# Tagged Questions

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### Are there any examples of higher order ireducible linear differential operators?

Given a monic, linear differential operator $L = D^n + f_{n-1}(x)D^{n-1} + \dots + f_1(x) + f_0(x)$, say $f_0, \dots, f_{n-1}$ analytic for simplicity's sake, we say that $L$ is irreducible if there ...
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### Does the “Leibniz multicategory over $R$” have an accepted name?

Let $R$ denote a commutative ring. Definition. The "Leibniz multicategory" over $R$ is given as follows: Objects. $R[D]$-modules (where $D$ is a formal symbol; an 'indeterminate'). ...
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### What is a constant field?

I am looking at the following: Could you explain to me what a constant field is?  P.S. I found this in the paper of T. Honda, "Algebraic differential equation" (pages 170-176).
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### What are all types of elementary second order ordinary differential equation that can not be expressed in closed form?

Can we define all types of elementary second order ordinary differential equation that can not be expressed in closed form as opposed to the one that we can solve? In differential algebra, Picardâ€“...
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### Why differential Galois theory is not widely used?

E.R.Kolchin has developed the differential Galois theory in 1950s. And it seems powerful a tool which can decide the solvability and the form of solutions to a given differential equation. My ...
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### What are differential algebras?

On the bottom of page 10 of this paper (/!\ It's in french !) they talk about the 'differential $\mathbb{C}$-algebra of convergent series $\{C(x);x^2d/dx\}$' and about the 'differential $\mathbb{C}$-...
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### May the integral $\int\root 3 \of{\cos(x)^2}\,dx$ be expressible by elementary functions?

I would like to decide by methods of differential algebra whether the integral $\int\root 3 \of{\cos(x)^2}\,dx$ might be contrary to the output of CAS Mathematica Online Integrator expressible by ...
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### Prerequisites for Differential Galois theory

I would like to know the prerequisites for Differential Galois theory. I have taken Rings, Fields, Groups, Galois theory, and Algebraic Geometry + Commutative Algebra. Looking at the wikipedia page, ...
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### What are elementary field extensions?

While reading about symbolic integration I encountered some concepts of Differential Algebra. I do not know much of D.A and Fields in general also I have encountered as an extension of Rings. I haven'...
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### Is tetration a transcendental function?

Is tetration a transcendental function? If so are there any papers with a proof? I suspect that it is because I have not seen any algebraic situations where tetration is the answer and the fact that ...
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### Proof of nonexistence of a solution to an equation in terms of elementary functions?

In a numerical methods class I'm taking, it was claimed that the equation $A = \frac{R^2}{2} \left(\theta - \sin\theta \right)$ cannot be analytically solved for $\theta$. I don't doubt that this is ...
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### Algebras vs. rings in algebraic differential calculus

Vector fields (and differential operators of higher order) on a real manifold are often defined in terms of $\mathbb{R}$-algebra $C^\infty(M)$. However, it is not clear to me why is the $\mathbb{R}$-...
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### What is the connection between Grothendieck's Differential Operators and Hochschild Cohomology

For a given commutative algebra $A$ over a field $\mathbb{K}$(with char=0) the algebra of differential operators on $A$ is the set of endomorphism $D$ of $A$ such for some $n$ we have that for any ...
I've come across statements in the past along the lines of "function $f(x)$ has no closed form integral", which I assume means that there is no combination of the operations: addition/subtraction ...