For requesting, clarifying, and comparing definitions of mathematical terms.

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3
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0answers
41 views

Properties of $L^{\infty}$

I'm trying to get a better grasp on the idea of $L^{\infty}$. What are the implications if we are given that $f \in L^{\infty}$? Also, how do we write $\|f\|_{\infty}$ in terms of the inf of a set of ...
4
votes
1answer
36 views

Definition of a “modular Galois representation”

I am trying to pin down a definition for a $n$-dimensional modular Galois representation $$\rho : \text{Gal}(\overline{\mathbb{Q}}/\mathbb{Q}) \rightarrow \text{GL}_n(A).$$ I am just looking for ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Product topology - definition

Can someone please give me a detailed explanation of the concept of product topologies? I just can't get it. I have looked in a number of decent textbooks(Munkres, Armstrong, Bredon, Wiki :P, Class ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Graph: vertex connectivity and edges connectivity

I know that a graph is $k-$ connected if any two vertex can be connected by $k$ independent path. This is what we call the vertex connectivity. But what is the edges connectivity ?
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3answers
75 views

Is the zero vector in the definition of linear dependence arbritary?

The definition of linear dependence according to wikipedia is The vectors in a subset $S=(v1,v2,...,vk)$ of a vector space $V$ are said to be linearly dependent, if there exist a finite number of ...
3
votes
1answer
62 views

What is a strictly positive probability distribution?

I'm reading about Markov Random Fields. In the wiki page it's written that When the joint probability distribution of the random variables is strictly positive,... I'm so confused! Because a ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

Definition of functions in $L^p$ space

I know that if we suppose that $1 \leq p \leq \infty$, and if $f$ is in $L^p$, then this means that $\|f\|_p=[\int_X (f^p) dx]^{\frac{1}{p}}$. But I feel as though I'm missing some important ...
7
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5answers
872 views

What do people mean by “finite”?

Many arguments about the foundations or philosophy of mathematics centre on the question of whether or not there exist objects or entities (such as certain sets) which are not "finite". (For ...
0
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1answer
27 views

What does it mean for an orbit to “accumulate”?

For example, from Beardon's "A Primer On Riemann Surfaces", ...Show that g is a homeomorphism of D onto itself, and that no orbit accumulates in D. I'm simply looking for a definition of the ...
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0answers
16 views

Definition of parameterised $n$-manifold

Let $U \subseteq \mathbb R^{n+q}$ and let $W = U \cap \mathbb R^n \times \{0\}$. Let $\phi : U \to \phi (U)$ be a diffeomorphism. Then $M=\phi (W)$ is called a parameterised $n$-manifold in $\mathbb ...
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1answer
24 views

Is this a typo (parameterised $n$-manifold)

In this book here on page 62 parameterised $n$-manifolds are introduced. The example given is that of a regular curve $\gamma (t) = (X(t),Y(t))$ and a parametrisation $\phi (x,y) := (x, y + Y(x))$. ...
4
votes
1answer
108 views

What is the definition for a fine sheaf/ a partition of the unity on a sheaf?

From Griffiths and Harris, p. 42: A sheaf $\mathcal F$ on $M$ is called fine, if for $U=\bigcup_i U_i\subseteq M$ there is a partition of the unity subordinate to the cover $(U_i\mid i\in I)$. By this ...
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vote
2answers
57 views

What interpretation of the Lie braket is this?

I was reading exercise 1.96 of Gadea's Analysis and Algebra on Differentiable Manifolds. I don't know what definition of Lie braket the author used, but I'm confused, as far as I know ...
3
votes
1answer
25 views

Strings in a dictionary. A partial order, strict order, and total order?

Question: The domain is the set of all words in the English language (as defined by, say, Webster's dictionary). Word $x$ is related to word $y$ if $x$ appears as a substring of y. For example, "ion" ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

X - Y in a finite set

Question: The domain is the power set of a finite set. $X$ is related to $Y$ if $X - Y$ is not empty. Is it a partial or strict order? If it is a partial order or strict order, is it also a total ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Partial order or strict order

Question: The domain is the set of all positive integers. $a$ is related to $b$ if $b = a⋅ 3n$, for some positive integer $n$. Because of the equal sign, isn't this relation symmetric, transitive, ...
2
votes
2answers
75 views

How to define a specific ring using a homomorphism

If we have a ring $R$ then I can form a ring of matrices isomorphic to $R$ by setting $r \overset{\phi}{\mapsto} \left( \begin{array}{ccc} r & 0 \\ 0 & 0 \end{array} \right) $ and defining ...
0
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0answers
12 views

About equal substitutions

When we say that two substitutions, say $\theta,\sigma$ agree on the variables of a term $t$ what exactly do we mean ? Is it that both substitution act on the same variables and substitute them with ...
3
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0answers
29 views

Transitive relation vs. transitive action

A transitive relation $\circ$ is a relation with the property that: $$ (a\circ b \wedge b \circ c) \Rightarrow a \circ c.$$ A transitive group action is a group action $$\phi : G \times X \rightarrow ...
0
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1answer
42 views

What is the definition of ``2nd-order quasilinear parabolic'' ? for partial differential systems?

I have to know why the mean curvature flows are 2nd-order quasilinear parabolic. Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a bonded domain (or a smooth manifold of $n$ dimensional) and $N\geq 2$. When the ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Are these partial order or total orders?

I just want to know if the following are considered partially ordered sets or total set. Here is the definition: $\mathbb{R}^2$ : (a,b) R (c,d) iff $a\leqslant c$ and $b\leqslant d$ $\mathbb{R}^2$ ...
0
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1answer
13 views

Terminology for probability matrix.

I have two related questions about terminology. If a matrix contains probabilities such that each column (or row or both) sums to $1$ , is this matrix always called a stochastic matrix i.e. even if ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Is my understanding of a limit correct?

When i first learned about limit i was taught that the limit $\lim \limits_{x \to a}$ f(x) = L exists if f(x) $\rightarrow$ L when x $\rightarrow$ a. Or that f(x) gets arbitrarily close to L when x ...
0
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0answers
28 views

It is correct this definition of limit of a function?

I have a definition of the limit of a function in some point $\alpha$ for metric spaces on this manner: We have two metric spaces $(E,d)$ and $(F,p)$; $A\subset E$, $f:A\to F$. Then ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Rephrasing the definition of a limit

Is $\large{\lim_{x \to a}f(x)=L}$ The same as saying "one can get $\large{f(x)}$ as close as imaginable to $\large{L}$, by setting $\large{x}$ close enough to $\large{a}$" and vice versa "one can ...
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0answers
30 views

What is a projective rational function in Fulton's book?

I'm reading Fulton's algebraic curves and I don't know if I understood correctly this definition on the page 46: What does the author mean by $f,g\in \Gamma_h(V)$ being of the same degree? Since ...
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5answers
55 views

How is “smaller than” defined on $\mathbb{R}$?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_relation Binary relations are used in many branches of mathematics to model concepts like "is greater than", "is equal to", and "divides" in ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

What is the definition of a binary relation?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_relation it is first defined as "a collection of ordered pairs of elements of A" and then as "an ordered triple (X, Y, G) where X and Y are arbitrary ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Epsilon Delta Limit Intuition

I am having a hard time grasping the definition of a limit. I initially learned this loose definition of a limit: $\lim\limits_{x \to a}f(x)=L$ iff $f(x)$ approaches L when $x$ approaches $a$ from ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Definition of curvilinear coordinates?

Please can someone give me a formal definition of curvilinear coordinates, preferably with as source. The once that I have found don't seem to be very formal.
0
votes
1answer
29 views

What is a Galois closure and Galois group?

I was reading wikipedia for Galois groups and this term suddenly appears and there is no definition for it. What is a Galois closure of a field $F$? Does this mean a maximal Galois extension of $F$ ...
0
votes
2answers
39 views

Is this definition correct for the inverse of a function?

Is this definition correct for the inverse of a function? Let $f:X\to Y$ be a function. The inverse of $f$ is the function $g:Y\to X$ such that $g\circ f=i_X$ and $f\circ g=i_Y$. We denote the ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

simplicial homology definition

I am revising for my algebraic topology exam based on Hatchers 2nd chapter of algebraic topology and I have this question regarding the definition of simplicial homology on pages 104-105: Hatcher ...
1
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1answer
21 views

Minimal planar domain

I am recently studing minimal surfaces on my own. I have meet in many places the fallowing statement: The only connected, properly embedded, minimal planar domains in $\mathbb{R}^3$ are a plane, a ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What is a purely inseparable extension?

There are many different definitions of purely inseparable extension, and below is what I have chosen for my definition. (Since I don't know what is a standard one, if you know please tell me what ...
2
votes
1answer
74 views

Characterizing affine subspaces order-theoretically

Let $V$ denote a real vectorspace and $\mathrm{Con}(V)$ denote the poset of convex subsets of $V$. The goal is to identify those elements of $\mathrm{Con}(V)$ that happen to be affine subspaces of $V$ ...
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0answers
12 views

On random functions taking values in the space of continous functions.

I upload the image of the passage that is unclear to me (Theoretical statistics by Keener): I do not understand how $W_1, W_2, \dots$ take values in $C(K)$. For every different realization of the ...
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vote
0answers
13 views

What is a separable closure? And why the standard definition of algebraic closure is defind as so?

Instead of defining it as a subfield of algebraic closure, what would be the natural way to define it? Here's what I figured out: Let $F$ be a field and $E$ be an extension field of $F$. ...
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Is normal extension algebraic?

Let $E/F$ be a field extension. Then $E/F$ is called normal iff there exists $\mathscr{A}\subset F[X]\setminus\{0\}$ such that $\forall f\in\mathscr{A}$, $f$ splits over $E$ and ...
5
votes
4answers
111 views

Constructing the natural numbers without set theory.

As I understand it the idea of defining everything as sets is a relatively new idea in mathematics. Does that mean there's a non-set theoretic definition of the natural numbers? Could there be?
-1
votes
1answer
31 views

In an augmented matrix representing a system of equations, why is it a contradiction when the LHS isn't zero and RHS is zero but not when flipped?

In an augmented matrix representing a system of equations, say a $1\times 3$ matrix: $(a,b \mid c)$, why is it a contradiction when $a=b=0, c\neq 0$ but not when $a,b\neq 0, c=0$ ?
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vote
2answers
41 views

Vector bundle and its definition

Take this definition of vector bundle: its a triple $(V,\pi,M)$ where $V$ is a set, $\pi:V \rightarrow M$ a sutjective map such that for every $m \in M$ the set $\pi^{-1}(m)$ has the structure of real ...
10
votes
3answers
853 views

What is meant by a stopping time?

TL;DR: is a stopping time some sort of event, or is it a point in discrete time, or something else entirely what is an example of something which is not a stopping time? is my understanding of the ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Clarification on some definitions in Operator Theory

I'm trying to read this paper http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.3325 , but I'm having a lot of difficulty making sense of two phrases. The setting is $L_2(\mathbb R^d)$. i) He mentions that for a function ...
0
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0answers
19 views

(Partial) derivatives exist vs. are finite?

Is there a difference between the following two statements or do they mean the same? The (partial) derivatives of $f$ exist. The (partial) derivatives of $f$ are finite. I believe that it ...
2
votes
3answers
67 views

Injective or one-to-one? What is the difference?

What is the difference between the terms 'injective' and 'one-to-one', 'surjective' and 'onto', and 'bijective' and 'isomorphic'?
14
votes
4answers
793 views

Vector Spaces: Redundant Axiom?

Question Why are the axioms for vector space independent? More precisely $1x=x$ seems redundant... (I take the axioms from: Wikipedia) Explanation One has for zero vector: ...
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0answers
19 views

Definition of a kind of section

Let $L$ a line bundle of a complex algebraic surface. What is a rational function of $L$? (Or if you want you can take the case of the Riemann surfaces)
0
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1answer
47 views

On the definition of sphere in analytic geometry…

Last year, when I was teaching mathematics (analytic geometry) for one of my clever freands, I arrived to the definition of sphere. I said Fix $r>0$, An sphere is the set of all triples ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Definition of linear chains

I am reading Hatcher books in algebraic topology and he defined by $LC_n(Y)$ as the subgroup of $C_n(Y)$ generated by linear maps $\Delta^n$ $\to Y$ where $C_n(Y)$ is the abelian group of the $n$ ...