For requesting, clarifying, and comparing definitions of mathematical terms.

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0
votes
2answers
135 views

Difference between Spanning set and Postitive Spanning Set

I do understand the difference as mentioned in the texts about spanning set and positive spanning set, im somehow missing how if $v_1.. v_r$ is a positive spanning set for $R^n$, then $v_2 ... v_r$ ...
2
votes
2answers
244 views

How to extend definition of n-tuple to the case $n=0$?

The classical definition of n-tuple $(x_i)_{i < n}$ starts at $n=2$. In this case $$(x_0,x_1) := \{\{x_0\},\{x_0,x_1\}\}$$(1). For $2<n=k+1$, $(x_i)_{i < n}:=((x_i)_{i < ...
9
votes
4answers
343 views

Is the free group on an empty set defined?

I'm guessing that the free group on an empty set is either the trivial group or isn't defined. Some clarification would be appreciated.
1
vote
1answer
42 views

What is an evaluation operator and what is its use?

In a lecture about numerical mathematics, mostly about ODEs, we were given the following definition: The two-parametric family $\mathbf \Phi^{s,t}$ of maps $\mathbf \Phi^{s,t}: D \mapsto D$ is ...
2
votes
1answer
290 views

What is a tangential gradient?

If $\mathbb{R}_{+}^{n}$ is the half space $\{x\in\mathbb{R}^n\vert\ x_n>0\}$ and $u$ is a twice differentiable function in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. If we write: \begin{equation} ...
8
votes
6answers
6k views

Is the empty set a subset of itself?

Sorry but I don't think I can know, since it's a definition. Please tell me. I don't think that $0=\emptyset\,$ since I distinguish between empty set and the value $0$. Do all sets, even the empty ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Harmonic conjugate of $u,v$ in $f=u+iv$

Do I understand correctly the definition of being harmonic conjugate if I understand it that: $v$ is the harmonic conjugate of $u$ but $u$ is not the harmonic conjugate of $v$, but rather $-u$ ?
2
votes
2answers
423 views

two notation: semi-metric and pesudometric

There are two notations: semi-metric and pesudometric make me unclear. Are they the same thing, or they are different? Thanks ahead.
1
vote
3answers
119 views

Precise differences in meaning of Power Series, Taylor Series

Being an physicist/artist, not a real mathematician, I often toss around the terms "Taylor Series" and "Power Series" without any concern. Are these terms be considered interchangeable by ...
1
vote
3answers
168 views

Formula for Product of Subgroups of $\mathbb Z$, Problem

What is the product of $\mathbb{Z}_2$ and $\mathbb{Z}_5$ as subgroups of $\mathbb{Z}_6$? Since $\mathbb{Z}_n$ is abelian, any subgroup should be normal. From my understanding of the subgroup product, ...
1
vote
3answers
1k views

What does it mean to have no proper non-trivial subgroup

I am reading a first course in abstract algebra and there is a claim that says a group $G$ with no proper non trivial subgroups is cyclic. But I don't understand what does it mean to have no proper ...
3
votes
2answers
130 views

Definition of complete in the context of Lebesgue measurable sets

I came across this statement on Lebesgue measurable sets. The Lebesgue measurable sets are said to be complete because every subset of a null set is again measurable and the lebesgue measurable ...
2
votes
3answers
124 views

Example of a (dis)continuous function

The following thought came to my mind: Given we have a function $f$, and for arbitrary $\varepsilon>0$, $f(a+\varepsilon)= 100\,000$ while $f(a) = 1$. Why is or isn't this function continuous? I ...
5
votes
1answer
103 views

Is uncountably summation defined?

We know that finite and countably summation is defined. But How about uncountably summation, say $$\sum_{i\in \mathbb{R}}0$$ Is it defined?
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Limit point definition

I have read the definition of a limit point of a set in Real Analysis. The definition goes like: A number $p$ is said to be a limit point of a set of reals, $S$, if every neigbourhood of $p$ has at ...
-3
votes
3answers
132 views

Do dihedral groups $D_n$ for $n\geq 5$ exist?

I know we can generate dihedral group of order three ($D_3$) and four ($D_4$) but my question is whether we can generate dihedral group of order five?
7
votes
4answers
783 views

Congruent Modulo $n$: definition

In an Introduction to Abstract Algebra by Thomas Whitelaw, he gives examples of the congruence mod operation, such as $13 \equiv5 \pmod4$, and $9 \equiv -1 \pmod 5$. But when I first learned about ...
1
vote
2answers
98 views

What does relax mean in the mathematical context

Here is a direct citation from wikipedia: The assumptions were further relaxed in the works of Terence Tao and Van H. Vu, Friedrich Götze and Alexander Tikhomirov. Finally, in 2010 Tao and Vu ...
3
votes
0answers
70 views

Define composition of small cyles and making a big graph

I am having following sub graphs and wish to compose all and make a one bigger graph (say G). After that, I want to select the closed path where it is passing along the outer vertices of that ...
4
votes
2answers
114 views

Standard definition of group isomorphism

ProofWiki defines a group isomorphism as a bijective homomorphism. In Topics in Algebra 2$\varepsilon$, Herstein defines a group isomorphism as an injective homomorphism: Definition. A ...
3
votes
2answers
214 views

Basic question about analyticity vs. differentiability in complex analysis.

In chapter $V$ of Palka, "Consequences of the Local Cauchy Integral Formula," 3.1. If a function $f$ is analytic in an open set $U$, then $f'$ is analytic in $U$. In particular, $f$ belongs to ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

What is Absolute convergence?

Take: $$ (u*v)(k) = \sum_{i=-\infty}^\infty u(i)v(k-i). $$ $k$ is there, it's because you want to define $$ \ldots\ldots, (u*v)(-3), (u*v)(-2), (u*v)(-1), (u*v)(0), (u*v)(1), (u*v)(2), (u*v)(3), ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Change Along A Tangent Line

I am taking some time to review differentials. What I don't quite get is why the change along the tangent line is $f'(x) \Delta x$, and how it leads to $f'(x)dx$
0
votes
1answer
197 views

Different formulation of a Traveling Salesman Problem

Given a undirected, weighted, complete graph $(V,E,c)$ with $c \to \mathbb{N}$ and $v_0 \in V$ we are looking for a set $E' \subset E$ minimal with respect to $c$ with the following conditions: for ...
1
vote
2answers
171 views

What is the meaning of the expression $\liminf f_n$?

I am a little confused as to what $\liminf f_n$ means for a sequence $f_n$ of functions converging to $f$. I can not locate a definition anywhere.
6
votes
2answers
93 views

Collecting definitions of continuity.

Let $X$ and $Y$ denote topological spaces and consider a function $f : X \rightarrow Y$. I'm collecting possible definitions/characterizations of the statement "$f$ is continuous." Here's two to get ...
7
votes
3answers
235 views

What's Geometry?

I am a grad student. I am writing an article on geometry and relativity theory and trying to start with discussing basic ideas of topology. In my article I tried very hard to motivate the idea of ...
2
votes
1answer
339 views

What is the definition of a geometric progression?

If the first term in our geometric progression (GP) is $k$, and the common ratio is 0, then our sequence is $\{k, 0, 0, 0, 0,\ldots\}$. Is there anything wrong with this statement? So, is $\{0, 0, ...
1
vote
5answers
840 views

Definition Of Symmetric Difference

The definition of a symmetric difference of two sets, that my book provides, is: Set containing those elements in either $A$or $B$, but not in both $A$ and $B$. So, in set builder notation, I figured ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

Why Can't we define the differentiation of vector fields in the same way as in $\mathbb{R^{n}}$

In $\mathbb{R^{n}}$, if $X$ is a vector field on $\mathbb{R^{n}}$, and $X=$$\sum_{i=1}^{i=n}$ $X^{i}$ $\frac{\partial}{\partial x^{i}}$, $X^{i}$ $\in$$C^{\infty}(p)$. Then 1.The differentiation of ...
1
vote
4answers
190 views

Definition of a metric

I'm having a hard time understanding what the definition of a metric is. From what I think I understand, it's just a method of measurement between $2$ points in $\mathbb R^n$? Is that somewhere along ...
0
votes
1answer
816 views

How to find Df in functions

Well, I do understand what Df is and how you find it in simple equations, however, I am kinda confused in "complex" functions. For example, the following functions: 1* f(x)=x^3+x^2-x-1 , Df=R ...
8
votes
4answers
541 views

A question on definition of field of fractions

Wikipedia defines the field of fractions of a domain as The field of fractions or field of quotients of an integral domain is the "smallest" field in which it can be embedded. What does ...
0
votes
2answers
60 views

How to make precise the notion of “the multiset of roots of a polynomial function”?

A (real) polynomial function can be defined as a function $f : \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that there exists a sequence $a : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that the terms of $a$ ...
0
votes
2answers
412 views

What is a bijective linear mapping called?

Friedberg - Linear Algebra p.102 This book states that "a bijective linear map from a vector space to another vector space is called an isomorphism". As far as know, generally isomorphism means ...
11
votes
5answers
403 views

what is the definition of $=$?

what is the definition of $=$? Above is the question that I would like to be answered, below are some of my thoughts. I've been thinking about what it means to say $A = B$ I came to this from ...
1
vote
2answers
302 views

Difference between closure and the boundary

I'm having a hard time distinguising the difference between the boundary and the closure of sets. They seem so similar, but that almost sounds too good to be true. So if the boundary is just the ...
1
vote
0answers
36 views

What is the appropriate def. of $\sigma$-($\Sigma^1_1$) measurable.

I know that borel measurable means that the inverse image of a Borel set (or open set) is measurable. Edit: I am speaking of the sigma algebra generated by the analytic sets in a top. space.
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Affine algebra of an algebraic group

From what I understand there are two approaches to defining an algebraic group. One can start talking about varieties and the Zariski topology and such and get to a definition of an algebraic group. ...
6
votes
1answer
251 views

Axioms vs. Universal Constructions/Properties

What (exactly) is the difference between defining a mathematical object by it's axioms and by a universal construction ? Please take my 3 opinions into consideration, as they also contain more ...
2
votes
1answer
788 views

Definition of the complement of a set

My book defines the complement of a set as, "Let $U$ be the universal set. The complement of the set $A$, denoted by $\bar{A}$, is the complement of $A$ with respect to $U$. Therefore, the complement ...
5
votes
1answer
61 views

Can you define a vector space in terms of a pre-existing projective space?

Projective spaces are usually defined as the quotient of a vector space (by the equivalence relation that identifies collinear vectors). However, in my opinion, projective spaces seem intuitively less ...
2
votes
4answers
165 views

Fourier transform

Could anyone explain to me how do we change Fourier transform equation from this [Wiki - look at the top of the page]: $$ \mathcal{F}(x) = \int\limits_{-\infty}^{\infty} \mathcal{G}(k)\, e^{-2\pi i ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

How do we distinguish “walks” or “paths”?

For example, let $G(V,E)$ be a graph such that $V=\{v_1,v_2\}$ and $E=\{(v_1,v_2)\}$. And let $s_1:\{1,2\}\rightarrow V$ be a walk such that $s_1(1)=v_1$ and $s_1(2)=v_2$. And let ...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

What is this matrix called?

Let $G=(V,E)$ be a finite graph where $V$ has $n$ elements so that $V=\{v_1,...,v_n\}$. Now, define $a_{ij}$ to be 1 if $(v_i,v_j)\in E$ and 0 otherwise. What is this $n\times n$ matrix $(a_{ij})$ ...
0
votes
2answers
53 views

Question about power of sets

If two sets are finite and they have the same power, can we say that the two sets are equivalent? Is every finite set countable?
0
votes
2answers
161 views

Is an unit-cube polyhedron? What about other platonic solids?

Definitions According to my linear programming course and screenshot here (Finnish), a polyhedron is such that it can be constrained by a finite amount of inequalities such that $$P=\{\bar x\in ...
1
vote
1answer
168 views

Does *pair* always mean a pair of distinct elements in graph theory?

Definition of edge in wikipedia: An edge of a graph is a set of 2-elements in a set of vertices. Definition of tournament in my text: A tournament is a directed graph such that each pair of vertices ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

questions on the completely accumulation

Could somebody help me to understand the definition of completely accumulation? And help me show that this claim: A space $X$ is compact iff every infinite set in $X$ has a point of complete ...
8
votes
3answers
80 views

$(\Bbb R \to \Bbb R : x\mapsto x^2)\equiv(\Bbb R \to \Bbb{R}_{\geq 0} : x \mapsto x^2) \not\equiv (\Bbb C \to \Bbb C:x\mapsto x^2)$

Consider the following functions: $f:\Bbb R \to \Bbb R : x\mapsto x^2$ $g:\Bbb R \to \Bbb{R}_{\geq 0} : x \mapsto x^2$ $h:\Bbb C \to \Bbb C:x\mapsto x^2$ I'm quite sure that $h$ is not equal to $f$ ...