For requesting, clarifying, and comparing definitions of mathematical terms.

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Definition of a basis for a particular topological space

I'm currently looking at Lemma 13.2 in Munkres' Topology. It states the following: Given a collection $C$ of open sets of a topological space $X$ such that for each open set $U$ of $X$ and each $x$ in ...
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159 views

Question about definition of pullback as a smooth bundle map.

In Lee, there is an exercise involving the pullback that I can't understand. If $M,N$ are smooth manifolds and $F:M\to N$ is smooth, I am asked to show that the pullback $F^*$ is a smooth bundle map ...
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284 views

$\epsilon - \delta$ definition of a limit

Where can I find a good explanation of the $\epsilon - \delta$ definition of a limit. I have tried looking at my textbook and it doesn't make much sense, and I have also looked on Google as well ...
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4answers
75 views

Acummulation point

Which one of these points is accumulation point, which not and why? I read the definition x-times but I'm quite confused :-/ I also found this post which is relevant to my question but it seems to me ...
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105 views

What's the meaning of $C$-embedded?

What's the meaning of $C$-embedded? It is a topological notion. Thanks ahead.
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107 views

What is the meaning of the term “inductively P map”?

In this page is the definition of an inductively open map. But in this pdf is the definition of a inductively P map, where P is a property of maps. But there is a difference in the definitions. In ...
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86 views

In category theory, is there any such thing as “compatibility” for arrow composition?

Is this a properly defined category? Objects $\{P, R, S\}$ Arrows $f_{1} : P \rightarrow R$ $f_{2} : P \rightarrow R$ $g : R \rightarrow S$ $h_{1} : P \rightarrow S$ $h_{2} : P \rightarrow S$ ...
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68 views

Does this function have a “name”, somewhat linked to Euler totient

If $\varphi$ denotes the Euler totient and $n=p_1^{k_1}\cdots p_r^{k_r}$ is the prime factorization of $n>1$ we have $ \varphi(n)= \varphi(p_1^{k_1}) \varphi(p_2^{k_2}) \cdots\varphi(p_r^{k_r})= ...
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134 views

Elaborate on $A^{c}:=\{p\in\mathbb Q : 0<p<\sqrt{2}\}$ not open and not closed in $\mathbb R$

I know that $\sqrt{2}\not\in\mathbb Q$ and $\sqrt{2}\in\mathbb R$ but it is not obvious to me why $\{p\in\mathbb Q : 0<p<\sqrt{2}\} \subset \mathbb R$ is not open. If it is not open, it means ...
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176 views

What is the proper term for a function where domain and codomain coincide?

What is the proper term for a function where domain and codomain coincide? E.g. in programming languages a function f : Int => Int or f : Double => Double. Thanks.
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157 views

Rephrasing Munkres' Theorem Re: Inverses of Jacobians

Below are theorems from Munkres' "Analysis on Manifolds". The proof of Theorem 7.4 on the right invokes the chain rule, stated on the left. The conditions of Theorem are somewhat strange and appear ...
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43 views

simplicial homology definition

I am revising for my algebraic topology exam based on Hatchers 2nd chapter of algebraic topology and I have this question regarding the definition of simplicial homology on pages 104-105: Hatcher ...
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15 views

Minimal planar domain

I am recently studing minimal surfaces on my own. I have meet in many places the fallowing statement: The only connected, properly embedded, minimal planar domains in $\mathbb{R}^3$ are a plane, a ...
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1answer
38 views

When is it allowed to “take apart” a limit (multiplication of limits)?

When is it allowed to "take apart" a limit? Here's an example to show what I mean: $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{\frac 1 ne^{\frac 1n}(e-1)}{e^{\frac 1 n}-1}=e-1$ since we can "take apart" ...
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31 views

Question on definition of group acting on a topological space.

I know that a group can act on a graph by acting on the set of vertices on a graph. I also know that a graph can be viewed as a CW complex and therefore a topological space and i am trying to bridge ...
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43 views

What exactly is the meaning of the following $\inf\{ s_n : n > N\}$ and $\sup\{ s_n : n > N\}$

What exactly is the meaning of the following $$u_N = \inf\{ s_n : n > N\} \ \ \text{ and} \ \ v_N = \sup\{ s_n : n > N\}$$ This might seem a stupid question, but I am not understanding the ...
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107 views

Definition of a Minimal Set

A few times while studying math I have encountered the notion of a "minimal set". For example, given some set of subsets, what is the "minimal" sigma algebra generated by that set of subsets? Or, in ...
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55 views

What's a local angle?

When I was trying to understand the definition of conformal map I got confused. A conformal map is a function $f: U \to \mathbb C$ where $U \subset \mathbb C$ such that $f$ preserves local angles. ...
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37 views

Definition of tensor product

Here is the standard dedonition of the tensor product of two modules: Definition for tensor products of two modules: Let $R$ be a ring and $M$ be a right module and $N$ be a left module. ...
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1answer
36 views

What do these definitions of conjugacy have in common?

Here are four (seemingly) different uses of the word conjugate: Complex conjugates are a concrete instance of the idea of conjugacy in field extensions. In group theory, there's the idea of ...
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58 views

Definition of algebraic structure

Is there a definition of algebraic structure? Wikipedia says: a set (called carrier set or underlying set) with one or more finitary operations defined on it. In particular, what is the ...
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28 views

Question about “integrable” random variable

I was reading the definition of Markov's Inequality on Wikipedia and it says If $X$ is any nonnegative integrable random variable and $a > 0$, then $\mathbb{P}(X \geq a) \leq ...
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24 views

Difference between finite and discrete set of discontinuities

I am reading this paper. In page 395 and 396, theorems $1$ and $2$ use the terms 'finite' and 'discrete' to refer to sets, in this case sets of discontinuities. What I don't understand is: what is the ...
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40 views

Spectral gap vs. algebraic connectivity

Can someone please clarify how the spectral gap of a graph relates to its algebraic connectivity (aka Fiedler value) and whether these use the adjacency matrix or laplacian matrix?
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132 views

Why do some authors use terms “non-ascending” and “non-descending” instead of ascending and descending? [duplicate]

In my math book, everywhere the author has used "non-ascending" instead of descending and "non-descending" instead of ascending. I was wondering if there is some special meaning or use associated with ...
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73 views

Elliptic boundary value problems and elliptic partial differential equations

I am interested in the relation between the definition of an 'elliptic boundary value problem' and an 'elliptic partial differential equation'. From the wiki entries it seems that 'elliptic boundary ...
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80 views

Find the right cosets of $H$ in $G$ simple example

Question: Let $G$ be a group and $H<G$ a subgroup with $|G:H|=2$ Show that the right cosets of $H$ in $G$ are $H$ and $G\backslash H$ Answer given: There are two right cosets, they are disjoint ...
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36 views

Why are the summands $-1,0,1$?

I have some problem to understand the following: Let $X=\left\{0,1,2\right\}$ and consider $X^{\mathbb{Z}^d}, d\geq 2$ as being the set of all function from $Z^d$ to $X$. So for $\eta\in ...
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61 views

o-minimal structures and definable functions

Consider the following definition of an o-minimal structure: An o-minimal structure $O=\{O_n\}$ is a sequence of Boolean algebras $O_n$ of subsets of $\mathbb{R}$ which satisfies the following ...
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59 views

Does this definition of “limit point” really work

I am reading Tapp's introduction to matrix groups for undergraduates. He gives the following definition of limit point of a set: A point $p \in \mathbb R^m$ is called limit point of a subset $S ...
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52 views

Is this how the limit of a sequence of sets is commonly defined?

I was looking at the wikipedia page for the Cantor set which defined the set using a limit. I had not previously seen a limit expression involving a sequence of sets rather than real numbers, so I got ...
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67 views

How the branch cut make a multi-valued function several branches of single valued function?

In the wikipedia article, it describe the branch points and branch cuts: A branch cut is a curve in the complex plane such that it is possible to define a single analytic branch of a multi-valued ...
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60 views

How is the area of a set of points in $\Bbb R^2$ defined?

Let $S$ be a subset of $\Bbb R^2$. If no vertical slice of $S$ contains gaps, we could define the area of $S$ through the following. $$A(S) = \int_{-\infty}^\infty\left(\sup\{y\in\Bbb R\mid (x,y)\in ...
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40 views

What is effectively continuous?

In Soare's book Recursively Enumerable Sets and Degrees I saw a sentence: $\Phi_e$ is an effectively continuous functional from the Cantor space $2^\omega$ to itself. What does it mean for a ...
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69 views

What is the definition of “Augmentation Ideal Filtration”?

Let $A$ be an algebra. What is the definition of the Augmentation Ideal Filtration of $A$? Any answer with reference will be greatly appreciated.
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I don't understand the definition of a base of a metric space

Definition: A collection {$v_n$} of subsets is said to be a base for X if for every x $\in$ $X$ and every open set $G$ $\subset$ $X$, such that x $\in$ $G$ we have x $\in$ {$V_n$} $\subset$ $G$ for ...
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83 views

Definition question in algebraic topology.

Definition: The $p$th (de Rham) cohomology group is the quotient vector space $$H^p(U) = \frac{Ker(d:\Omega^{p}(U)\to \Omega^{p+1}(U)}{Im(d:\Omega^{p-1}(U)\to \Omega^{p}(U))}$$ where $U \in ...
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115 views

Complex Measures: Integrability

Problem On the one hand, a complex measure decomposes into: $$\mu=\Re_+\mu-\Re_-\mu+i\Im_+\mu-i\Im_-\mu=:\sum_{\alpha=0\ldots3}i^\alpha\mu_\alpha$$ This gives rise to the integrability condition: ...
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49 views

Measures: Sigma-Additivity

Disclaimer: Though this thread is written in a Q&A style any new thoughts are really welcome! What reasons are there to restrict measures to countable additivity rather than uncountable ...
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1answer
33 views

Definitions of hemicontinuity

can anyone see the equivalence or relation between the following two definitions of hemicontinuity that I encountered: Assume that $K$ is a closed, convex subset of Banach space $X$. Let $X^{*}$ be ...
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49 views

What is the definition of Lindelöf space?

My definition for "countable set" is a set with the cardinal $\aleph_0$ and "at most countable set" is a set $A$ such that $|A|≦\aleph_0$. Till now, my definition for Lindelöf space is a topological ...
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1answer
110 views

Localization of the Integer Ring

Let $\mathbb{Z}$ be the ring of integers and let $p$ be a prime, then the $p$-localization of $\mathbb{Z}$ is defined as $\mathbb{Z}_{(p)}=\{\displaystyle\frac{a}{b}|a,b\in\mathbb{Z},p\nmid b\}$. I ...
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1answer
39 views

About definition of lexicographical order

Def. let be $\preceq_A$ a total order, $(a_1,a_2,...,a_n),(b_1,b_2,...,b_n) \in A^n$, $(a_1,a_2,...,a_n) \leq^d (b_1,b_2,...,b_n)$ if one and only one of the following holds is true: $$a_1 \prec_A ...
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125 views

Alternative to epsilon-delta definition

Back in Multivariable Calculus, I remember my professor, when explaining why he decided to skip a rigorous definition of limit (the reason was that those of us that would continue in math would go ...
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101 views

Mystery of non-vanishing derivative

Studying complex line integrals.. I can't see why we include "non-vanishing derivative" in the definition of a smooth curve. And although not related -- is complex line integral a type of ...
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99 views

The Definition of the Indicative Conditional

From Wikipedia, we have: In natural languages, an indicative conditional is the logical operation given by statements of the form "If A then B". Unlike the material conditional, an indicative ...
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82 views

Hessian matrix as derivative of gradient

From a text: For a real-valued differentiable function $f:\mathbb{R}^n\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, the Hessian matrix $D^2f(x)$ is the derivative matrix of the vector-valued gradient function $\nabla ...
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3answers
59 views

Definition of homogeneous ODE

In my lecture notes, it gives this following definition of a homogeneous ODE: A differential equation is called homogeneous if it can be written in the form $x′=f(\frac{x}{t})$ Then in one of ...
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55 views

Some troubles about topology and definition of a Vector Bundle

Disclaimer: It's heavily related to my old question : Visualizing the Topology of a Vector Bundle but I wanted to open a new question because the former had already got an answer and this time my ...
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208 views

Notation for Partial Functions

Suppose we have sets $f$, $A$ and $B$ such that $f\subset A\times B$ and $\forall x\in A\space \forall y,z\in B: [(x,y)\in f \land (x,z)\in f \implies y=z]$ i.e. $f$ is a partial function mapping ...