Questions on (ordinary) differential equations. For questions specifically concerning partial differential equations, use the (pde) tag.

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Locally or Globally Lipschitz-functions

Determine if the following function satisfies a local or a a uniform Lipschitz condition. The definition of locally Lipschitz and globally lipschitz are as follows: (i) We say that f is (uniformly) ...
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3answers
677 views

When do the Freshman's dream product and quotient rules for differentiation hold?

This is motivated by looking at the calculus exams of some of my undergraduate students. A recurring mistake is assuming that the derivative of the product of functions is a product of derivatives and ...
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1answer
610 views

Complicated exercise on ODE

I have this exercise extracted from a examination of qualitative theory of ODE (in which we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions, and stability using the function of Lyapunov) I don't know ...
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1answer
670 views

What is, how do you use, and why do you use differentials? What are their practical uses?

What is a differential? And how is it useful? What is its practical use? For example, in Electromagnetic Wave Theory as it pertains to diffraction gratings, we have an equation like this one: ...
6
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1answer
120 views

Finding a Lyapunov function for a given system

I need to find a Lyapunov function for $(0,0)$ in the system: \begin{cases} x' = -2x^4 + y \\ y' = -2x - 2y^6 \end{cases} Graph built using this tool showed that there should be stability but not ...
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3answers
242 views

Why it is absolutely mistaken to cancel out differentials?

In many of my physics courses, (don't worry, this is a mathematics question!) My teachers cancel out differentials, and every time, they say: "If a mathematician saw me canceling out this ...
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3answers
607 views

Numerical Analysis References

Could anyone suggest any good (perhaps online ref papers) reference material on numerical analysis focusing on determining accuracy/estimated errors, rates/orders of convergence especially when ...
14
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1answer
532 views

Tough Inverse Fourier Transform

In reference to this answer I gave the other day, I came across a very interesting function whose IFT would be nice to evaluate as part of completing the solution to the problem I answered. The ...
7
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1answer
190 views

Properties of the solutions to $x'=t-x^2$

Let $f_c$ be the solution to $$ \left\{ \begin{array}{c} x'=t-x^2 \\ x(0) =c \end{array} \right. $$ I'm trying to prove: If $c \geq 0$ then $f_c(t)$ is defined for all $t>0$ There is a ...
7
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1answer
117 views

dropping a particle into a vector field, part 2

Okay, so earlier I posted this question "dropping a particle into a vector field " as sort of a feeler question as i study line integrals in order to go into surface integrals and eventually ...
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4answers
1k views

Methods to solve differential equations

We are given the equation $$\frac{1}{f(x)} \cdot \frac{d\left(f(x)\right)}{dx} = x^3.$$ To solve it, "multiply by $dx$" and integrate: $\frac{x^4}{4} + C = \ln \left( f(x) \right)$ But $dx$ is not a ...
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3answers
215 views

How $\frac{dx}{dy}=f(x)g(y) \Leftrightarrow \int \frac{dx}{f(x)} = \int g(y)dy$?

In my intro differential equations class we have often used the "equivalence" stated in title. It seems to me that somehow, the intermediate step $$ \frac{dx}{f(x)} = g(y)dy$$ is being used, in which ...
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2answers
122 views

Using the Jordan form Complex

Let $C$ be a complex $n \times n$ matrix with $\det C \neq 0$. Prove that there is a complex matrix $B$ such that $C = e^B$ Hint: use the Jordan form matrices for comlexas
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1answer
498 views

Cancelling differentials

I'll start with an example. In physics, $x(t)$ represents the $x$-position of a particle, and $v(t)$ its ($x$-)velocity. To determine the total displacement of a particle on the interval $[a, b]$, we ...
14
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1answer
555 views

How to make a smart guess for this ODE

I am dealing with a strange problem currently, we have a differential equation $$y(x)^2 = \pm \sqrt{-A \cos(x) - B \cos^2(x)+y'(x)-C},$$ where $C, A$ and $B $ are parameters. (The case that either ...
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4answers
2k views

Examples of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with elementary solutions.

I am looking for nice examples of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that have simple solutions in terms of elementary functions. (But are not trivial to find, like, for example, with ...
11
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4answers
363 views

How to prove that $\frac{d^n}{dx^n}(x^2-1)^n=0$ has $n$ real roots?

How do I prove that $$\frac{d^n}{dx^n}(x^2-1)^n=0$$ has $n$ real roots?
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6answers
634 views

When to write “$dx$” in differentiation

I'm taking differential equations right now, and the lack of fundamental knowledge in calculus is kicking my butt. In class, my professor has done several implicit differentiations. I realize that ...
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1answer
773 views

Eigenfunctions of the Laplacian

I am willing to offer a bounty for this one, so I will give you an exact idea of what I need: I am looking for solutions of $$\Delta \Psi(r,\theta)=k^2\Psi(r,\theta)$$ where $k\in \mathbb{R}$. Such ...
7
votes
2answers
372 views

A proof of a theorem of Liouville

I need some reference for the proof of the following theorem attributed to Liouville: Theorem. Let $f(x):\Omega\longrightarrow \mathbb R^n$ be a $C^2$ function where $\Omega$ is an open subset of ...
6
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1answer
221 views

What is the physical meaning of fractional calculus?

What is the physical meaning of the fractional integral and fractional derivative? And many researchers deal with the fractional boundary value problems, and what is the physical background? What ...
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359 views

Determinant called Grammian

Famously, if functions $f_1,f_2,…,f_n$, each of which possesses a derivative of order $n-1$, are linearly independent on the interval $I$, if $$ \det\left( \begin{array}{ccccc} f_1 & f_2 & ...
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3answers
236 views

Solutions of homogeneous linear differential equations are a special case of structure theorem for f.g. modules over a PID

In this other post, Qiaochu Yuan comments that the solutions for the homegeneous linear differential equation with constant coefficients are a special case of the structure theorem for finitely ...
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2answers
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Cleaning up the Great Lakes - Differential equation systems

Problem Details The idea of the problem is to find out how long it would take to flush the Great Lakes of pollution. They're set up as a series of five tanks and you are given inflow rates of clean ...
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1answer
86 views

Decomposite a vector field into two parts

Let A be a region in $\mathbb R^3$, and suppose $ \vec {\mathbf F}$ is a smooth vector field on A. I was asked to show that I can write $\vec {\mathbf F}=\vec {\mathbf F_1}+\vec {\mathbf F_2}$, s.t. ...
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6answers
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ODE introduction textbook

Unfortunately I have reached the maximum number of math classes I can take for my undergraduate degree. I still wish to study basic ODEs and basic number theory. What is a good textbook with an ...
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1answer
44 views

Uniqueness of solutions to linear recurrence relations

I understand that if I have a linear homogeneous recurrence relation of the form $q_n = c_1 q_{n-1} + c_2 q_{n-2} + \cdots + c_d q_{n-d}$, I can construct the characteristic polynomial $p(t) = t^d - ...
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1answer
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Polar coordinates differential equation

I have the following ODE: $$\dot x=-y(x^2+y^2), \dot y=x(x^2+y^2)$$ I want to sketch the phase portrait (manually) and I want to find the flow $\phi_t$, the orbit $O(x_0)$ and the limit set ...
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2answers
449 views

Advection Diffusion Equation on Semi-Infinite Domain

Regarding the BVP $$u_t(x,t) - v u_x(x,t)=k u_{xx}(x,t),\qquad x\geq0$$ with BC $u_x(0, t)=0$ for $t\geq 0$, and parameters $v,k>0$, I have some questions. Does an expression for the Green's ...
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2answers
476 views

How to solve this ODE?

For a certain problem, I am trying to solve the ODE $$\ddot{z}(t) - \omega^2 z(t) = f_0 \Big(e^{-i(\omega+\delta)t}+e^{-i(\omega-\delta)t}\Big)$$ where $\omega$ is a real and $\delta$ is close to ...
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2answers
110 views

Suggestion for a Lyapunov function

Consider the differential system $$ x'=x+y $$ $$y'=x-y+xy$$ What would be a Lyapunov function for this system at $(0,0)$? I have considered functions $V(x,y)=ax^{2n}+by^{2m}$ but none of ...
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1answer
2k views

Pursuit Curve. Dog Chases Rabbit. Calculus 4.

(a) In Example 1.21, assume that $a$ is less than $b$ (so that $k$ is less than $1$) and find $y$ as a function of $x$. How far does the rabbit run before the dog catches him? (b) Assume now that ...
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1answer
116 views

Questions about the hyperbolic system of equations

$$u_t+A(x,t,u)u_x=b(x,t,u) \tag 1$$ $$u=(u_1, \dots, u_n), b=(b_1, \dots, b_n)$$ $$A=[a_{ij}], i,j = 1, \dots, n$$ $$$$ We set the question if there are characteristic directions at the path of which ...
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2answers
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A Differential operator.

What are the fundamental solutions for the operator $$\mathcal D=a{\partial^2\over\partial x_1^2}+b{\partial^2\over\partial x_2^2}$$ on $\Bbb R^2 $ with standard cordinates $(x_1,x_2)$. Here ...
8
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1answer
417 views

To get addition formula of $\tan (x)$ via analytic methods

Assume that we only know $\tan (0)=0$ and also given the relation $\tan'(x)=1+\tan^2(x)$ about $\tan (x)$ and we do not know other $\tan (x)$ relations of trigonometry. How can I get the additon ...
8
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1answer
172 views

Solving the differential equation $\frac{dy}{dx}=\frac{3x+4y+7}{x-2y-11}$

How do we solve the differential equation $$\frac{dy}{dx}=\frac{3x+4y+7}{x-2y-11}$$? I tried substituting $v=yx$ but I do not seem to be getting anywhere.Putting $u=x-2y$ yielded nothing better. ...
7
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1answer
98 views

Solve $y' + \frac1y + \frac1x =0$ Differential Equation

Do you have any suggestions for how to sole this differential equation? $y'+\frac1x + \frac1y =0$ ? :) I tried solving this by changing variable in the form of $v=x^\alpha*y^\beta$ but it didn't ...
7
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1answer
134 views

Periodic solution of differential equation y′=f(y)

Let $f∈C^∞(ℝ^2,ℝ^2)$ and $∀x∈ℝ^2$ $f(kx)=k^2f(x)$ for $k∈ℝ$ Show that any periodic solution of $y′=f(y)$ is constant. My attempt : Let $\lambda \in \mathbb{R}$. Let $g$ a periodic solution ...
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1answer
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General Solution of a Differential Equation using Green's Function

My father recently lent me an old textbook of his, called Mathematical Methods of Physics by Mathews and Walker. I am working on the following exercise. Consider the differential equation ...
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1answer
426 views

ODE Laplace Transforms: what impulse brings an oscillating system to rest?

$2y''+y'+2y=\delta(t-5)$ $y(0)=0, y'(0)=0$ Consider the system given by ODE above in which an oscillation is excited by a unit impulse at $t=5$. Suppose that it is desired to bring the system to ...
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1answer
2k views

Restricted Three-Body Problem

The movement of a spacecraft between Earth and the Moon is an example of the infamous Three Body Problem. It is said that a general analytical solution for TBP is not known because of the complexity ...
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2answers
143 views

Geometric series of an operator

In solving a first order linear differential equation $(1-D)y=x^2$ where $D\equiv \frac{d}{dx}$ the way I learnt was that we proceed as ...
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2answers
785 views

General solution for $y^{iv}+ 2y''+y=\cos x$

Here is another problem from Mathews and Walker that has given me some trouble. 1-18. Find the general solution of $y^{iv}+ 2y''+y=\cos x$. Note: Thanks, everyone, for clearing up the ...
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2answers
116 views

How to solve this DE?

Consider the ordinary differential equation $$y''=xyy'$$ I'm pretty stumped, so any tips on how to proceed? It seems fairly simple but I'm drawing a blank.
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1answer
104 views

projectile motion (with height) complicated

When a child standing on a horizontal path throws a ball, it leaves her hand from a point that is 90cm vertically above the path. The ball clears a 4.5 m high wall that is 10.5 m away from ...
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0answers
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Green's function in a moving frame for a constant heat source

I am looking for the Green's function of the problem in two dimensions $r =(x,z)$, \begin{equation} \nabla^2g + \frac{v}{D}\frac{\partial g}{\partial z} = -\delta (r-r_0) \end{equation} Which ...
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2answers
112 views

Limit of solution of linear system of ODEs as $t\to \infty$

I am completely stuck on the following problem: Consider the linear system: $x'(t)=A(t)x(t)$ where $A(t)$ is an $n$ by $n$ matrix. Assume that $\lim_{t\to \infty}A(t)=B$. Suppose that each eigenvalue ...
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1answer
355 views

Background for studying and understanding Stochastic differential equations

Assume I have back ground of the following knowledge based on the textbook as : ODE : ODE by Tenenbaum Baby probability : Ross 's baby probability Baby real anlysis : Bartle's introduction to real ...
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1answer
177 views

Some Scaling Estimate for Heat Kernel

NOTE. I have rewritten the question to summarize my current progress on this question. The bounty is for completing what I have done so far, or by offering a more elegant solution probably based on ...
4
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1answer
564 views

The characteristic polynomial of a recurrence relation.

If I have a linear homogeneous recurrence relation $$y_n=c_1y_{n-1}+\ldots+c_ky_{n-k},$$ I can get its characteristic equation, which is $$r^k=c_1r^{k-1}+\ldots+c_k.$$ In particular for ...