For requesting, clarifying, and comparing definitions of mathematical terms.

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How is “smaller than” defined on $\mathbb{R}$?

According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_relation Binary relations are used in many branches of mathematics to model concepts like "is greater than", "is equal to", and "divides" in ...
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4answers
61 views

Question about proving $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty} n=\infty$ using the limit definition for a converging sequence

Prove $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty} n=\infty$ using the limit definition for a converging sequence. What I did: Suppose by contra position that $n$ tends to a finite real limit $L$, so from ...
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4answers
5k views

What is a fraction in which the greatest common factor of the numerator and the denominator is 1?

What is this fraction: A fraction in which the greatest common factor of the numerator and the denominator is 1?
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3answers
153 views

Is a function always a monotonically increasing function

For $\lim_{x \rightarrow a}f(x) = L$, if $f(x)$ is not a constant, is $\delta(\epsilon)$ always a monotonically increasing function? Alternatively, how does the definition of a limit guarantee that ...
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2answers
390 views

visualisation of pointwise boundedness

A sequence of continuous functions $(f_n\colon[a,b]\to\mathbf{R})_{n}$ is said to be point-wise bounded if for all $x\in[a,b]$ there is a $R_x>0$ such that $$|f_n(x)|\le R_x\quad\mbox{for all }n.$$ ...
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1answer
303 views

What is this No thing?

What exactly is this No? Is there any other use of it other than graphs? Thank you so much. I am not trying to cram or anything it's just that I took a course online and a lot of the time it focused ...
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2answers
122 views

Zero: What is it and can I define it?

So I understand that zero is utterly and completely necessary. I've been reading a lot about this and it seems like some people get heated. I'm not a math guy, so if I offend you with my ignorance, ...
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3answers
114 views

Why isn't an injection an iif?

Suppose that $f:X \rightarrow Y$ is a function. Then an injection can be defined as: $\forall x_1,x_2 \in X, f(x_1) = f(x_2) \Rightarrow x_1=x_2$ Why isn't it defined instead as follows: $\forall ...
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153 views

Total/Gaussian curvature is intrinsic, yet mean curvature is extrinsic, why?

What characteristics define the total/mean curvature to be intrinsic/extrinsic accordingly? What is different geometrically about these curvatures that cause them to be defined as this?
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73 views

“uniquely written” definition

I'm having troubles with this definition: My problem is with the uniquely part, for example the zero element: $0=0+0$, but $0=0+0+0$ or $0=0+0+0+0+0+0$. Another example, if $m \in ...
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1answer
169 views

Ordered pairs in sets

So I am asked to explain why $(x,y,z)=(x,(y,z))$ is a reasonable definition of an ordered triple. However, I am in a limbo at the moment let alone with trying to explain an ordered pair,(x,y), ...
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4answers
209 views

Definition of a metric

I'm having a hard time understanding what the definition of a metric is. From what I think I understand, it's just a method of measurement between $2$ points in $\mathbb R^n$? Is that somewhere along ...
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2answers
411 views

Difference between closure and the boundary

I'm having a hard time distinguising the difference between the boundary and the closure of sets. They seem so similar, but that almost sounds too good to be true. So if the boundary is just the ...
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5answers
705 views

Question about the definition of a category

I am confused about the definition of a category given in the Wikipedia article on Category theory: It seems to me that the structure being described (the "arrows" between objects in some class) is ...
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1answer
458 views

What does “a set of things” mean?

Suppose we defined some mathematical object $P$, where $P$ is natural number, polynomial, endofunction, geometric figure, etc. What does the expression “$A$ is a set of $P$s” mean: Set inclusion) ...
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1answer
869 views

normalized subgroup by another subgroup

Let $A$ and $B$ be two subgroups of the same group $G$. What does it mean for the subgroup $A$ to be normalized by the subgroup $B$?
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57 views

Why is it called a “multiset”?

According to Wolfram MathWorld, "A set is a finite or infinite collection of objects in which order has no significance, and multiplicity is generally also ignored ..." and A multiset is "A ...
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31 views

What is “an increasing sequence of step functions”?

I'm reading Alan Weir's "Lebesgue Integration and Measure". In exercise 8 on page 30 he talks about "...an increasing sequence of step functions $\{\phi_n\}$..." and "...an increasing sequence of ...
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1answer
79 views

Bizarre definition of convergent sequences

I've recently begun studying Analysis I, specifically the sequence and series part. I've just come across the definition of convergence: A sequence $(a_n)$ converges to a real number $a$ if, ...
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74 views

Is definable $\emptyset$-definable?

A set $A$ is $X$-definable in an $L$-structure $\mathcal{M}$ with a domain $M$ iff there are an $L$ formula $\phi(a,\bar x)$ and $\bar x \in X^n$ such that $A=\{a \in M^m | \mathcal{M} \models ...
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1answer
73 views

What is $g^1_3$?

I'm trying to find the definition of $g^1_3$ in algebraic geometry Hartshorne's book, anyone who is used with this book could help me to find this definition? Thanks Remark: this extract is from ...
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4answers
411 views

Euclid: What is the difference between a 'surface' and a plane 'surface'?

I've begun to study Euclid's Elements and i've a few questions regarding the difference between a surface and plane surface. A surface is said to be "that which has length and breadth only", it then ...
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2answers
51 views

Proving rigorously that if $3\mid(a+b)$ then $3\mid(a^3+b^3)$ using divisibility definition

Let $a,b\in \mathbb Z$. Prove rigorously using divisibility definition that if $3\mid(a+b)$ then $3\mid(a^3+b^3)$ After a bit of algebra I get that $$3\overset{?}{\mid}(a+b)^3-3ab(a+b)$$ So now how ...
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1answer
54 views

Explanation for the definition of monomials as products of products

I'm attempting to learn abstract algebra, so I've been reading these notes by John Perry. Monomials are defined (p. 23) as $$ \mathbb{M} = \{x^a : a \in \mathbb{N}\} \hspace{10mm} \text{or} ...
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108 views

Why in open balls is radius $r>0$?

the usual definition is the following: Def.1: given $(a,f)$ a metric space, $c \in a$ and $r \in \Bbb{R}_{>0}$, the open ball of radius $r$ about $c$ is the set $$\mathcal{B}_f(c,r)=\{x \in a| ...
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1answer
71 views

How is this definition of a constant divided by zero called?

I divide a constant by zero. One example is the following: 2/0 My father told me he learned at school earlier that the result is "not defined". If I enter this arithmetic problem in Wolfram Alpha, I ...
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3answers
124 views

Why do we formalize conceptions?

Why do we always try to formalize conceptions? Let's take the naive conception of sets, why do we try to write down a list of axioms? what do we earn in doing so? I'm looking especially for ...
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4answers
169 views

Vertical bar notation: $\frac{d}{dt}|_{t=0}f(a+tv)=$?

The definition of the directional derivative is $D_vf(a)$=$\left.\dfrac{d}{dt}\right|_{t=0}f(a+tv)=\lim \limits_{t\to0}\dfrac{f(a+tv)-f(a)}{t}$. However, I do not understand how this bar notation is ...
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2answers
830 views

What does the 'triple line equals' sign with a strikethrough mean?

I understand that the triple equal sign can mean "identical to" or "defined to be equal to", so intuitively, I assume that the triple equal sign with a strikethrough means "is not identical to" or ...
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2answers
84 views

Definition of diffeomorphism functions

I see the definition of Diffeomorphism in Wikipedia homepage, but I don't understand whether "the differential of f (Dfx : Rn → Rn) should be bijective at each point x in U" or "f itself" should be ...
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66 views

Equivalence relation proofs: general or specific?

I'm confused about whether a specific example must exist to prove an aspect of an equivalence relation. For example: if a set, $A$, only contains one element, $A = \{1\}$, and a relation, $R$, on ...
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99 views

What is the relation between $ \kappa$-monolithic and monotonically monolithic?

For an infinite cardinal $\kappa$, a space $X$ is called $\kappa$-monolithic if $nw(\overline{A}) \le \kappa $ for any set $A \subset X$ with $|A| \le \kappa$. And you can see this definition of ...
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2answers
121 views

Number of Vertices of Graphs

So, I was looking at some graph theoretical stuff, more specifically Topological Graph Theory, and I had a question about the definition of graphs: is there usually a condition in the definition ...
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1answer
142 views

Field of sets versus a field as an algebraic structure

During my studies of real analysis I've come across the definition of a field (or algebra) of sets. My question is: What is the connection between this structure and the structure of a field or ...
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2answers
26 views

Definition of associative algebra over a field

In the definition of an algebra over a field in the wiki entry , it states that an algebra over a field is a vector space equipped with a bilinear product. Question: Does anyone know how a bilinear ...
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3answers
105 views

What is the definition of axiom (mathematically speaking)

I'm wondering about the exactly definition of axiom (mathematically speaking). The definition of this term seems a little blur in my mind. For example, the definition of point in the Euclidean ...
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1answer
50 views

Rephrasing the definition of a limit

Is $\large{\lim_{x \to a}f(x)=L}$ The same as saying "one can get $\large{f(x)}$ as close as imaginable to $\large{L}$, by setting $\large{x}$ close enough to $\large{a}$" and vice versa "one can ...
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2answers
41 views

Vector bundle and its definition

Take this definition of vector bundle: its a triple $(V,\pi,M)$ where $V$ is a set, $\pi:V \rightarrow M$ a sutjective map such that for every $m \in M$ the set $\pi^{-1}(m)$ has the structure of real ...
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2answers
50 views

Corresponding partition in equivalence relation

The relation $R$ on the set $A=\{2,4,6,8,10\}$ is defined by $$R=\{(2,2),(2,6),(2,10),(4,4),(4,8),(6,2),(6,6),(6,10),(8,4),(8,8),(10,2),(10,6),(10,10)\}$$ Question 1 Verify if $R$ is an ...
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2answers
116 views

Amann & Escher Integral vs. Lebesgue Integral

In the textbook the authors define the integral via cauchy sequences of simple functions: $$S_n\to F:\quad\int F\mathrm{d}\mu:=\lim_n\int ...
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1answer
40 views

what is a fiber for function mapping?

I have read that a fiber is the pre image of a mapping.. Does this mean that I can think of a fiber as a line that connects x to y where the line is a function? So for example with $f(x)=2x$ there ...
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2answers
44 views

Are there definition of percent?

In a school I was taught that percent is the same as 1/100. But I think that definition is not rigorous enough because that would imply for example that $5+4\%=5+4/100=5.04$ but this seems weird. So ...
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2answers
83 views

About the definition of homology

can someone explaine me this definition of Homology: "The homology groups of $X$ measure "how-far" the chain complex associated to $X$ is from being exact." I know that homology measure the number ...
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1answer
54 views

Definition of null space

I have two definitions of null space. One by Serge Lang Suppose that for every element $u$ of $V$ we have $\langle u,u\rangle=O$. The scalar product is then said to be null, and $V$ is called a ...
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2answers
73 views

Abbreviate a tuple with a variable?

In a book I found the following notation $M = \{(x_1,y_1,z_1), \ldots, (x_n,y_n,z_n)\}$ for a set of 3-tuples. The author always refers to a tuple by writing $(x_i,y_i,z_i) \in M$. I'm wondering if I ...
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77 views

Why do we define functions to be set theoretic objects?

Why do we define functions to be set theoretic objects? Functions are so intuitive, why do we define it in complicated set theory language?
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2answers
60 views

$\mathbb{Z}^{+}$ includes zero or not?

Does $\mathbb{Z}^{+}$ includes zero or not? I think that $0$ is not involved in the set of positive integers, but my book included zero in the set of positive integers in an answer.
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2answers
43 views

Limit definition of a sequence question

I'm trying to use the limit definition of a sequence to prove that the limit as $ n \rightarrow \infty$ of $\frac{1}{10^n}$ is equal to $0$. It is evident to see that this limit approaches 0,this is ...
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1answer
114 views

Neighborhoods: Interior

The neighborhood filters satisfy: $$\forall N\in\mathcal{N}(x):\qquad x\in N$$ $$\forall N\in\mathcal{N}(x)\exists M_0\in\mathcal{N}(x):\qquad N\in\mathcal{N}(m)\text{ for all }m\in M_0$$ Define the ...
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198 views

Definition of subalgebra

Is it generally implicitly assumed that if $B$ is a subalgebra of a unital Banach algebra $A$ then $1 \in B$? I tried to find a definition of subalgebra but the only definition I found was in Murphy ...