Definitions are the core of mathematical precision; they come to answer "what is X" in mathematics. Into this category fit questions regarding equivalence of definitions; clarifications regarding complicated definitions; as well questions with purposed definitions for mathematical notions with ...

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Fountain code and online code

Are fountain code and online code the same? It seems to me they have the same property, which is used in lossy channel and generate unlimited encoded block. If they are the same, then what encoding ...
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22 views

What is the desirable function identification when setting up arrows in the category of types?

My question is which functions can not be allowed in a statically typed programming language, so that the "canonical" category is less coarse than what you get if you define it's arrows to be ...
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1answer
65 views

What's the difference between a cyclic and periodic function?

I've seen the words "cyclic" and "periodic" used to describe characteristics of a given function. What do they mean? I can't seem to find a difference. Wikipedia says a periodic function is one that ...
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3answers
135 views

Has the opposite category exactly the same morphisms as the original?

This is actually a question about categories; not only about the category that I mention here specifically. I only use category $\mathsf{Rel}$ as an example. How to describe a morphism that ...
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2answers
34 views

What is a transformation?

I am not a native English speaker and I have been pointed out that the word "transformation" as a synonym of "function" is grammatically incorrect. However, I even found a wikipedia and a mathworld ...
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2answers
142 views

Why we can't define $\frac{1}{0}$ to be $1$ (or anything else), but we can define $1^0$ to be $1$?

We know that we can't define division by zero "in any mathematical system that obeys the axioms of a field", because it would be inconsistent with such axioms. (1) Why can we define $a^0$ ($a\neq 0$) ...
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Definition - Logarithmic Zeros and Algebraic Vector Fields

In Algebraic Geometry, what is the difference between an algebraic vector field and a derivation (are they completely different or synonymous)? What does it mean to say an algebraic vector field has ...
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1answer
15 views

Maximal rank definition?

What would it be to say that a linear map $T:\mathbb R^{m+n}\longrightarrow \mathbb R^n$ has maximal rank? I'd like a precise definition of it, I skimmed several linear algebra books after the ...
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1answer
50 views

Definition of a parallelizable manifold

My text that I am self studying from says that a manifold $M$ is parallelizable if it has a trivial tangent bundle which means that there is an isomorphism $\varphi:M\times \mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow ...
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54 views

Is the proof of non-totality of a function $f$ trivial if $f$ is recursively defined only on a subset of $\Bbb N$?

I define a fuction $*$ in a recursive way on a subset of natural numbers (with subset I mean that is $*$ define in the second argument only for $\Bbb N-\{0,1\}$ in other words we have $*:\Bbb N ...
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1answer
54 views

Help in this equivalence in Fulton's book

I'm studying Fulton's algebraic curves book and some of its notation look like confusing. I need help to understand this equivalence in the page 35. The preceding paragraph he mentioned I put ...
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4answers
81 views

Question on definitions

I was going through some basic recap of complex numbers and in the book (M. Boas. Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences) she says we define $e^{ix}$ by the Taylor series with $x$ replaced by ...
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2answers
320 views

Is 2+2=4 an identity?

I know this seems like a silly question, but someone was trying to debate with me about how 2+2=4 should be called an identity and not an equation. I mentioned how it has no variables and isn't true ...
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1answer
24 views

What does it mean for a function to be uniquely determined by another function?

In munkres topology, I went through an exercise which asks me to show that a function is uniquely determined by another function. I wonder, What does this mean? I googled it but No answer! Here is ...
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1answer
14 views

Definitions of hemicontinuity

can anyone see the equivalence or relation between the following two definitions of hemicontinuity that I encountered: Assume that $K$ is a closed, convex subset of Banach space $X$. Let $X^{*}$ be ...
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2answers
100 views

$361$ degrees: acute or obtuse?

Recently I encounter a problem (of trigonometry) where $\sin{x}$ was asked and it was also told that $x$ is acute. So, I like anyone else, found the general solution, however my general solution ...
4
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1answer
48 views

what are and why are sine and cosine modulated integrals used?

I have found the definition of the following formulas in a paper regarding active vibration control, where they are called sine and cosine modulated integrals. $y$ is measurement signal with a strong ...
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1answer
35 views

What is the definition of Lindelöf space?

My definition for "countable set" is a set with the cardinal $\aleph_0$ and "at most countable set" is a set $A$ such that $|A|≦\aleph_0$. Till now, my definition for Lindelöf space is a topological ...
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1answer
70 views

A better definition of Polynomial

Usually, we define a polynomial as $a_n x^n + \cdots + a_1 x + a_0$ where $x$ is called indeterminate. Would it be better to define it as $a_n x^n + \cdots + a_1 x + a_0 x^0$ where $x^0$ means ...
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2answers
46 views

Characterizing a circle.

Is it correct to characterize a circle by saying that it is a closed curve in $\mathbb{R}^2$ such that all points on the curve are equidistant from a single fixed point? I am familiar with shapes ...
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3answers
159 views

Provocations on the existence of mathematical objects

The few Mathematics I have been studying so far is pure Mathematics. I happen to have some discussions with philosophers of Mathematics, but as they know I totally ignore their subject, we do not ...
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3answers
144 views

Precise definition of a “game of incomplete information” (Game Theory)

Question: In game theory, what is the precise definition of a "game of incomplete information"? What I've found so far: In the standard first year graduate economics textbook on microeconomics ...
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0answers
42 views

Path-independent contour integrals and how to define them

If a contour $C$ is parameterized by $z(t): [a, b] \to \mathbb{C}$, then we define $$ \int_C f(z) \, dz= \int_a^b f(z(t)) \, z'(t) \, dt.$$ If the contour integral on the left side is equal to some ...
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5answers
78 views

What is the reason to introduce and study logarithmic functions?

I don't understand why logarithms exist when we have exponential functions. Exponential functions seem to be an easier and less convoluted way to write something. Why invent logarithms to do something ...
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0answers
44 views

Rapidly Decreasing Functions

Can someone explain the notion of a rapidly decreasing function? Namely, a function in the Schwartz space: $$\mathscr{S}(\mathbb{R}^n):= \{ f \in C^{\infty} (\mathbb{R}^n) : ||f||_{\alpha, \beta} ...
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Confused by definition of an open set in “All the Mathematics You Missed”

On page 66 of Thomas Garrity's "All the Mathematics You Missed", Garrity gives the following definition of an open set in $\mathbb{R}^n$: A set $U$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ will be open if given any $a ...
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1answer
71 views

Do those 'groups' have a name?

Is there a name for 'groups' that only have a neutral element on the right and an inverse for each element on the right ? If there is, does that name also hold for a neutral elt on the right and an ...
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0answers
15 views

Non Borel Spaces: Gauge Integral

Is there a gauge integral over non Borel spaces? (My interest lies in finite measure spaces.) It seems as the definition of the gauge integral crucially depends on the existence of open sets for a ...
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0answers
29 views

Types of definitions

My question is about terminology. Consider the following two types of definitions of a circle: A circle is the collection of all points at the same distance from a given point. A circle is the ...
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3answers
962 views

Embedding, immersion

Could someone please explain what "embedding" means? (Maybe a more intuitive definition) I read that the Klein bottle and real projective plane cannot be embedded in ${\mathbb R}^3$ but is embedded in ...
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2answers
89 views

Why in open balls is radius $r>0$?

the usual definition is the following: Def.1: let be $(a,f)$ a metric space, $c \in a$ and $r \in \Bbb{R}_{>0}$, the open ball of radius $r$ about $c$ is the set $$\mathcal{B}_f(c,r)=\{x \in a| ...
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1answer
35 views

Localization of the Integer Ring

Let $\mathbb{Z}$ be the ring of integers and let $p$ be a prime, then the $p$-localization of $\mathbb{Z}$ is defined as $\mathbb{Z}_{(p)}=\{\displaystyle\frac{a}{b}|a,b\in\mathbb{Z},p\nmid b\}$. I ...
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1answer
42 views

Is there a name for a property defined in terms of open sets?

We know that if a property is defined in terms of open sets then the property is preserved under a homeomorphism. Is there a name for such a property?
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1answer
33 views

Usage of the term $\arg(z)$

Consider the complex number $z = -1 - i$. Is it mathematically correct to say that $\arg(z) = 5\pi/4$? Sure, $5\pi/4$ is not the principle argument of $z$, but it is an element of the set $\arg(z)$. ...
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3answers
120 views

What is a formal definition of “predicate logic”?

I'm currently trying to get clear about some terms that are often used in computer science (I'm a computer science student), but were never formally introduced. Especially, I would like to know what a ...
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16 views

Conjugate actions

What is the definition for two group actions to be conjugate? For example a smooth action of a finite group on a manifold is locally conjugate to an orthogonal action.
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2answers
119 views

Construction of the Hyperreal numbers

Several times I have seen questions/answers here about using the correct definition of derivatives. There are also questions about whether or not $1/0$ is defined. Sometimes there is a discussion ...
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5answers
152 views

Definition of determinant [closed]

Determinant is a certain function from the set of all $n\times n$ matrices to the set of scalars. How is the determinant defined? What characterizes the determinant function?
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2answers
33 views

Could anybody provide a more detailed explanation of a tangent equation in its general form?

In my textbook I'm currently at the topic of a tangent line to an ellipsis and hyperbola. And there I've encountered this statement: If a curve has an equation $$ y = f(x) $$ then an equation of a ...
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0answers
64 views

Why not defining a measure as a function on functions?

A measure $\mu$ is a function to $\left[0,\infty\right]$ on the sets belonging to a $\sigma$-algebra. Then for integrable functions $f$ the integral $\int fd\mu$ comes in, having nice properties ...
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1answer
41 views

Definition of elliptic pde

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic_partial_differential_equation Very confusing. So are there non-linear elliptic pdes? It seems to be the case. And what about $$A u_{xx} + C u_{yy} + F u = 0$$ ...
3
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1answer
87 views

Has anyone succeeded in formalizing Leibniz notation in such a way that the chain rule and inversion rule “work”?

The notation $\frac{\partial}{\partial x}$ is ubiquitous and totally useful, but also kind of weird. It seems to be doing the following: Bind $x$ Compute the derivative Evaluate at $x$ To ...
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2answers
80 views

Definition of dimension

Let us consider Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$. We say it is $n$-dimensional because each vector in it is an $n$-tuple $(x_1,...,x_n)$. However, it is possible to represent this exact same space using ...
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1answer
31 views

Definition of global field

This is very embarrassing thing to ask but what is a definition of global field? Every text or internet sources says either a number field or function field over finite field. (Yes, I understand there ...
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11answers
4k views

How do you define functions for non-mathematicians?

I'm teaching a College Algebra class in the upcoming semester, and only a small portion of the students will be moving on to further mathematics. The class is built around functions, so I need to ...
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10answers
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What is a real number (also rational, decimal, integer, natural, cardinal, ordinal…)?

In mathematics there seem to be a lot of different types of numbers. What exactly are: Real numbers Integers Rationals numbers Decimals Complex numbers Natural numbers Cardinals Ordinals And as ...
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141 views

Is a function always a monotonically increasing function

For $\lim_{x \rightarrow a}f(x) = L$, if $f(x)$ is not a constant, is $\delta(\epsilon)$ always a monotonically increasing function? Alternatively, how does the definition of a limit guarantee that ...
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Definition of Non-characteristic Manifold

What is the definition of non-characteristic manifold in the following context. "Since $ f (x, y)=0 $ is assumed to be a non-characteristic singularity manifold, we have $ f_{x}\neq 0 $." Thanks, ...
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1answer
46 views

Why we use ANY in the definition of a maximal element?

I am confused about the following definition: "a maximal element of a subset S of some partially ordered set is an element of S that is not smaller than any other element in S." I do not understand ...
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3answers
126 views

Functions with different codomain the same according to my book?

My book gives the following definition: A function $f$ from $A$ to $B$ is defined as $f\subseteq A\times B$ such that if $(a,b)\in f$ and $(a,b_1)\in f$ then $b=b_1$ and there exists a $(a,b)\in ...