For requesting, clarifying, and comparing definitions of mathematical terms.

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Laws of indices

Well, given any real number $x$ and any positive integer $n$, the number $x^{n}$ is defined to be the product $x.x.x. ... x.x $ ($n$ times). But, how do we define $x^{r}$ when $r$ is a negative ...
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1answer
29 views

What is a cofactor in this case?

Im looking at a homework problem I have and I am a bit confused. The first part of the question is to show that 8128 is a perfect number. This is simple enough: $1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + 32 + 64 + 127 + ...
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1answer
497 views

Upside-down triangle symbol on function

I came across the symbol that looks like an upside-down triangle, and coming in front of a function $f(x,y)$. What does that mean?
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1answer
165 views

Beginnings of Topology: Homeomorphisms

Why is a knot and a circle homeomorphic? The general definition of a homeomorphism requires that you be able to deform each to one another.
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5answers
204 views

Definition of determinant [closed]

Determinant is a certain function from the set of all $n\times n$ matrices to the set of scalars. How is the determinant defined? What characterizes the determinant function?
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2answers
128 views

Why do we use “if” in the definitions instead of “if and only if”? [duplicate]

I often write my notes as logical statements and constantly wonder why people use only the "if" direction in the definitions instead of the "if and only if". Consider: "A homomorphism $\phi$ is said ...
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1answer
80 views

Why is a graph an ordered pair?

From the source of all knowledge a graph is an ordered pair G = (V, E) comprising a set V of vertices or nodes together with a set E of edges or lines, which are 2-element subsets of V Why ...
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1answer
109 views

How does this definition capture the intuitive notion of an algebra?

On page 15 of this document, the author writes: Definition 1.1.1. Let $\mathcal{E}$ be any category. Given an endofunctor $\Gamma : \mathcal{E} \rightarrow \mathcal{E}$, a $\Gamma$-algebra ...
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1answer
49 views

Help in this definition of morphism

I need help in this definition of morphism of affine algebraic sets which I found in a book: Let $X$ and $Y$ affine algebraic sets and say $$f:X\to X'\ \text{and}\ g:Y\to Y'$$ isomorphisms with ...
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2answers
27 views

$M=(a_{ij})$, with $1\leq x\leq3$ and $1\leq x \leq 3$, such that $a_{ij}=4i+2j-6$.

My exercise asks me to write the following matrix $M=(a_{ij})$, with $1\leq x\leq3$ and $1\leq x \leq 3$, such that $a_{ij}=4i+2j-6$. What I did not understand, and tried unsuccessfully was what ...
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1answer
37 views

On (absolute) convergence of $f_c:= c + \sum_{n=0}^{+ \infty} \frac{a_n}{n+1}x^{n+1}$

Let $R> 0$ and let $g: (-R,R) \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be given by the convergent power series $$g(x):= \sum_{n=0}^{+ \infty} a_nx^n$$ for $|x| < R$. Let $c \in \mathbb{R}$ and let $f_c: ...
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2answers
1k views

For all but finitely many $n \in \mathbb N$

In my book I have the following theorem: A sequence $\langle a_n \rangle$ converges to a real number $A$ if and only if every neighborhood of $A$ contains $a_n$ for all but finitely many $n \in ...
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1answer
38 views

Question on definition of little o

I would like to generalize the definition of little o. The definition from Wikipedia is as such: Let $f$ and $g$ be two real valued functions. We write $f(x) = o(g(x))$ as $x \to \infty$ if for all ...
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1answer
32 views

Definition convex sets

$C$ is convex $\Longrightarrow \forall x,y \in C$ and $\forall$ $t\in [0,1], \space(1 − t ) x + t y \in C$ My question how comes this formula $(1 − t ) x + t y$ describes all the elements in $[x,y]$ ...
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2answers
76 views

Minnor differences in notation used in definition of graphs

One of book states A graph G consists of two finite sets: a nonempty set V(G) of vertices and a set E(G) of edges, where each edge is associated with a set consisting of either one or two ...
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1answer
129 views

Definition of pull-back analogous to push-forward

Let $U\subseteq\mathbb{R}^n, V\subseteq\mathbb{R}^m$ be open subsets, and $f:U\rightarrow V$ a $C^1$ map. Let $u,v$ be vector fields on $U,V$ respectively. Then the push-forward $f_*u$ is equal to $v$ ...
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1answer
84 views

Difference between the concepts of graph and trace

I'm a little confused with the definition of graph and trace. If I have a function (or a curve) $f:\mathbb R\to \mathbb R,\ f(t)=t^2$ and I draw the graph we have a parabola since the graph is the ...
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0answers
103 views

Definition of differential forms

I am reading the book Algebraic Geometric Codes: Basic Notions by Tsfasman, Vladut and Nogin. The authors introduce some definitions about differential forms at the beginning of Section 2.2. These ...
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1answer
81 views

Ring of rational functions for reducible variety

Let $X$ be some affine algebraic variety over $\mathbb{k}$ (i.e. some closed subset in $\mathbb{A}_\mathbb{k}^n$). First suppose $X$ to be irreducible. Then the algebra $\mathbb{k}[X]$ is a domain and ...
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0answers
36 views

In a translation of a classic math book: is the term *normal* translated correctly? Is there a better term?

I am reading an English translation of the classic book by Gelfond & Linnik: Elementary Methods in the Analytic Theory of Numbers. Here is the definition of "normal" from the book (page 5 in my ...
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1answer
522 views

Definition of “Universe of Discourse” and Definition of “Set” [duplicate]

I want to axiomatize "the concept of set" in my head, but every time I face some circular definition or intuition. In predicate logic, we quantify over some "Universe of Discourse". Intuitively ...
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4answers
108 views

The differentiation of $ \sin, \cos$ through a Taylor Series

This question has been asked quite a lot on math SE, however, please before you mark this as a duplicate carry on reading, I will try to highlight my doubts and concerns as clear as possible. First ...
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2answers
160 views

Well-posed problem

In the definition of a well-posed problem it states that a problem is well posed if: 1.A solution exists. 2.The solution is unique. 3.The solution's behaviour changes continuously with the initial ...
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1answer
886 views

Understanding Elliptic Operators

I don't have a strong background in partial differential equations so some of these questions might be quite basic. I first want to give some definitions which I am using. Definition: We define a ...
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2answers
102 views

Notation and terminology for functions, interpreting $f(y)$

It seems to me there are two different interpretations of a symbol $f(y)$. I will explain what I mean: Suppose I have a function $f(x) = x$. (I took the identity map to have a simple example). Also ...
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4answers
947 views

What is the Riemann Sphere?

Reading from wikipedia I understood that Riemann Sphere is used to represent extended complex plane. But it would be great if someone could explain it in a less technical manner.
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2answers
43 views

Question about $(A - \lambda I_A)\vec{x} = 0$.

Finding a solution to $C\vec{x} = (A - \lambda I_A)\vec{x} = 0$ is the equivalent of considering the determinant of $C$ when it is zero. This means the matrix is linearly dependent and has infinite ...
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2answers
131 views

Should axioms be viewed as part of the signature?

I included category theory in the tags in order to get feedback from the categorial logic community. It goes without saying that this isn't really category theory. A semigroup can be defined as a ...
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2answers
1k views

What is the exact and precise definition of an ANGLE?

On wikipedea I found a definition of an Angle as such: "In order to measure an angle θ, a circular arc centered at the vertex of the angle is drawn, e.g. with a pair of compasses. The length of ...
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1answer
47 views

Definition for the action of a category on a set.

I'm trying to understand the definition of the action of a category on a set which is given in nLab, more particularly the first one. If one has a functor $\rho: C \to Set$, one takes the set S as the ...
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1answer
81 views

If a “group” has two identities then is not a group

The story goes like this: A friend and I found this old exercise: Let $G=\Bbb R-\{-1\}$ and $a*b:=a+b+ab$, is $(G,*)$ a group? I say that $(G,*)$ is not a group because for any $a\in G$ follows ...
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2answers
111 views

What is the meaning of | operator?

For example, 12|0 = 0 Interesting I can't find this on google anywhere. Which logical connective is this? as in this article http://www.mathblog.dk/strong-induction/
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1answer
93 views

Mathematics and Origami

I am reading through this paper about the math behind origami: http://www.math.washington.edu/~morrow/336_09/papers/Sheri.pdf However, I am getting confused with definitions 3.3 and 3.4. I am not sure ...
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2answers
199 views

Math and Origami

I am working on a project for class about the mathematics behind origami and write now I am looking into what is and is not constructible. I've gotten to the definition of origami constructible points ...
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1answer
252 views

Can we say that each monotonic sequence is a bitonic?

Is it mathematically correct to state that every monotonic is actually a bitonic with 0 number of elements in other half? I.e., if it is increasing then we can say it has 0 elements in decreasing ...
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2answers
62 views

A single word to represent a sequence of repeating numbers

I asked this question on english.stackexchange too. What is a noun to represent a sequence of repeating numbers? For example: 777777777
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1answer
32 views

Generated equivalence relations in logics

Let $L$ be some logic (FO or stronger which is not important for this purpose). Given a $\tau$-structure $A$ and a formula $\varphi(x_1, \dots x_n) \in L[\tau]$ with free variables $x_1, \dots, x_n$. ...
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1answer
46 views

Notation of double-sided infinite sum

The notation $\sum_{k=1}^\infty a_k$ always means $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\sum_{k=1}^n a_k.$$ What about $\sum_{k=-\infty}^\infty a_k$, such as in the Laurent series? Does it always means ...
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1answer
126 views

Compact Operators and Complete Metrics Spaces

I have a couple of questions about compact operators and compactness in complete metric spaces: 1.I have the following implications: Let $Y$ be a metric space with $A$ a subset of $Y$. $A$ is ...
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1answer
101 views

Definition of continuity without limit

Without limits, I define $f(x)$ is continuous at $x=a$, when it: $f(a)$ exists; For every $d>0$, in the close interval $[a-d,a+d]$, there exist a maximum $M$ and a minimum $m$; For every ...
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2answers
196 views

Definition of $H_\lambda$ (hereditary cardinality)

It seems to me that the definition of $H_\lambda$ (the set of sets of hereditary cardinality less than $\lambda$) on the web page at Cantor's Attic is not quite correct. From the page: ...
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1answer
3k views

Difference between Analytic and Holomorphic function

A function $f : \mathbb{C} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is said to be analytic in an open set $A \subset \mathbb{C}$ if it is differentiable at each point of the set $A$. The function $f : \mathbb{C} ...
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2answers
138 views

Existence of differential form on a manifold

I have a fundamental question about the existence of differential forms on manifolds. A $k$-form on a manifold in local coordinates looks like $f(x_1,...,x_n)dx_{i_1}...dx_{i_k}$, where $f$ is a ...
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0answers
71 views

Understanding a.. weird definition

I came across the following definitons: Let $n$ be a positive integer and $\zeta_n$ be a primitive $n^{th}$ root of unity. For any prime $p\nmid n$, let the degree of the extension ...
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2answers
184 views

Definition of a $n$ - form on a manifold

I am confused about the definition of a differential form on a manifold. The definition I have comes from Bott and Tu and is as follows: A differential form, $\omega$, on a manifold $M$ is a ...
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1answer
40 views

definition clarification in graph theory

I was studying about Almost Self-Centered Graphs (ASC). ASC graphs are introduced as the graphs with exactly two non-central vertices. Of course, the remaining two vertices are diametrical. My doubt ...
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1answer
79 views

Definitions of adjoints (functional analysis vs category thy)

If I have a linear operator $f$ on a Hilbert space, then I define the adjoint of $f$ to be $f^*$ where, $(fx,y)=(x,f^*y)$ for all $x,y$. I am confused because this definitions is very different to ...
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2answers
107 views

Clarification on limit definition.

I know that in the definition of limit they say that if $\ \ \forall \varepsilon > 0\ \ \exists \ \delta > 0 \ \ $But why not $\ \ \forall \delta> 0\ \exists \ \varepsilon > 0$? Thanks ...
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1answer
85 views

Has anyone succeeded in formalizing the notion of a complete vector space? (Not using topological ideas).

In order theory, we have the concept of a lattice, which is defined as consisting of an underlying set $L$ together with two binary operations $\wedge$ and $\vee$. Now when $L$ is finite, the concept ...
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2answers
89 views

Proof that the derivative of a linear function is $0$.

We have a function $f(x)=x$ which is defined and is continuous on the set $S$ of all real numbers. The derivative at point $x$, $$f'(x)=\lim_{h\to 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}h$$ Using the theorems of ...