Definitions are the core of mathematical precision; they come to answer "what is X" in mathematics. Into this category fit questions regarding equivalence of definitions; clarifications regarding complicated definitions; as well questions with purposed definitions for mathematical notions with ...

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61 views

What are the functionality of δ symbol and $δr^T$?

I got two questions here: Does anybody know what is the functionality of the small delta letter δ here? Is it simply the same as the rate of change just like the big delta letter Δ? And for the ...
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3answers
1k views

Definitions of direct product and of direct sum

I was wondering if there are some general definitions for direct product and for direct sum, for example in category theory or in set theory, so that the concepts for vector spaces, Abelian groups, ...
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1answer
150 views

Rephrasing Munkres' Theorem Re: Inverses of Jacobians

Below are theorems from Munkres' "Analysis on Manifolds". The proof of Theorem 7.4 on the right invokes the chain rule, stated on the left. The conditions of Theorem are somewhat strange and appear ...
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1answer
149 views

What motivates discrepancies between the definitions of “continuous” and “limit”?

I am working from Munkres' Analysis, and I've converted his definitions slightly to make them easier to compare. In the table below, you can fill in the blanks in the top row with words from the ...
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1answer
331 views

What is a “mixed graph”?

I'm working on a digraph problem in which bidirectional edges need to be treated separately. As such, we could consider them as undirected edges. Clearly, if I replace bidirectional edges with ...
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1answer
531 views

normalized subgroup by another subgroup

Let $A$ and $B$ be two subgroups of the same group $G$. What does it mean for the subgroup $A$ to be normalized by the subgroup $B$?
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2answers
794 views

Precise definition of “weaker” and “stronger”?

If I say that $A$ is stronger than $B$, do I mean that $A \Rightarrow B$, or that $B \Rightarrow A$? (Or something else?) I feel like I have seen both usages in literature, which is confusing. ...
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5answers
546 views

Definition of Ring

I'm studying Abstract Algebra right now, currently covering rings. In the introduction of the subject, I am curious as to why there is no need for there to be a multiplicative identity. I understand ...
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3answers
103 views

Should one think of a network as a connected graph ? (Or: What is the right way to think of a network?)

In the definition of a network, are we only considering connected graphs ? Because I keep encountering definitions that don't assume explicitly that we deal with connected graphs, but which would be ...
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2answers
232 views

Why people have to find quadratic formula,isn't that the formula cannot solve a polynomial with 2 and 1/2 degree?

Why people have to find quadratic formula,isn't that the formula cannot solve a polynomial with 2 and 1/2 degree? and just curious, how many roots does a polynomial with 2 and 1/2 degree have and how ...
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2answers
151 views

exterior product definition

i have question from vector mathematics,i know that if there is given two vector, for instance $a=\{a_1,a_2,a_3\}$,$b={b_1,b_2,b_3}$; then so called exterior product is determined as $a\wedge ...
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1answer
211 views

Expressing P = NP as a first order formula

I want to express P = NP in a completely formal way. My first try: There exists an algorithm A and a polynomial bound p such that for all input i, A(i) = true iff i is a satisfiable formula and ...
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5answers
665 views

Definition of definition

I was wondering if there is a good way to "define" what definition means exactly in mathematics. Since the answers may be subjective or philosophical, I want to ask only for references on this topic. ...
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3answers
853 views

Is the empty graph connected?

Is the empty graph always connected ? I've looked through some sources (for example Diestels "Graph theory") and this special case seems to be ommited. What is the general opinion for this case ? As ...
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2answers
427 views

True, false, or meaningless?

Are the following two assertions always true, always false or meaningless? $\exists i \in \emptyset$ $\forall i \in \emptyset$ Because it seems that one encounters expressions of this kind fairly ...
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3answers
702 views

What is the operation $\boxtimes$?

Reading papers about $p$-adic analysis and Galois representations, I have found objects like this $D \boxtimes \mathbb{Q}_p$. So my question is what is $\boxtimes$ and how do we read it ?
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3answers
659 views

Definition of Ring Vs Rng

When I took abstract algebra I learned that a ring was a set that is an abelian group under addition and monoid under multiplication (along with the distributive property). In preperation to tutor ...
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1answer
1k views

What is Hermite data?

Using fairly simple language, what is Hermite data? I encountered it here, http://www.frankpetterson.com/publications/dualcontour/dualcontour.pdf and could not get an answer on standard StackExchange, ...
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1answer
374 views

What is this R-like symbol power 2?

I found this in a computer medical research text. What is the meaning of this R-like letter? S, in this context is an iso-intensity surface. [edit] Since context is not sufficient, I think it is ...
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3answers
195 views

“Defined as” versus “Equivalent to”

This is a lazy question, but very often textbooks use the "$\equiv$" (equivalent to) sign and the "$:=$" (defined as) sign in the same places from book to book. I suppose equivalence to a previously ...
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1answer
283 views

Set-theoretical definitions of the notion of “structure”

What general set-theoretical definitions of the notion of "structure" are there? By general definition of "structure" I mean a formula $\Phi(x)$ in the first-order language of set theory such that ...
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3answers
2k views

Is a line parallel with itself?

Simple Question, but I'm finding a lot of dispute on the "lesser" internet. Basically, given a line, is it parallel with itself?
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2answers
111 views

Definition of identity in a monoid

I'm having trouble understanding the way the identity element is defined in Lang's Algebra. Below is the relevant information. Suppose we have a monoid G with elements $x_{1},...,x_{n}$. We can define ...
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2answers
307 views

equivalent definitions of orientation

I know two definitions of an orientation of a smooth n-manifold $M$: 1) A continuous pointwise orientation for $M$. 2) A continuous choice of generators for the groups $H_n(M,M-\{x\})=\mathbb{Z}$. ...
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4answers
609 views

If a function can only be defined implicitly does it have to be multivalued?

What is the general reason for functions which can only be defined implicitly? Is this because they are multivalued (in which case they aren't strictly functions at all)? Is there a proof? ...
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1answer
122 views

Free presentations of $\mathbb{Z}G$-modules

Dear All, I have a doubt about a specific definition, but I cannot find any help on the web or on the books that I have. Talking about $\mathbb{Z}G$-modules, what does one intend saying "take a free ...
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1answer
257 views

Definition of a subcomplex of a $\Delta$-complex

I am taking the following as the definition of a $\Delta$-complex. (i) one starts with an indexing set $I_n$ for each $n \in \mathbb{Z}_{\ge 0}$. (ii) for each $\alpha \in I_n$, one takes a ...
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2answers
152 views

Informal Equivalents of Mathematica “Set” and “SetDelayed”

How would one distinguish between what is meant by Mathematica's "Set" and "SetDelayed" functions in informal mathematical notation? Is there a way to make this distinction any any reasonably standard ...
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8answers
10k views

What is the difference between equation and formula?

Sometimes equation and formula are used interchangeably, but I was wondering if there is a difference. ...
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1answer
309 views

Equivalent definitions of ordinals?

The first definition of an ordinal number I found was that an ordinal number is the $\in$-image of a well-ordered set $(A,\lt)$. From this definition it was derived that an ordinal is just the set of ...
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1answer
572 views

What is the formal definition of a one sided limit?

I'm looking for the formal definition of $\displaystyle \lim_{x \to a^+}f(x) = L$ and $\displaystyle\lim_{x \to a^-}g(x) = M$ I took a guess at it intuitively, but I need to make sure this is ...
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8answers
8k views

Is infinity a number?

Is infinity a number? Why or why not? Some commentary: I've found that this is an incredibly simple question to ask — where I grew up, it was a popular argument starter in elementary school ...
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0answers
336 views

What is the definition of mathematics? [closed]

Is there an exact definition of mathematics ? ...if yes, then what is it ? ...if no then why not ?
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1answer
104 views

Help on a definition

In many books I find these two definitions of Ramsey ultrafilters, extremely similar but different: 1)For every partition $\mathbb{N}=\bigsqcup A_k$ with $A_k\not\in\mathcal{U}$ there exists ...
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4answers
493 views

What differences are between $\mathbb{E}^n$ and $\mathbb{R}^n$

What differences are between the two notations $\mathbb{E}^n$ and $\mathbb{R}^n$? Do they represent/define the same space set with the same structure(s)? Thanks and regards!
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2answers
444 views

Is this Vector operation defined? Does it have a name?

Let's say I have 2 vectors: [a, b, c] [x, y, z] And I need to do an operation like the following for a computer program: ...
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1answer
871 views

what is f prime?

currently taking Measure and Integration course, which seems to have a different definition of f'. traditionally, $$f'(x)=\lim_{h\to 0} \frac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{h}$$ but in folland's book, it seems ...
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1answer
169 views

Definition of the union of structures?

Using the logic definition of a structure as a set coupled with finitary functions and relations, what is the definition of the union of two structures $\mathfrak{A}_1 \cup \mathfrak{A}_2$? I ...
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4answers
1k views

Which is the “proper” definition of a geodesic curve?

I'm taking a course on differential geometry, and up until now I'd always thought that the definition of a geodesic is (loosely speaking) a curve on a surface with the minimal length between its ...
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3answers
641 views

Why not define 'limits' to include isolated points?

If I understand correctly, most definitions of 'limits' require that the function either a) be defined in an open neighborhood around the relevant point or b) more permissively, that the relevant ...
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2answers
212 views

Extending “as x approaches a” to “as g(x) approaches a”

All the definitions I can find of a limit (with functions from R to R) define something like: "as x approaches a, f(x) approaches L" Where x is treated as a variable that is quantified over in the ...
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1answer
234 views

Why are there two different Leibniz notations?

Why do we have dy/dx with the regular d, and 'del y/del x' with the 'funny' d? I can easily find definitions for each expresion, but the definitions appear to be logically equivalent. However, they ...
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3answers
575 views

Do you know of any Calculus text defining the exponential and logarithm functions in an alternative way?

The story in nearly every introductory Calculus book is well known by everybody: you don't have the "right" to raise a number to an irrational power, so forget exponents for now and let's take a look ...
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6answers
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Definition of an Ordered Pair

"The ordered pair $(a,b)$ is defined to be the set $\{\{a\},\{a,b\}\}$." ~ Hungerford's Algebra (p.6) I think this is the first time that i've seen this definition. I've read the wiki page. Is it ...
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2answers
3k views

Closed Subspaces of Vector Spaces

Question: In Functional Analysis we can note things like: every closed subspace of a Banach space is Banach. In this case, what does "closed subspace" mean? Does this mean closed under the norm ...
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1answer
4k views

Difference between a theorem and a law

There are plenty of theorems out there as well as laws within mathematics. For example, in Boolean algebra: Theorems Idempotent Involution Theorem of Complementarity Laws Commutative ...
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1answer
2k views

Relationship between tuples, vectors and column/row matrices

I am taking a course in linear algebra at the moment, and the book I have uses $1\times n$ matrices, $n\times 1$ matrices and $n$-tuples to represent vectors. In condition I have been taught that ...
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3answers
603 views

Differentiable at a point

My roommates and I have an argument you guys can help to settle (peace is at stake, don't let us down!) In undergrad calculus courses, one usually explains what it means for a function to be ...
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8answers
391 views

Is the 'variable' in 'let $y=f(x)$' free, bound, or neither?

Consider the string 'Let $y = f(x)$." Suppose that it occurs in some elementary context, such as when graphing the function $f$ using $x$/$y$ coordinates. How is this to be understood in predicate ...
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1answer
119 views

does the definition of model depend on a theory or just a signature?

Σ:signature T:Σ-theory For M:Σ-model which satisfies T, is it proper to name it “Σ,T-model” or “Σ-model satisfying T”? In comparison, in the context of Lawvere theories, any Lawvere theory L ...