Differential geometry is the application of differential calculus in the setting of smooth manifolds (curves, surfaces and higher dimensional examples). Modern differential geometry focuses "geometric structures" on such manifolds, such as bundles and connections; for questions not concerning such ...

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3
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How can we define $\partial x_{i_r}^p(X_p^r)$?

Suppose $M$ is a manifold and $X_r^s:M\to T_r^s(M)$ is a section. Let $P$ be an open set and $X_1,\ldots,X_s\in\mathcal T(P)$ and $X^1,\ldots,X^r\in\mathcal T^*(P)$ where $\mathcal T(P)$ and $\mathcal ...
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Two questions about Li-Yau-Hamilton estimate

Picture below is from 231 page . For to prove $Q\ge 0$ on $M \times (0,T)$, $(\partial_t -\Delta)Q \ge 0$ and $Q\ge 0$ are needed to prove.But I can't see $Q\ge 0$ when $t=0$. Besides, how to ...
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Surface area from indicator function

I know that the volume and the surface area of a sphere of radius $R$ are related by a derivative: $$V(R)=\frac{4}{3}\pi R^3$$ $$A(R)=4\pi R^2=\frac{\partial V(R)}{\partial R}$$ I am asking if an ...