Definitions are the core of mathematical precision; they come to answer "what is X" in mathematics. Into this category fit questions regarding equivalence of definitions; clarifications regarding complicated definitions; as well questions with purposed definitions for mathematical notions with ...

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
1answer
33 views

Perpendicular to Z axis or Skew to Z axis? (Definition of Perpendicular)

Question Part 1. Consider the following, where the point is the intersection of the sphere and a tangent plane. Consider a Euclidean coordinate system where: Blue dot is the origin (0,0,0). ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

Limit of vector-valued function is equal to the limit of its components

Let $f: \Bbb R^m \to \Bbb R^n$. Express $f(x)$ in terms of components: $$f(x)=(f_1(x), f_2(x), ... , f_n(x))$$ I need to prove that $f$ is continuous at $a$ if and only if each $f_i$ is continuous ...
1
vote
3answers
100 views

Alternative to epsilon-delta definition

Back in Multivariable Calculus, I remember my professor, when explaining why he decided to skip a rigorous definition of limit (the reason was that those of us that would continue in math would go ...
1
vote
0answers
27 views

Definition of standard functions [duplicate]

In many texts and books about calculus we see There are functions $f$ for which the anti-derivative cannot be expressed in terms of standard functions or there are many integrals that cannot ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

On the definition of commutators

We know that given a group $G$, for every $x,y\in G$ we define $[x,y]:=x^{-1}y^{-1}xy$, the commutator of $x$ and $y$. I saw something more general, commutators involving more than two elements, like ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

What is “Triangulable Triad”?

I am reading George W. Whitehead's Homotopy Theory; Corollary 1.0.2 mentioned the term "Triangulable triad" without definition. May I know how it is defined?
0
votes
1answer
51 views

Has this topology a name?

let $(X,\tau )$ be the topological space where $\tau =\{\emptyset, X, \{x\}, X-\{x\}\}$ , $ x \in X$. Does this topology have a name? Thanks in advance!
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Example of a uniformly convex domain in $\Bbb R^n$

I am trying to understand the differences between a convex domain, and a uniformly convex domain. Intuitively, to my knowledge, a convex domain is one where any line between any two points in the ...
0
votes
2answers
28 views

Formalize definition of subbase of a topology

Def.: let be $(A,B)$ a topological space, and $C \subseteq B$, "$C$ is subbasis of $B$ if $$\{X|\exists X_1,X_2,...,X_n \in C(X=\bigcap_{i=1}^n X_i)\} \text{ is basis of } B$$ Is it correct?
5
votes
1answer
77 views

Is there way to formalize the idea that a category can be “cocomplete from the inside”?

Let $\mathrm{KSet}$ denote the category of all countable sets, including the finite ones. Then $\mathrm{KSet}$ is finitely complete. Furthermore, $\mathrm{KSet}$ admits all countable colimits, or, ...
1
vote
4answers
361 views

What is the definition of 'within one' in mathematics

I need help with the definition of "within 1": If $x = 8$ and $y = 7$, then $x$ is "within 1" of $y$. If $x = 8$ and $y = 9$, then $x$ is "within 1" of $y$. If $x = 8$ and $y = 8$, is $x$ still ...
1
vote
1answer
90 views

Topology: Interior

The neighborhood filters satisfy: $$\forall N\in\mathcal{N}(x):\qquad x\in N$$ $$\forall N\in\mathcal{N}(x)\exists M_0\in\mathcal{N}(x):\qquad N\in\mathcal{N}(m)\text{ for all }m\in M_0$$ Define the ...
1
vote
3answers
111 views

Why do we formalize conceptions?

Why do we always try to formalize conceptions? Let's take the naive conception of sets, why do we try to write down a list of axioms? what do we earn in doing so? I'm looking especially for ...
1
vote
3answers
70 views

Definition of a principal ultrafilter

I just started trying to read through Lectures on the Hyperreals: An Introduction to Nonstandard Analysis, by Robert Goldblatt. I'm near the beginning in the section on filters. He's defined an ...
1
vote
0answers
69 views

Strong Notion of Integral

Is there a strong(!) notion of integral that can face all of those issues: Singularities Decay Modes Oscillations Measure Spaces Locally Convex Spaces For example combining decay modes with ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Is the proof of non-totality of a function $f$ trivial if $f$ is recursively defined only on a subset of $\Bbb N$?

I define a fuction $*$ in a recursive way on a subset of natural numbers (with subset I mean that is $*$ define in the second argument only for $\Bbb N-\{0,1\}$ in other words we have $*:\Bbb N ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

formalize definition of topology

In my studies I used this definition of topology, but I am reading on wikipedia a different definition... I thought to formalize: Def. let be $A$ a set and $B \in \mathcal{P}(\mathcal{P}(A))$, ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

Semantics and Logical structure in Definitons

Continuation of Free and bound variables in "if" statements definitions: A number is even if it is divisible by $2$. The number is even if it is divisible by $2$. Is the usage of the ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Logical structure of definitions

Here are some "concepts" that are confusing me: The assertion $x>2$ is true when we replace $x$ by a number greater than $2$($3$ for example) and false if we replace it by $1$. But the assertion ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

A special kind of metric-spaces

Is there a special name for those metric-spaces or topological spaces in which every non-empty open set is uncountable ?
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Mystery of non-vanishing derivative

Studying complex line integrals.. I can't see why we include "non-vanishing derivative" in the definition of a smooth curve. And although not related -- is complex line integral a type of ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

“Identify” terminology

What does it mean to "identify" two objects in algebra, as distinct from having an isomorphism or automorphism between them? I was led to think about this while reading Stewart's Galois Theory, where ...
6
votes
2answers
277 views

Is the set {a,b} uniquely defined?

First answer to this question would be yes, but consider the following question: How many elements has the set $\{a,\, b\}$? The answer to this question depends on $a$ and $b$: If $a=b$, then ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Please verify this definition of locally convex vector space

A locally convex vector space is a vector space $V$ equipped with a family $P$ of separating semi-norms. Is this a correct definiton? So to determine whether a norm induces a locally convex topology ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Dyadic expansion: Definition of $F^{i-1}\omega$?

In Billingsley probability and measure under Dyadic expansion it is stated: dinfe a mapping $F$ from $\Omega=(0,1]$ into itself given by $$F\omega=\begin{Bmatrix} 2\omega & \mbox{if } 0< ...
1
vote
0answers
39 views

Terminology: Name for general, non-differential equations over $\mathbb{R}^n$

Let $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$ be a variable, and $f_1, \ldots , f_n : \mathbb{R}^n \mapsto \mathbb{R}$ be a sequence of functions, each having a closed form expression. Assume that we want to solve the ...
11
votes
2answers
168 views

What is a “subscheme”?

Every source I've looked at defines open subschemes and closed subschemes, but the definitions always look ad-hoc and not closely related to one another. Are there other kinds of subschemes? If not, ...
5
votes
2answers
83 views

Meaning of “There exists a proper class of…”

How a statement of the form "There exists a proper class of..." can be formalized in $\sf ZFC$? It sounds a bit like an oxymoron to me, because it's the very essense of a proper class that it does not ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

Ordered tuples of proper classes

From time to time I encounter notation like this: A triple $\langle \mathbf{No}, \mathrm{<}, b \rangle$ is a surreal number system if and only if ... The confusing part is that a proper class ...
1
vote
3answers
315 views

2+2=4; Not in the Z3 algebraic group

I was reading the article/wiki here When I came across this quote ObviousFact?: examples: 2+2=4 for most people Those with higher mathematical knowledge may disagree - not in the Z3 ...
1
vote
2answers
73 views

Definition of Base-point

Consider the family of curves defined by $f(x,y)=g(x)+h(y)+a$, where $a$ is a free parameter. Now, it states that the family of curves intersect at $\infty$ and that $\infty$ is a base-point of these ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

Motivation for defining a functions codomain

Why not always refer to a functions image, what is the point in specifying some super set of that image and then naming that super set the functions "codomain"? What does explicitly defining a set ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

On Constant mean curvature surfaces.

I have two involved questions, firstly, I know that the gauss map sends a surface to the unit sphere, so for a surface $\Sigma\subset\Bbb R^3$, parametrised by $u:U\subset\Bbb R^2\to \Bbb R^3$. Would ...
3
votes
1answer
117 views

Is the function $f(x)=1^x=1$ considered an exponential function?

I am confused about the following: The exponential function (by definition) is a function of the form $f(x)=a^x$ where $a>0$. However, when $a=1$, we get the constant function $f(x)=1^x=1$. Is the ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Order of cardinal number

I am puzzled. Wikipedia says: "|X| ≤ |Y| means that there exists an injective function from X to Y." Let's see sets A and B: A = {1,2,3} and B = {1,2}. f: A → B: 1 ↦ 1, 2 ↦ 2. f is injective, but |B| ...
0
votes
4answers
61 views

Why to see that $\overline{B}(x;r)$ is closed if it was just defined?

I'm reading Conway's A Course in Point Set Topology. He defines open and closed balls and then he introduces some examples, one of these examples is this: (c) For any $r>0$, $\overline{B}(x;r)$ ...
5
votes
1answer
63 views

Halmos on Definability and Luzin on Division by 0

For a successful introduction of a new symbol (e.g. '$\emptyset$') into a mathematical discourse it is necessary and sufficient that the symbol refer to something (e.g. Existence + Specification in ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Critical points of a function of absolute value

Say I have the function $f(x) = |x|$ I believe that $x = 0$ is a critical point, although not I'm not positive. As the function is decreasing and increasing each side of $x = 0$ does that alone make ...
1
vote
2answers
59 views

The Definition of the Indicative Conditional

From Wikipedia, we have: In natural languages, an indicative conditional is the logical operation given by statements of the form "If A then B". Unlike the material conditional, an indicative ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

Hessian matrix as derivative of gradient

From a text: For a real-valued differentiable function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, the Hessian matrix $D^2f(x)$ is the derivative matrix of the vector-valued gradient function $\nabla ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Definition of a continuous function

I am struggling to understand a basic definition of a continuous function from a textbook: A function f is continuous if for all x, and for all $\epsilon>0$, there exists $\delta>0$ such that ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Definition review: how to make this geometric definition clearer?

In a paper I am writing, I rely on the following definition Given a geometric shape $C$ and a family of geometric shapes $S$, The division number of $C$ relative to $S$, denoted $DivNum(C,S)$, is ...
6
votes
1answer
213 views

A circular proof in Rudin that $\mathbb{R}$ is a field.

Today I'm afraid, I found a circular reasoning in Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis( I found no errata that mentions this). Before actually going through the actual question, I have ...
0
votes
3answers
67 views

Set question - $ ℤ^+ = ℕ$ [duplicate]

I am not sure whether the following statement is true: $ ℤ^+ = ℕ$ if not, why? Thank you in advance! I appreciate your help!
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Am I understanding Eccentricity, Radius and Diameter right?

Eccentricity, radius and diameter as defined in "Graph Theory and Complex Networks: An Introduction" (van Steen, 2010): Consider a connected graph G and let d(u,v) denote the distance between ...
0
votes
0answers
103 views

Meaning of $A^A$

Let $A$ be a matrix. I know that there is definition for $A^k$ power of $A$, and $e^A$ expontential of $A$. Is there any meaning of $A^A$?
5
votes
3answers
110 views

Why must an interior point of $E$ be an element of $E$?

This question takes place in a general metric space $X$. Let $x$ be an interior* point of $E \subset X$ iff there exists a deleted neighborhood of $x$ that is contained in $E$. This is like the ...
1
vote
3answers
50 views

Definition of homogeneous ODE

In my lecture notes, it gives this following definition of a homogeneous ODE: A differential equation is called homogeneous if it can be written in the form $x′=f(\frac{x}{t})$ Then in one of ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Is there a term for an endomorphism defined up to conjugation by an automorphism?

Is there a standard term to designate the equivalence class of endomorphisms where two endomorphisms $\phi$ and $\psi$ are considered equivalent if there exists an automorphism $\alpha$ such that ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Branched covering of a manifold [duplicate]

What would be the definition of a branched covering of a manifold? I am not familiar with branched coverings at all.