Questions on the evaluation of derivatives or problems involving derivatives (for example, use of the mean value theorem).

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19
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2answers
1k views

Is a differentiable function on $(-2, 4)$ always integrable on $[-2, 4]$?

So my question is, say I have a function that is differentiable on $(-2, 4)$. Is it always integrable on $[-2, 4]$? I know that if $f$ is diff on $(-2, 4)$, then it is continuous on $(-2, 4)$. And I ...
19
votes
0answers
540 views

Divergence of the Derivative of the Prime Counting Function

On the one hand, the Prime Counting Function $\pi_0(x)$ maybe be written $$ \pi_0(x) = \operatorname{R}(x^1) - \sum_{\rho}\operatorname{R}(x^{\rho}) \tag{1} $$ with $ \operatorname{R}(z) = \sum_{n=...
18
votes
4answers
1k views

Prove that $\int^{1}_{0} f^{-1} = 1 - \int^1_0 f$

One more from hard to believe facts, which I'm curious why are true. Let $f : [0,1] \rightarrow [0,1] $ is a continuous, monotonically increasing and surjective function Then $$\int^{1}_{0} f^{-1} ...
18
votes
4answers
1k views

Differentiating $y=x^{2}$

I am reading in a book about differentiating, but I am confused with one of the steps he takes. We start with: $$ \begin{align} y &= x^{2} \\ y + \mathrm{d}y &= (x + \mathrm{d}x)^2 \\ y + \...
18
votes
3answers
2k views

How many non-differentiable functions exist?

The size of the set of functions that map $\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ equals $(\#\mathbb{R})^{\#\mathbb{R}}$. How many non-differentiable functions are there in this set?
18
votes
8answers
293 views

Intuitively, why should the coefficient of the derivative of $x^n$ be $n$?

I am able to differentiate $x^n$ with respect to $x$ from first principles using the definition of differentiation. Also it seems natural that the gradient of a finite polynomial will be one order ...
18
votes
2answers
1k views

A functional equation with no solution

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to (0,\infty)$ be a differentiable function satisfying $$f(f(x))=f^\prime(x)$$for each $x$. Show no such function exists. I got this problem in an exam. I haven't done anything ...
18
votes
2answers
7k views

Is $ \frac{\mathrm{d}{x}}{\mathrm{d}{y}} = \frac{1}{\left( \frac{\mathrm{d}{y}}{\mathrm{d}{x}} \right)} $?

In calculus, is $ \dfrac{\mathrm{d}{x}}{\mathrm{d}{y}} = \dfrac{1}{\left( \dfrac{\mathrm{d}{y}}{\mathrm{d}{x}} \right)} $? I’m so confused about this matter. What would be a proof of it? Edit: By the ...
18
votes
3answers
2k views

Fractional Derivative Implications/Meaning?

I've recently been studying the concept of taking fractional derivatives and antiderivatives, and this question has come to mind: If a first derivative, in Cartesian coordinates, is representative of ...
17
votes
2answers
1k views

Is calculating the summation of derivatives “mathematically sound”?

I have just discovered that if you take the following series: $$1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + x^4 + \cdot \cdot \cdot = \sum_{n = 0}^\infty x^n$$ and replace each term in the series with the derivative of them, ...
17
votes
1answer
338 views

Proof that the range of a map is determined by its behaviour on the boundary.

Let f be a mapping from an open neighbourhood of the 3-dimensional unit ball to the 2-dimensional plane. Suppose that f is smooth (infinitely continuously differentiable on its domain) and regular (it'...
17
votes
1answer
587 views

“Converse” of Taylor's theorem

Let $f:(a,b)\to\mathbb R$. We know that for every $c\in(a,b)$ we can write $f(t)=\sum_{i=0}^k a_i(c)(t-c)^i+o\left((t-c)^k\right)$ and $\forall i$ $a_i(c)$ is continuous (with respect to $c$). Can we ...
16
votes
3answers
2k views

Derivative/integral relationship appears to disprove the fundamental theorem of calculus!!!

Consider the floor function: $$f(x) = \lfloor x \rfloor$$ The indefinite integral of f is: $$\int_0^x f(x) dx = x\lfloor x \rfloor - \frac {\lfloor x \rfloor^2 + \lfloor x \rfloor} 2$$ This should ...
16
votes
5answers
7k views

If a function has a finite limit at infinity, does that imply its derivative goes to zero?

I've been thinking about this problem: Let $f: (a, +\infty) \to \mathbb{R}$ be a differentiable function such that $\lim\limits_{x \to +\infty} f(x) = L < \infty$. Then must it be the case that $\...
16
votes
4answers
503 views

Derivative of ${x^{x^2}}$

Studying past exam problems for my exam in ~$4$ weeks, and I came across this derivative as one of the questions. I actually have no idea how to solve it. $$\frac{d}{dx} (x^{x^2})$$ Using the chain ...
16
votes
2answers
879 views

In what sense is the derivative the “best” linear approximation?

I am familiar with the definition of the Frechet derivative and it's uniqueness if it exists. I would however like to know, how the derivative is the "best" linear approximation. What does this mean ...
16
votes
4answers
328 views

Find $f''(x)$ if $f\circ f'(x) = 4x^2 + 3$

Can you tell me the solution of this question? If: $f\circ f'(x)=4 x^2 +3$ then what is $f''(x)$? This was a question in math test which I just took yesterday. One function satisfying the ...
16
votes
2answers
814 views

Definition of the nth derivative? [First post]

If the definition of the derivative is $$ f^\prime(x) = \lim_{\Delta x \to 0} \dfrac{f(x+\Delta x) - f(x)}{\Delta x} $$ Would it make sense that the nth derivative would be (I know that the 'n' in ...
15
votes
3answers
2k views

Find the value of a function whose derivative is zero

The initial function is $$h(x)=\arcsin x + \arccos x$$ The derivative of this function is $0$ since $$h'(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}-\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}\equiv0$$ This means that $h(x)$ is a ...
15
votes
11answers
514 views

Different ways finding the derivative of $\sin$ and $\cos$.

I am looking for different ways of differentiating $\sin$ and $\cos$, especially when using the geometric definition, but ways that use other defintions are also welcome. Please include the ...
15
votes
2answers
891 views

Why aren't integration and differentiation inverses of each other?

Integration is supposed to be the inverse of differentiation, but the integral of the derivative is not equal to the derivative of the integral: $$\dfrac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}\left(\int f(x)\...
15
votes
8answers
17k views

Continuous versus differentiable

A function is "differentiable" if it has a derivative. A function is "continuous" if it has no sudden jumps in it. Until today, I thought these were merely two equivalent definitions of the same ...
15
votes
3answers
520 views

Calculate:$y'$ for $y = x^{x^{x^{x^{x^{.^{.^{.^{\infty}}}}}}}}$ and $y = \sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+…\infty}}}}$

(1) If $y = x^{x^{x^{x^{x^{.^{.^{.^{\infty}}}}}}}}$ (2) If $y = \sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+\sqrt{x+....\infty}}}}$ then find $y'$ in both cases (3)If $ y= \sqrt{tanx+\sqrt{tanx+\sqrt{tanx+\sqrt{...
15
votes
7answers
17k views

Using the Limit definition to find the derivative of $e^x$

I was wondering how we could use the limit definition $$ \lim_{h \rightarrow 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{h}$$ to find the derivative of $e^x$, I get to a point where I do not know how to simplify the ...
15
votes
2answers
6k views

Is there such a thing as partial integration?

Recently in my mathematics courses I was taught partial derivatives, and I wondered if the reverse exists for integrals. This may sound like a stupid question, and it probably is, but let me explain: ...
15
votes
1answer
635 views

How to calclulate a derivate of a hypergeometric function w.r.t. one of its parameters?

Is it possible to take a derivative of a hypergeometric function w.r.t. one of its parameters and express it in a closed form? I am particularly interested in this case: $$\large\left[\frac{d}{da}{...
15
votes
2answers
513 views

Prove ${\large\int}_0^1\frac{\ln(1+8x)}{x^{2/3}\,(1-x)^{2/3}\,(1+8x)^{1/3}}dx=\frac{\ln3}{\pi\sqrt3}\Gamma^3\!\left(\tfrac13\right)$

Here is one more numerically discovered conjecture that I was not able to prove, and asking you for help: $${\large\int}_0^1\frac{\ln(1+8x)}{x^{\small2/3}\,(1-x)^{\small2/3}\,(1+8x)^{\small1/3}}dx\...
15
votes
3answers
17k views

Second derivative “formula derivation”

I've been trying to understand how the second order derivative "formula" works: $$\lim_{h\to0} \frac{f(x+h) - 2f(x) + f(x-h)}{h^2}$$ So, the rate of change of the rate of change for an arbitrary ...
15
votes
3answers
301 views

Finding $f'(0)$ when $f(x)=\int\limits_0^x\sin\left(\frac{1}{t}\right)dt$

I need to show that $f'(0)=0$ for $$ f(x)=\int\limits_0^x\sin\left(\frac{1}{t}\right)dt $$ But fundamental theorem of calculus is unapplicable here. What should I do?
14
votes
2answers
327 views

Proof of strictly increasing nature of $y(x)=x^{x^{x^{\ldots}}}$ on $[1,e^{\frac{1}{e}})$?

The title is fairly self explanatory: I have been trying to rigorously prove that $y(x)=x^{x^{x^{\ldots}}}$ is a strictly increasing function over the interval $[1,e^{\frac{1}{e}})$ for a while now, ...
14
votes
3answers
874 views

FoxTrot Bill Amend Problems

So I found this on the Wolfram website today: So I was wondering about how one might be able to (if possible) solve those four problems by hand. Here are the problems, $\LaTeX$ed: $ \lim_{x \to ...
14
votes
1answer
823 views

Inverse of a bijection f is equal to its derivative

Does there exist a differentiable bijection $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $f'(x) = f^{-1}(x)$ ?
14
votes
6answers
157 views

Why does $n$-time differentiation of product have the same structure as raising sum to $n$th power?

A formula for differentiating a product is well known: $$(ab)'=a'b+ab'.$$ At first sight it doesn't resemble anything interesting. But what if we differentiate twice? We'll get $$(ab)''=a''b+2a'b'+...
14
votes
3answers
132 views

$f$ be a smooth function on real line , $f(0)=0$ , $f(x)>0, \forall x \ne 0$ and any $f^{(n)}(0)=0$ ; is $\sqrt f$ smooth?

Let $f: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be an infinitely differentiable function such that $f(0)=0$ , $f(x)>0 , \forall x \ne 0$ and $f^{(n)}(0)=0$ ( the $n$-th derivative ) $, \forall n \in \mathbb N$ ...
14
votes
3answers
181 views

Applications of functions of the form $f(x)^{g(x)}$

Early on in my calculus education, I learned how to take the derivative of $x^x$ by re-writing it in the form $e^{x\ln x}$. More generally, this technique is helpful in finding the derivative of ...
14
votes
1answer
232 views

What's the minimal structure needed to define a notion of derivative?

I know that, for example, to define a limit all you need is the notion of "closeness" generated by a topology; and to define an integral you need a measure function and a sigma-algebra on which it is ...
13
votes
2answers
239 views

How prove that there exists $\xi\in(a,b)$ with $f'(\xi)=\frac{f(\xi)-f(a)}{b-a}$

Let $f(x)$ be continuous on $[a,b]$, differentiable on $(a,b)$, and with some $c\in(a,b)$ such that $f'(c)=0$. Show: There exists $\xi\in(a,b)$ such that $$ f'(\xi)=\dfrac{f(\xi)-f(a)}{b-a} $$ My ...
13
votes
2answers
604 views

Zeroes of the third derivative of an iterated sine.

I've been playing with the functions $$f_n:[0,\pi/2]\to[0,1]\\\begin{cases} f_1&=&\sin\\f_{n+1}&=&\sin\circ f_n\end{cases}.$$ A simple argument proves that $f_n(x)\to 0$ for $x\in [0,\...
13
votes
6answers
298 views

How does $\tan^{-1}(x-\sqrt{1+x^2})=\frac{1}{2}\tan^{-1}x+C$ directly?

I'm teaching baby calculus recitation this semester, and I meet a problem to calculate the derivative of $$y=\tan^{-1}(x-\sqrt{1+x^2})$$ Just apply the chain rule and after some preliminary algebra, ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Are all continuous one one functions differentiable?

I was reading about one one functions and found out that they cannot have maxima or minima except at endpoints of domain. So their derivative , if it exists, must not change it sign , i.e. , the ...
12
votes
7answers
906 views

Question about the derivative definition

The derivative at a point $x$ is defined as: $\lim\limits_{h\to0} \frac{f(x+h) - f(x)}h$ But if $h\to0$, wouldn't that mean: $\frac{f(x+0) - f(x)}0 = \frac0{0}$ which is undefined?
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Why use the derivative and not the symmetric derivative?

The symmetric derivative is always equal to the regular derivative when it exists, and still isn't defined for jump discontinuities. From what I can tell the only differences are that a symmetric ...
12
votes
5answers
288 views

What is the difference between $\frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}$ and $\frac{\partial}{\partial x}$?

Is there not any difference between $\frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}$ and $\frac{\partial}{\partial x}$ as long as your function has one variable? $f(x) = x^3\implies \left\{\begin{align}&\dfrac{\...
12
votes
3answers
869 views

The closed form of $\lim_{x\to\frac{4}{3}}\frac{\partial}{\partial x}\left[\,_2{\rm{F}}_1\left(\frac{1}{3},1;x;-1\right)\right]$

Do you think the following limit might have a closed form? Some hints or clues? $$\lim_{x\to\frac{4}{3}}\frac{\partial}{\partial x}\left[\,_2{\rm{F}}_1\left(\frac{1}{3},1;x;-1\right)\right]$$
12
votes
3answers
2k views

Are polynomials infinitely many times differentiable?

Are polynomials infinitely many times differentiable? If so, does it only mean that at some point we reach 0 and then we keep on getting 0? Thank you!
12
votes
3answers
10k views

Derivative of the $f(x,y)=\min(x,y)$

I just encountered this function $f(x,y)=\min(x,y)$. I wonder what the partial derivatives of it look like.
12
votes
2answers
396 views

Finding the derivative of $x\uparrow\uparrow n$

I am trying to find a general derivative for the function: $f(x)=x^{x^{x^{...^{x}}}}$however to do that I must find $f^{\prime }$ and $f^{\prime \prime}$...etc. I am now trying to write down a general ...
12
votes
4answers
12k views

Derivative of determinant of a matrix

Good morning everyone, I would like to know how to calculate: $\frac{d}{dt}\det \big(A_1(t), A_2(t), \ldots, A_n (t) \big)$ Help me please. Thank you
12
votes
3answers
6k views

Derive or differentiate?

When the action is: Taking the derivative what verb should be used? to differentiate to derive I feel that deriving is not the correct word here. In my mind it's more a synonym of deducing. Am I ...
12
votes
5answers
796 views

Closed form for $n$th derivative of exponential of $f$

What is the closed form for: $$\frac{\partial^n}{\partial x^n}\exp(f(x))=\exp(f(x))\cdot[????]$$