Questions on the evaluation of derivatives or problems involving derivatives (for example, use of the mean value theorem).

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68
votes
1answer
3k views

How discontinuous can a derivative be?

There is a well-known result in elementary analysis due to Darboux which says if $f$ is a differentiable function then $f'$ satisfies the intermediate value property. To my knowledge, not many ...
4
votes
3answers
5k views

Second derivative “formula derivation”

I've been trying to understand how the second order derivative "formula" works: $$\lim_{h\to0} \frac{f(x+h) - 2f(x) + f(x-h)}{h^2}$$ So, the rate of change of the rate of change for an arbitrary ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the formula for nth derivative of arcsin x, arctan x, sec x and tan x?

Are there formulae for the nth derivatives of the following functions? 1) arcsin x 2) arctan x 3) sec x, and 4) tan x Thanks.
11
votes
5answers
297 views

Closed form for $n$th derivative of exponential of $f$

What is the closed form for: $$\frac{\partial^n}{\partial x^n}\exp(f(x))=\exp(f(x))\cdot[????]$$
1
vote
2answers
2k views

Show that the function $g(x) = x^2 \sin(\frac{1}{x}) ,(g(0) = 0)$ is everywhere differentiable and that $g′(0) = 0$

Show that the function $g(x) = x^2 \sin\left(\frac{1}{x}\right) ,(g(0) = 0)$ is everywhere differentiable and that $g′(0) = 0$.
24
votes
6answers
1k views

Uses of $\lim \limits_{h\to 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x-h)}{2h}$

I have been wondering whether the following limit is being used somehow, as a variation of the derivative: $$\lim_{h\to 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x-h)}{2h} .$$ Edit: I know that this limit is defined in ...
9
votes
4answers
4k views

Discontinuous derivative.

Could someone give an example of a ‘very’ discontinuous derivative? I myself can only come up with examples where the derivative is discontinuous at only one point. I am assuming the function is ...
9
votes
1answer
383 views

Inverse of a bijection f is equal to its derivative

Does there exist a differentiable bijection $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $f'(x) = f^{-1}(x)$ ?
4
votes
1answer
327 views

Quotient of two smooth functions is smooth

Let $f:\mathbb R\to \mathbb R$ be a $C^\infty$-smooth function. Suppose that $f^{(k)}(0)=0$ for $k=0,\dots,n-1$. Prove that the function $g(x)=f(x)/x^n$ extends to a $C^\infty$-smooth function on ...
13
votes
4answers
3k views

If a function has a finite limit at infinity, does that imply its derivative goes to zero?

I've been thinking about this problem: Let $f: (a, +\infty) \to \mathbb{R}$ be a differentiable function such that $\lim\limits_{x \to +\infty} f(x) = L < \infty$. Then must it be the case that ...
4
votes
1answer
396 views

Partial derivative confusion.

I don't understand partial derivatives. Here's an example that nails down my confusion: Suppose we have some variables $x$, $p$, and $q$ with $p=x^2$ and $q=e^x$. Then $$\frac{\partial q}{\partial p} ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Frechet derivative of shift operator in $l_2$?

Let $x \in l_2$ and $J(x) = \sum_{k = 1}^{+\infty} x_k x_{k + 1}$. Find $DJ(u)$ and $D(DJ(u))$. Attempted solution Since $x \in l_2$, then $\sum_{k = 1}^{+\infty}x_k < \infty$. Another fact: ...
8
votes
5answers
2k views

Proving that $\lim\limits_{x \to 0}\frac{e^x-1}{x} = 1$

I was messing around with the definition of the derivative, trying to work out the formulas for the common functions using limits. I hit a roadblock, however, while trying to find the derivative of ...
4
votes
4answers
292 views

Differentiation of $x^{\sqrt{x}}$, how?

The answer is (I think) $x^{\sqrt{x}-0.5} (1+0.5\ln(x))$, but how?
2
votes
6answers
258 views

Derivative of $x^2$

This seems too easy, but here's the question: $x^2$ is $x + x + ...+ x$ (with $x$ terms). Its derivative is $1 + 1 + ... + 1$ (also $x$ terms). So the derivative of $x^2$ seems to be $x$. And ...
1
vote
3answers
125 views

Limits and derivatives - two questions

I was asked to find two limits. Let $f$ be differentiable function at $x=1$ and $f(1)>0$. $$\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty}\left(\frac{f\left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right )}{f(1)} \right)^{\frac{1}{n}}$$ ...
1
vote
3answers
54 views

Proving a function is constant, under certain conditions?

The problem: Assume $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfies $|f(t) - f(x)| \leq |t - x|^2$ for all $t, x$. Prove $f$ is constant. I believe I have some intuition about why this is the case; ...
1
vote
1answer
130 views

$\lim_{x\to c}f'(x)=L$ implies $f'(c)=L$

Let $f:[a,b]\to\mathbb{R}$ be differentiable on $[a,b]$ and let $c \in(a,b)$. Suppose that $\lim_{x\to c}f'(x)=L$ some $L \in\mathbb{R}$. Without using L'Hospital's Rule, prove that $f'(c)=L$. Hint: ...
28
votes
5answers
1k views

Are there ways of finding the $n$-th derivative of a function without computing the $(n-1)$-th derivative?

Say we have a function $f(x)$ that is infinitely differentiable at some point. Is it possible to find $f^{(n)}(x)$ without having to find first $f^{(n-1)}(x)$? If so, does it take less effort than ...
11
votes
0answers
291 views

Divergence of the Derivative of the Prime Counting Function

On the one hand, the Prime Counting Function $\pi_0(x)$ maybe be written $$ \pi_0(x) = \operatorname{R}(x^1) - \sum_{\rho}\operatorname{R}(x^{\rho}) \tag{1} $$ with $ \operatorname{R}(z) = ...
7
votes
3answers
578 views

Finding the $n$-th derivatives of $x^n \ln x$ and $\frac{\ln x}{x}$.

How can I prove the following identities: $$ \left( x^n \ln x \right)^{(n)}= n! \left(\ln x + 1 + \frac{1}{2} +\cdots +\frac{1}{n} \right), \quad x>0, \quad n\ge 1, \tag{a}$$ $$ \left( \frac{\ln ...
5
votes
2answers
848 views

Proving Thomae's function is nowhere differentiable.

I am given the function $$f(x)=\begin{cases} 0 \text{ ; when } x \text{ is irrational} \\\frac 1 q \text{ ; for } x=\frac p q \text{ irreducible fraction}\end{cases}$$ Spivak proved that for $a\in ...
6
votes
1answer
775 views

“Strong” derivative of a monotone function

It is well known that if a function $f\colon \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is monotone then $f'$ exists almost everywhere. Is it true that if $f$ is monotone then there exists (edit: I mean exists ...
4
votes
3answers
781 views

Solve $\sum nx^n$

I am trying to find a closed form solution for $\sum_{n\ge0} nx^n\text{, where }\lvert x \rvert<1$. This solution makes sense to me: $\sum_{n\ge0} x^n=(1-x)^{-1} \\ \frac{d}{d x} \sum_{n\ge0} x^n ...
2
votes
1answer
194 views

Inverse function theorem application

I have to solve this question with this solution way. But I made some mistakes while solving. I cannot see thesemistakes. And I cannot reach the wanted result properly. Please somebody helps me. ...
4
votes
2answers
109 views

formal proof from calulus

Given $f:R \to R$, $f$ is differentiable on $R$ and $\lim_{x \to \infty}(f(x)-f(-x))=0$. I need to show that there is $x_0 \in R$ such that $f'(x_0)=0$ I am trying to prove it by contradiction .... ...
4
votes
3answers
215 views

Differentiate $\sin \sqrt{x^2+1} $with respect to $x$?

Differentiate $$ \sin \sqrt{x^2+1} $$ with respect to $x$? Can someone please help me with question, im very lost.
1
vote
2answers
542 views

Why does zero derivative imply a function is locally constant?

I've been trying to prove to myself that if $\Omega$ is an open connected set in $\mathbb{R}^n$, then if $f\colon\Omega\to\mathbb{R}^m$ is a differentiable function such that $f'(x)=0$ for all ...
1
vote
3answers
253 views

Application of derivative - helicopter problem

A helicopter of enemy is flying along the curve given by $y =x^2+7$. A soldier, placed at (3,7) wants to shoot down the helicopter when it is nearest to him. Find the nearest distance. Please guide ...
0
votes
2answers
112 views

Present a function with specific feature

Is there any function whose derivative at a point is positive but it is not ascending or whose derivative is negative but is not descending? I have thought about this a lot, but I cannot find ...
16
votes
1answer
439 views

“Converse” of Taylor's theorem

Let $f:(a,b)\to\mathbb R$. We know that for every $c\in(a,b)$ we can write $f(t)=\sum_{i=0}^k a_i(c)(t-c)^i+o\left((t-c)^k\right)$ and $\forall i$ $a_i(c)$ is continuous (with respect to $c$). Can we ...
13
votes
2answers
925 views

Fractional Derivative Implications/Meaning?

I've recently been studying the concept of taking fractional derivatives and antiderivatives, and this question has come to mind: If a first derivative, in Cartesian coordinates, is representative of ...
16
votes
4answers
1k views

Differentiating $y=x^{2}$

I am reading in a book about differentiating, but I am confused with one of the steps he takes. We start with: $$ \begin{align} y &= x^{2} \\ y + \mathrm{d}y &= (x + \mathrm{d}x)^2 \\ y + ...
6
votes
2answers
236 views

Proving that if $|f''(x)| \le A$ then $|f'(x)| \le A/2$

Suppose that $f(x)$ is differentiable on $[0,1]$ and $f(0) = f(1) = 0$. It is also known that $|f''(x)| \le A$ for every $x \in (0,1)$. Prove that $|f'(x)| \le A/2$ for every $x \in [0,1]$. ...
6
votes
1answer
6k views

Understanding the relationship between differentiation and integration

I am trying to understand the relationship between differentiation and integration. Differentiation has been introduced to me by this diagram: Which displays that the derivative of a point $x$ on ...
4
votes
2answers
117 views

sum of polynoms of given property

I have $P(x)$ a polynomial with degree $n$ ,$P(x) \ge 0$ for all $x \in$ real. I have to prove that: $f(x)=P(x)+P'(x)+P"(x)+......+P^{n}(x) \ge 0$ for all $x$. I tried different methods to ...
4
votes
2answers
256 views

Closed form for $n$-th derivative of exponential

I need the closed-form for the $n$-th derivative ($n\geq0 $): $$\frac{\partial^n}{\partial x^n}\exp\left(-\frac{\pi^2a^2}{x}\right)$$ Thanks! By following the suggestion of Hermite polynomials: ...
8
votes
3answers
872 views

n-th derivative of $\frac{\ln x}{x}$.

Let $f(x)=\frac{\ln x}{x},x>0$. Show that $$f^{(n)}(1)=(-1)^{n+1}(n!)(1+\frac{1}{2}+\cdot+\frac{1}{n})$$ Trial: n-th derivative of $\ln x$ is $$(-1)^{n-1}(n-1)! x^{-n}$$ and n-th derivative of ...
5
votes
3answers
176 views

Prove the existence of such $c$

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be a differentiable function s.t. $f'$ is continuous. Suppose $f'\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)=0$, prove that there is $c\in\left(0,\frac{1}{2}\right)$ s.t. ...
4
votes
4answers
219 views

question about the limit $\lim_{h\to0}\frac{\arcsin(x+h)-\arcsin(x)}{h}$

Because $\sin'(x)=\cos(x)$ we can prove that $\arcsin'(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}$. but, by definition we have $$\arcsin'(x)=\lim_{h\to0}\frac{\arcsin(x+h)-\arcsin(x)}{h}\tag{1}$$ therefore, ...
3
votes
1answer
280 views

Continuous function with linear directional derivatives=>Total differentiability?

As in the title: If $f\colon\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$ is continuous in $x$ and has directional derivatives $\partial_vf(x)=L(v)\,\forall v\in\mathbb{R}^n$, where $L$ is linear, does this imply that ...
6
votes
2answers
595 views

Why use the derivative and not the symmetric derivative?

The symmetric derivative is always equal to the regular derivative when it exists, and still isn't defined for jump discontinuities. From what I can tell the only differences are that a symmetric ...
5
votes
3answers
321 views

Proof that $Γ'(1) = -γ$?

I know that $Γ'(1) = -γ$, but how does one prove this? Starting from the basics, we have that: $$Γ(x) = \int_0^\infty e^{-t} t^{x-1} dt$$ How do we differentiate this? How do we then find that ...
4
votes
2answers
99 views

Multivariable calculus - Implicit function theorem

we are given the function $F: \mathbb R^3 \to \mathbb R^2$, $F(x,y,z)=\begin{pmatrix} x+yz-z^3-1 \\ x^3-xz+y^3\end{pmatrix}$ Show that around $(1,-1,0)$ we can represent $x$ and $y$ as functions of ...
4
votes
7answers
427 views

Why isn't the derivative of $e^x$ equal to $xe^{(x-1)}$?

When we take a derivative of a function where the power rule applies, e.g. $x^3$, we multiply the function by the exponent and subtract the current exponent by one, receiving $3x^2$. Using this ...
4
votes
5answers
3k views

Derivative of Integral

I'm having a little trouble with the following problem: Calculate $F'(x)$: $F(x)=\int_{1}^{x^{2}}(t-\sin^{2}t) dt$ It says we have to use substitution but I don't see why the answer can't just be: ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

$ 2|f^{'}(0)| = \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$

Let $D = B(0,1) \subset \mathbb{C} $ a disc, $f$ holomorphic on $D$. I want to demonstrate that if $$ 2|f^{'}(0)| = \sup_{z, w \in D} |f(z)-f(w)|$$ then $f$ is linear. I know this is a well-known ...
1
vote
2answers
98 views

For a differentiable function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ what does $\lim_{x\rightarrow +\infty} f'(x)=1$ imply? (TIFR GS $2014$)

Question is : For a differentiable function $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ what does $\lim_{x\rightarrow +\infty} f'(x)=1$ imply? Options: $f$ is bounded $f$ is increasing $f$ is unbounded ...
8
votes
5answers
703 views

Calculating the shortest possible distance between points

Question: Given the points $A(3,3)$, $B(0,1)$ and $C(x,0)$ where $0 < x < 3$, $AC$ is the distance between $A$ and $C$ and $BC$ is the distance between $B$ and $C$. What is x for the distance ...
6
votes
5answers
148 views

The derivative of $e^x$ using the definition of derivative as a limit and the definition $e^x = \lim_{n\to\infty}(1+x/n)^n$, without L'Hôpital's rule

Let's define $$ e^x := \lim_{n\to\infty}\left(1+\frac{x} {n}\right)^n, \forall x\in\Bbb R $$ and $$ \frac{d} {dx} f(x) := \lim_{\Delta x\to0} \frac{f(x+\Delta x) - f(x)} {\Delta x} $$ Prove that ...