For requesting, clarifying, and comparing definitions of mathematical terms.

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2
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2answers
227 views

What are authoritative publications regarding foundational mathematics?

I have a computer science background. In our world, there usually is an organization publishing standard documents for certain areas (e.g. W3C has Web standards, IETF publishes Internet-related ...
0
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1answer
83 views

Definition of Dedekind cut as initial segment

the definition of Dedekind cut by initial segment is correct: "let $\preceq$ be a linear ordering of a set $A$, and $B \subsetneqq A$, $B \neq \emptyset$, $B$ is Dedekind cut of $A$ under $\preceq$ ...
5
votes
2answers
74 views

Why this definition for “symmetry transformation”?

This question concerns section 8.5.1 in these notes: I don't understand why a symmetry transformation is defined as such. What implications is there if $\delta \mathcal L$ is a total ...
0
votes
1answer
255 views

Definition of initial segment

the definition of initial segment is correct: "let $\preceq$ be a linear ordering of a set $A$, and $B \subsetneqq A$, $B$ is initial segment of $A$ under $\preceq$ if $\forall a \in A, \forall b \in ...
42
votes
8answers
5k views

Why is there never a proof that extending the reals to the complex numbers will not cause contradictions?

The number $i$ is essentially defined for a property we would like to have - to then lead to taking square roots of negative reals, to solve any polynomial, etc. But there is never a proof this cannot ...
4
votes
4answers
289 views

Using the definition of the derivative prove that if $f(x)=x^\frac{4}{3}$ then $f'(x)=\frac{4x^\frac{1}{3}}{3}$

So I have that $f'(x)=\lim_{h \to 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{h}$ and know that applying $f(x)=x^\frac{4}{3}=f\frac{(x+h)^\frac{4}{3} -x^\frac{4}{3}}{h}$ but am at a loss when trying to expand ...
10
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5answers
3k views

difference between theorem, lemma and corollary

Can anybody explain what is the basic difference between theorem, lemma and corollary. We have been using it for a long time but I never paid any attention. I am just curious to know.Thanks a lot.
3
votes
1answer
195 views

Conglomerate in mathematical literature.

I rememeber I downloaded a pdf in category theory and after talking about classes it defined something called conglomerates, but I can't remember what that is and wikipedia has no article on it. ...
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0answers
72 views

How to Define an Infinite Anti-Diagonal Matrix

We can define an infinite diagonal matrix with some ease, and then say that a finite diagonal matrix is the top left sub-matrix of our infinite one. Can we define an infinite anti-diagonal matrix? It ...
0
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1answer
290 views

What does “topological dual of a Banach space” mean?

I am not sure what does the "topological" imply. Thanks.
3
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2answers
160 views

to clear doubt about basic definition in graph theory

Can anybody help me in clearing the doubt about hierarchical product of graphs. Its quite different from other graph products. Here is the screenshot and link how it is done. I know the rooted graph, ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Analogous to convolution

A convolution of two functions $f$ and $g$ is defined as $$[f*g] = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(\tau) g(t-\tau) d\tau.$$ I am interested on an analogous transformation of the form $$[f\star g] = ...
2
votes
2answers
180 views

Apostol question on alternative definition of dot product

The problem says: Suppose we define the dot product by $A\cdot B = \sum_{k=1}^n |a_kb_k|$. Which of the following properties hold with this new defition? Does the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality still ...
2
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2answers
126 views

Ted Sider's Definition of a Total Relation over a Set D

I'm working through Ted Sider's book "Logic for Philosophy," and I'm noticing some discrepancies between the definition of a "Total Relation" that he uses and the definition used in other places, ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Is a single nontrivial convex set in a topological vector space enough to make it locally convex?

This is sort of a definition question. While a tvs is locally bounded if it contains a bounded neighborhood of the origin, a tvs is called locally convex if it contains a fundamental system of ...
3
votes
1answer
164 views

What is meant by tangential operator?

The context is as follows : Let $\Omega$ be a open set of $\mathbb{R}^n$, with smooth boundary $\Gamma$. Then there is the claim that for $\Psi \in C^1(\bar{\Omega})$, we have on $\Gamma$ $$ ...
4
votes
4answers
3k views

Continuity on open interval

A function is said to be continuous on an open interval if and only if it is continuous at every point in this interval. But an open interval $(a,b)$ doesn't contain $a$ and $b$, so we never ...
2
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0answers
2k views

Continuity on open and closed intervals

I will be taking Calculus I soon, and I just want to make sure I understand some concepts correctly. So far, reading my book for Calculus I, I've encountered the definition of continuity as being ...
5
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1answer
85 views

The use of = vs := for definitions

I have seen the following conventions, e.g. We define $K=\mathbb C$ ... We define $K$ to be $\mathbb C$ ... We define $K:=\mathbb C$ ... I prefer number 3, because it is concise and it is clear ...
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0answers
70 views

With infinite size, we can have $P \cdot M = M \cdot D $ (D diagonal) but where $M^{-1}$ does not exist. Can we say “P is diagonalizable”?

(I had this question in mind for longer time, but it is just triggered now by some comments at that recent question in mse) (Background) I was looking at properties of the Pascal-matrix: ...
1
vote
1answer
96 views

What is an operator norm?

I came across this symbol where they are mentioning operator norms. I am not sure how it is different from the Frobenius norm. It was something like this: $|||\Omega-\hat{\Omega} |||_2$ where ...
0
votes
3answers
621 views

What is the epsilon-delta definition of limits, exactly?

I am a bit confused with infinitesimals, and want to know why they were discarded and the epsilon-delta definition is being used? What is the epsilon-delta definition of limit? What is the intuition ...
7
votes
1answer
148 views

Is taking inverse automatically well-defined?

By the usual definition, Lie group is a manifold $G$ with a group structure on it such that the multiplication $m\colon G\times G\to G$ and taking inverse $i\colon G\to G$ are both smooth maps. But it ...
-1
votes
1answer
57 views

exponent mod $n$

What does the term "exponent mod $n$" refer to? I guessed that this refers to the multiplicative order mod n, but it doesn't look like this is the case in what I'm reading right now.
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1answer
110 views

Is it true that the definition of an open subset in a metric space is different from the combination of the definitions of subsets and opens sets?

Dear reader of this post, I have a question concerning the equivalence of two definitions of open subsets (in metric spaces). To avoid confusion, I will state the two definitions and then ask my ...
1
vote
1answer
704 views

Norm of a vector-valued function?

When studying commutator estimates, I have encountered the following problem. Consider $f\in C^1(\mathbb{R}^d,\mathbb{R})$ with $\nabla f\in L^p$. So $\nabla f(x)\in\mathbb{R}^d$. My question is ...
2
votes
1answer
98 views

What is $\lim_{x=0\rightarrow1}x^\infty$?

I know it's all about definition... But still I want to know whether the answer is $0$, $1$, impossible to say or something else, like that the mathematical statement is wrong. However, to clarify, ...
2
votes
2answers
170 views

A definition of algebraic expression

Definition of algebraic expression An algebraic expression is a collection of symbols; it may consist of one or more than one terms separated by either a $+$ or $-$ sign. If by symbol we only mean ...
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vote
1answer
84 views

Triangle of Multinomial Coefficients

What is the "Triangle Of Multinomial Coefficients" seen here: http://oeis.org/A036038 (OEIS: A036038) I can see that the diagonals of this triangle are just factorials... for example the last number ...
3
votes
3answers
145 views

Calculating derivative by definition vs not by definition

I'm not entirely sure I understand when I need to calculate a derivative using the definition and when I can do it normally. The following two examples confused me: $$ g(x) = \begin{cases} x^2\cdot ...
4
votes
1answer
295 views

What is the definition of “formal identity”?

In Ahlfors' Complex Analysis he remarks that harmonic $u(x,y)$ can be expressed as $$ u(x,y) = \frac{1}{2}[f(x + i y) + \overline{f}(x - i y)] $$ when $x$ and $y$ are real. He then writes "It is ...
1
vote
1answer
361 views

Perpendicular Symbol as Matrix Superscript

If $A$ is a matrix that is not (necessarily) square, then what is $A^\perp$? What I do know is: $A^\perp$ is a matrix, not the orthogonal complement It is related to the QR Decomposition. And ...
3
votes
1answer
320 views

Lie derivative along time-dependent vector fields

In "Lectures on Symplectic Geometry" by A. C. da Silva (http://www.math.ist.utl.pt/~acannas/Books/lsg.pdf) the author gives the following definition: $$ \mathcal{L}_{v_t} := \frac{\mathrm d }{\mathrm ...
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vote
4answers
5k views

What is a fraction in which the greatest common factor of the numerator and the denominator is 1?

What is this fraction: A fraction in which the greatest common factor of the numerator and the denominator is 1?
1
vote
1answer
104 views

Why this functional isn't differentiable?

I saw in the article Alt, H. M. and Caffarelli, L. A. Existence and regularity for a minimum problem with free boundary. J. Reine Angew. Math., 325, (1981), 105–144. That the functional ...
4
votes
1answer
123 views

I don't understand the “rational” arguments for trig functions

For example look at $\cos(x)$. I imagine that $x$ can sometimes be rational (or integer) or irrational, and sometimes $\cos(x)$ can be rational (or integer), or irrational. Under what circumstances ...
5
votes
2answers
249 views

Why is a section of a sheaf over closed set defined this way?

Why is a section of a sheaf $F$ over closed set $S \subset X$ is defined as inductive limit $$ \varinjlim_{S\subset U} F(U)\; ?$$ From my point of view, we should define it as a function, which each ...
3
votes
1answer
123 views

Definition of the higher dimensional mapping tori

This is proving harder to search for than I imagined. The usual definition of a mapping torus $\mathcal{M}_h$ associated to a homeomorphism $h\colon X\rightarrow X$ on a topological space $X$ is the ...
3
votes
1answer
78 views

definition of the Fourier transform of function on the sphere

Let $f: S^{n-1}\longrightarrow R^n$ be even continuous function. What is the Fourier transform of $f$?
1
vote
1answer
164 views

What is a finite partial function from $\mathfrak c$ to $D=\{0,1\}$

While I reading a paper, there is a notation is called finite partial function. I searched by google, I cannot find its definition. So I post it here as a question: What is a finite partial ...
2
votes
1answer
160 views

Help with definition: partition mod ultrafilter.

I do not see how the partition is well-defined. By definition $A\neq\varnothing\mbox{ mod }D\iff A\notin I_{D}$. Since D is a maximal filter $A\notin I_{D}\iff A\in D$ . So ...
3
votes
1answer
53 views

What is the meaning of $f(x) \rightarrow a$ as $g(x) \rightarrow b$?

The motivating example was the case: $$f(x, y)\rightarrow0\mathrm{\ \ as\ \ }\sqrt{x^2+y^2}\rightarrow\infty$$ What exactly does this mean? I might define it as: Any sequence $x_n$ with ...
13
votes
6answers
1k views

What does “homomorphism” require that “morphism” doesn't?

I'm starting to learn category theory, but there's one thing I don't get: all morphisms seem to be homomorphisms; the definition seems to be the same. What's the difference between these two? Can you ...
3
votes
3answers
239 views

what are first and second order logics? [duplicate]

The only knowledge I have on logic is due to a book I read a couple of years ago called Introduction to logic: and to the methodology of deductive sciences by Alfred Tarski. And in it he talks about ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Definition question of convex orbit of finite group action

Assume that a finite group or discrete group $G$ acts on a manifold $M$. Here what does it mean that orbit $G\cdot x$ is convex ? Thank you in advance.
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vote
1answer
111 views

What is the difference between a reflexive relation and an identitive relation

Given a set $X$ and a relation $R$ over $X$, we say that $R$ is reflexive if \begin{equation} xRx\ \forall\ x\in X. \end{equation} What does 'identitive' mean? Is it the same as antisymmetry? Seen ...
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1answer
71 views

Over-constrained general solution to wave equation

d'Alembert's formula states that the general solution to the one-dimensional wave equation is $$ u(x,t) = f(x+ct) + g(x-ct).$$ for any well-behaved functions $f$ and $g$. This is a well-known and ...
2
votes
2answers
131 views

Name for grid system

Is there a name for a type of grid you might find in Battleship? Where coordinates don't relate to points on a grid but rather the squares themselves?
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1answer
91 views

What is metastable range?

Wikipedia states that In 1953 George W. Whitehead showed that there is a metastable range for the homotopy groups of spheres. What is the metastable range? I was unable to find the ...
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2answers
134 views

Why is this a sentence with a quantifier an open sentence?

From these notes on Relational Logic, the following two sentences are given as examples of 1) open and 2) closed sentences. The definition of an open sentence is one with at least free variables. ...