is a Lie group?
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Subsets of a manifold.

I read that every open subset $A$ of a manifold $M$ is a submanifold (it is a manifold with the induced topology by $M$). If I understand correctly, the argument is that, for an element $x \in A$, one ...
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116 views

Extenting a homeomorphism on subsurface to the entire surface

Suppose you have surface and a subsurface. The complement of subsurface is union of open discs and once punctured open discs. Can all homeomorphisms of the subsurface be extended to homeomorphisms of ...
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Preimage of 0 for a differentiable function.

If a subset $N$ of a manifold $M$ can be written as $f^{-1}(\{0\})$ being $f:M \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ a differentiable function, can I conclude that $N$ is a submanifold of $M$?
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How to prove that a certain set is a submanifold.

Let $P^{n-1}(\mathbb{R})$ the real projective space of dimension $n-1$. Consider the set $$B=\{(x,y)\in\mathbb{R}^n \times P^{n-1}(\mathbb{R}) / x=(x_1,..,x_N), y=[y_1;..;y_N], x_iy_j=x_jy_i \hspace{...
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Only one fixed point for $f:\bar{\mathbb{D}}\rightarrow\bar{\mathbb{D}}$ on the boundary.

We know for Brouwer theorem that $f$ (continuous bijective function) have a fixed point. My questions are: 1) Is there a function with only one fixed point $x_0\in Int(\bar{\mathbb{D}}) $ (open disk)?...
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1-forms as a direct sum

Let us define the spaces $C_0, C_1$ and $C_2$ of differential $0,1,2$ forms respectively on the sphere $S^2.$ Is it true that $C_1$ is the direct sum of $d(C_0) \oplus \delta^* (C_2)$? I think this ...
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Geometrical Explanation of Borsuk Theorem

Assume $K$, $L$ are $n$-pseudomanifold, and $K$ is compact. Let $f$ be a simplicial map between $K$ and $L$. We denote $n$-simplexes of $K$ and $L$ by $S_n(K)$, $S_n(L)$. Define $$\deg_2f:=\text{#}\{\...
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Smooth maps homotopic to the inclusion - updated.

First problem - (my original question before the editing) Prove or disprove the following: Let $A$, $B$ be differentiable manifolds such that $A \subseteq B$, and $s: A \to B$ a smooth map. Then $s \...
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Smooth homotopy

Let $M,N$ be manifolds. Suppose that $f_0, f_1:M\stackrel{C^\infty}\to N$ are homotopic, i.e. there exists a continuous mapping $f:M\times[0,1]\to N$ s.t. $f(x,0)=f_0(x)$, $f(x,1)=f_1(x)$. Then is ...
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Embedding counterexample

Lee writes on page 156 of Introduction to Smooth Manifolds: A smooth embedding is a map that is both a topological embedding and an immersion, not just a topological embedding that happens to be ...
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How to orient a manifold in the Euclidean space?

I learned that the orientation of a smooth manifold is a smooth choice of an orientation for bases of tangent space. Also I sometimes read that an embedded manifold in $\mathbb{R^3}$ inherites an ...
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Prove that a map $f:S^1→S^1$ extends to the whole ball $B=\{|z|≤1\}$ if and only if $deg(f)=0$

Prove that a map $f:S^1→S^1$ extends to the whole ball $B=\{|z|≤1\}$ if and only if $deg(f)=0$ again I can only do one direction => $f:S^1→S^1$ is smooth, and $S^1 = \partial B$. Assume that $f:S^1→...
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Why is the pole generally outside the contour loop when its outside the contour loop in 2D?

The following contour integral is path dependent with the following results \begin{align} \oint_C\dfrac{dz}{z} = \begin{Bmatrix} 2\pi i && \text{when $z=0$ is inside C} \\ 0 && \text{...
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Prove that the Möbius band is not orientable.

Prove that the Möbius band is not orientable. I know that in the Möbius band the central circle is orientable. If I let $Y$ be the Möbius band and $Z$ be a compact submanifold of $Y$ with $\dim(Z)=\...
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Suppose that $Z$ is a hyperspace in the oriented manifold $Y$, as sub manifold of codimension $1$. Prove that following statement are equivalent

Suppose that $Z$ is a hyperspace in the oriented manifold $Y$, as sub manifold of codimension $1$. Prove that following statement are equivalent a) $Z$ is orientable b) There exists a smooth field ...
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265 views

Coordinate-free definition of integration of differential forms?

Let $\omega$ be an $n$-form on an oriented $n$-manifold $M$. To integrate $\omega$, we choose an atlas $(O_\alpha, (x^1_\alpha,\dots, x^n_\alpha))_\alpha$ for $M$ and a partition of unity $\phi_\alpha$...
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151 views

Extension of a map $g:\overline{B_1^n}\to \mathbb{R}^2$

Let $B_r^n\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ ($n\geq 6$) be the open ball with radius $r$ and let $g:B_2^n\to \mathbb{R}^2$ be an analytic map. How to define a continuous map $h:\mathbb{R}^n\to \mathbb{R}^2$ such ...
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Any real analytic Frobenius theorem used in the proof of integrable almost complex manifolds to arise from complex manifolds?

The reference book is S.S.Chern's Complex Manifolds Without Potential Theory. It's used in integrability condition for an almost complex structure to arise from a complex structure. It's claimed that ...
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43 views

Smooth structure on $M\cup_f N$?

Let $M$ and $N$ be two smooth manifolds with $$\textrm{dim}(M)=\textrm{dim}(N)=n.$$ Let $U\subseteq M$ and $V\subseteq M$ be two open sets and $f:U\longrightarrow V$ a smooth diffeomorphism. Consider ...
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Prove that the index of a vector field is well-defined.

Consider first an open set $U \subset \Bbb{R^m}$ and a smooth vector field $v : U\to\Bbb{R^m}$ with an isolated zero at the point $z \in U$. The function $\overline{v}(x) = v(x)/\|v(x)\|$ maps a small ...
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215 views

For which k,n the k-covector is decomposable (14-2 from Lee)

This is homework so no answers please The problem is: Find for which k, n, a k-alternating map $\omega$ can be written as $\omega=\omega_{1}\wedge...\wedge \omega_{k}$ were $\omega_{i}$ are ...
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Submersion surjective on the complex projective space $\mathbb{C}P^1$.

If $S^3=\{ (z_1,z_2)\in\mathbb{C}^2\mid \vert z_1\vert^2+\vert z_2\vert^2=1\}$ and $\pi:S³\rightarrow\mathbb{C}P^1$ for $(z_1,z_2)\mapsto [(z_1,z_2)]$ since $[(z_1,z_2)]=\{ (w_1,w_2)\in\mathbb{C}^2-\...
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Definition of the hessian as a bilinear functional on the tangent space

In Milnor's Morse Theory, the Hessian of a smooth function $f : M \to \mathbb R$ defined on a manifold $M$ at a critical point $p$ is the bilinear functional on $T_p M$ defined as follows: $$f_{**}(v,...
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Surgery or Partial Whitney Trick in McDuff and Salamon proof of Gromov squeezing

In the proof of Gromov squeezing in McDuff and Salamon's epic J-Holomorphic Curves and Symplectic Topology, the authors use a surgery argument without any explicit construction. In the following, $\...
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Degree of Map between Pseudomanifold

There are two different ways to define a degree of map. Let $M$, $N$ be smooth, and $M$ is compact, $N$ is connected. If $f\in C(M,N)$, we define $\deg f$ by smooth approximation. [Milnor/Topology ...
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Orientability of integrable plane fields

Let $\xi \subset \text{T}M$ be a integrable plane field on a smooth 3-manifold (i.e. the tangent field of a foliation). Is it true that $\mathcal{F}$ is coorientable?
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Realizing a Contact Structure on S^1 x S^2 via an Open Book Decomposition

I am trying to learn about Contact Geometry and Open Book Decompositions. I went through the example of the Hopf Fibration for $S^3$ and how you can see a contact structure. I am now trying to do ...
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Prove that $f$ map a neighborhood of $Z$ diffeomorphically on to a neighborhood of $f(Z)$( more detail)

Supposed that the derivative of $f:X\to Y$ is an isomorphism whenever $x$ lies in the sub-manifold $Z \subset X$, and assume that $f$ maps $Z$ diffeomorphically onto a $f(Z)$ . Prove that $f$ map a ...
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Something about Degree of Map

I have been told that degree of map can be defined by the combinatorial method instead of the differential one. Assume $M$, $N$ is orientiable pseduomanifold, and $M$ is compact, $N$ is connected. Let ...
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Is a diffeomorphism's image automatically open?

Sorry if this question is trivial, I am new to smooth manifold theory. Let $\varphi : I \times \mathcal S^{n-1} \to X$ be a diffeomorphism. $I=(0,1)$, $\mathcal S^{n-1}$ is the unit sphere in $\...
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Tubular neighborhood of $X^k$ compact submanifold with normal bundle $\perp X$ trivial

For $X^k\subset M^n$ compact submanifold with $\perp X$ trivial and set $S^k$ the $k$-sphere. Then there is a function $f:M^n\rightarrow S^k$ such that $X$ is the preimage for a regular value. My ...
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A function from a smooth manifold with boundary to $[0,\infty)$

Suppose $M$ is a smooth manifold with boundary, show that there exists a smooth function $f: M \rightarrow [0, \infty)$ such that $\partial M = f^{-1}(0)$. My attempt is that given a chart $(U_\alpha,...
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Connected sum of orientable manifolds

I was reading through Lee's Smooth Manifolds on the part regarding orientations and I was wondering if the connected sum preserves the orientability of manifolds. Intuitively it seems to be true, but ...
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Arbitrary Smooth structure

Is it possible to give a smooth structure to any objects? Say two lines intersecting at a point. It seems there is a smooth structure though at the intersecting point it is not locally euclidean if ...
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holomorphic function and simple zeros

How can I prove this? If $f$ is a holomorphic function in a domain $U$ and $f'(z)\neq0$ for all $z\in U$ then every zero of $f$ are simple and positive. Definition: $q\in U$ is a simple ...
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Does the compact manifold $f=0$ resist small perturbations?

Suppose we have a compact manifold of the form $\left\{f=0\right\}$ where $f:\mathbb R^n\to\mathbb R$ is a smooth Morse function. I am interested in showing that the manifold is topologically ...
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The index of a smooth vector field is well-defined

How can I prove that the index of a smooth vector field is well-defined? All I know that it is locally constant. Definition. Given an open set $U\subset\Bbb{R^m}$, and a smooth vector field $v:U\to\...
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262 views

Closed 1-forms implies exact 1-forms

I have two problems, the first one I think I've proved, but I have problems on the second one. Let $\omega$ a closed $1$-form defined on a open $U\subset \mathbb{R^2}$ and let $\gamma:[0,1]\rightarrow ...
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180 views

Prove that any map $f\colon S^1 \to S^1$ mapping antipodal point to antipodal point has $\deg_2(f)=1$ by a direct computation.

Without using the Borsuk-Ulam theorem. Prove that any map $f\colon S^1 \to S^1$ mapping antipodal point to antipodal point has $\deg_2(f)=1$ by a direct computation. I know that $f$ map anitpodal ...
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Question on the proof of the Poincare-Hopf theorem

OP is reading Milnor's celebrated Topology from the Differentiable Viewpoint's 6th chapter, where he deals with indices of vector fields and in particular the Poincare-Hopf theorem. A lemma he used is ...
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190 views

Poincare Hopf Theorem

I'm trying to apply the Poincare-Hopf theorem for a vector field over a closed disk. The vector fields sometimes have zeros on the boundary (if number of zeros is infinite, then it's zero over the ...
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86 views

Piecewise differentiable homotopy

Let $\gamma_0$ and $\gamma_1$ be piecewise differentiable closed curves in an open set $U$ in the plane $\mathbb{C}$. (Of course, you may consider a more general setting if relevant.) Suppose that ...
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Prove that the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and following ttheorem are equivalent

Prove that the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and following ttheorem are equivalent Borsuk-Ulam theorem: Let $f:S^k \to R^{n+1}$ be a smooth map whos image does not contain the origin, and supposed that $f$ ...
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Is $M$ is a compact manifold?

Let $M$ be a manifold of $m$--dimensional, and $M\subset \mathbb{R}^k$. Assume $m>n$. If every smooth function $f:M\longrightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$ has regular values that form an open subset of $\...
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64 views

show that $R^n -X$ has at most 2 connected components.

show that $R^n -X$ has at most 2 connected components. Theprem: Suppose that $X$ is the boundary of $D$, a compact manifold with boundary and let $F:D \to R^n$ be a smooth map extending $f$; ...