Definitions are the core of mathematical precision; they come to answer "what is X" in mathematics. Into this category fit questions regarding equivalence of definitions; clarifications regarding complicated definitions; as well questions with purposed definitions for mathematical notions with ...

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6
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5answers
465 views

What exactly is “approximation”?

There are a lot of great "approximations" that exist in the mathematical field:$$\dfrac{22}{7} \approx \pi$$ $$e \approx \left(1 + \dfrac{1}{n}\right)^n$$But the fact that I have yet to know what ...
7
votes
1answer
488 views

Higher Order Trigonometric Function

Once in a time, I had to work with functions that have the following Taylor series expansion: $$ t_m(x)=1-\frac{x^m}{m!}+\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m)!}+\cdots =\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^k x^{km}}{(km)!}. $$ ...
1
vote
3answers
150 views

Is ∞ considered defined?

$\infty$ (Infinity) is not a number, but infinity is considered to be defined, right? There are expressions in mathematics such as: $\frac x0,0^0, \frac\infty\infty,$ which are not defined because ...
5
votes
1answer
117 views

For a differentiable map $\Phi$ between manifolds $M$ and $W$, what is $d\Phi?$ (Aubin)

I can't understand a passage from A Course in Differential Geometry by T. Aubin. First, there is Definition 2.6., which I posted in this question. And now there's this: $(\Phi_*)_P$ is nothing ...
4
votes
3answers
192 views

What is a tangent bundle? (Aubin)

Here's what I read in A Course in Differential Geometry by Thierry Aubin. 2.5. Definition. The tangent bundle $T(M)$ is $\bigcup_{P\in M} T_P(M).$ And then 2.6. Definition. Let $\Phi$ be a ...
1
vote
2answers
82 views

Reason for existence of 'swapping' elementary matrix operation

In my Hoffman & Kunze book on Linear Algebra, we define 3 elementary row operations, the first of which is the swapping of two rows. I'm wondering why we need to even have such an elementary ...
2
votes
1answer
150 views

What is the meaning of $K/F$ is a cyclic extension?

I have it that $K/F$ is a (finite) field extension, what is the definition of when $K/F$ is called cyclic ? I heard it while I studied Galois theory and it was defined as $K/F$ is called cyclic ...
2
votes
2answers
113 views

The problem of bound variables in mathematical definitions

I was reading Paul Bernays’ Axiomatic Set Theory recently; in the book, Bernays gives the following definition of ‘ordinal number’. \begin{align} \text{On}(\alpha) \stackrel{\text{def}}{\iff} ...
3
votes
1answer
85 views

Are distinctions in definitions of “finite” material in, eg, topology or measure theory?

There are several definitions of "finite", like Dedekind's and Tarski's (Thanks to A.K. for point out the latter - first time I've heard of it): From the Wikipedia entry on Finite Set: (Richard ...
3
votes
3answers
71 views

Definition of a tensor field

Could anybody explain to me the following: If $$T_{ij}=\nabla_i V_j-\nabla_j V_i$$ where $V_i$ is a covector field and $\nabla_i$ is the covariant derivative, then $T_{ij}$ is a tensor field. ...
5
votes
3answers
183 views

Understanding a definition of radial

A space $X$ is called radial if, for any $A \subset X$ and any $x \in cl(A)$, there is a transfinite sequence $s=\{a_\alpha: \alpha \in \kappa\} \subset A$ which converges to $x$. What's meaning of ...
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Can we apply a successor operation in Peano's arithmetic infinitely many times, is the successor well defined?

If we look at the axioms of Peano arithmetic, e.g. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PeanosAxioms.html, they contain an axiom: If $a$ is a number, the successor of $a$ is a number. However, the axioms do ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

What does lg x mean? is it $\log_2 x$ or $\log_{10} x$ in binary trees

I'm a bit confused, $\log_{10} x = \log x $ right? I believe I've read somewhere that $\log_{2} x = lg x$ but some people say lg = $\log$. So what does lg really stand for? specifically when talking ...
3
votes
1answer
624 views

What is an algebra?

Is an algebra or 'a algebra' the same thing as an algebraic structure? Or does it have a different meaning? Thanks
1
vote
1answer
111 views

What does compact cover mean?

I am reading a difinition of Lindelof $\Sigma$ space. It talked about compact cover. As the title explains, what does compact cover mean? It means every member of the cover is compact?
1
vote
1answer
40 views

A Quadratic Maximum?

What does the following mean? Context: Laplace integrals Consider the integral $$\int_a^b f(t) \exp(x\phi(t))\,\,\,dt$$ where $\phi(t) $ achieves its maximum at some $t=c\in (a,b)$. Assume that ...
2
votes
1answer
82 views

A question on linear ordered space

A space $X$ is called left-separated if it can be well-ordered in such a way that every initial segment is closed in $X$. And we know every space contains a dense left-separated subspace. My question ...
2
votes
4answers
592 views

Definition for Covariant Derivative

What is simple definition of the covariant derivative that looks like the definition of the derivative of a function in calculus? definition of the derivative of a function in calculus is: $$\frac ...
1
vote
2answers
207 views

Definition of a basis for a particular topological space

I'm currently looking at Lemma 13.2 in Munkres' Topology. It states the following: Given a collection $C$ of open sets of a topological space $X$ such that for each open set $U$ of $X$ and each $x$ in ...
16
votes
5answers
2k views

Chain Rule Intuition

We know that the chain rule is used to differentiate a composite function ,say $$f(x) = h(g(x))$$ It's defined as the derivative of the outside function times the derivative of the inner function or ...
2
votes
3answers
189 views

What is the definition of first/last element in a poset?

I have read the terms first element/last elements in the context of a basic course in set theory. When I learned about posets I didn't encounter those terms. I tried looking up the definitions but I ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Use of the term “normal section” in a theorem of Maria Lucido.

Prop. 3 in this paper (p.135) states Let $G$ be a solvable group with $\text{diam}\Gamma(G)=4$. Then either $l_F(G)\leq 3$ or $l_F(G)=4$ and $G$ has a normal section isomorphic to $H$. ($H$ is ...
1
vote
1answer
110 views

Definition for series with negative index and order of taking limits

I have thee questions and they seem all related to me and every number i say is complex number below. My definition for $\sum_{k=0}^n=a_k$ is by induction. That is, given finite set of numbers ...
6
votes
4answers
472 views

Can open sets be an open cover, for itself?

I have Baby Rudin's book with me and it clearly defines a cover to be open. In a followup, it defines a set $K$ to be compact if every open cover of $K$ contains a finite subcover. And the rest I ...
2
votes
2answers
85 views

Is the definition if mutual independence too strong?

Let $A_1,\ldots,A_n$ be $n$ events in a discrete probability space. Can someone give me an example such that $$P(A_1 \cap \cdots \cap A_n)=P(A_1)\cdot \ldots \cdot P(A_n)$$ holds, but such that there ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

Can a sample space depend on the parameter to be estimated (example: # of cabs in a city)

In our intro statistic lecture the following we said that the following components made up an estimation problem an at most countable space $\mathcal{X}$ of all possible samples we can observe a ...
2
votes
1answer
403 views

Base (topology) with closed intervals

I am curious why it's a problem to define a base using closed sets? For example, my book uses the definition under "Constructing Topologies from Bases" as specified at ...
0
votes
4answers
1k views

Is a linear combination linearly independent?

I am a bit confused... Linear combination means $$F(X)=af(x_1)+bf(x_2) + \cdots$$ and linearly independent means $$af(x_1)+bf(x_2) + \cdots=0$$ where $a=b=\cdots=0$ My question: is a linear ...
15
votes
2answers
1k views

Understanding induced representations

Let $G$ be a group and $H$ be a subgroup. Let $\phi:H\rightarrow GL(V)$ be a representation of $H$. There are three constructions in Wikipedia, but I am not really convinced by these. My question is: ...
2
votes
2answers
128 views

A simple notation question on grad and Lp norm

What does this notation $||\nabla u|| _p$ mean? I would like an exact definition. Also I have seen $|\nabla u|_1$. Does this mean the $\sum_i|\partial_i u|$?
2
votes
0answers
83 views

Graph Theory: Help with a definition

I need some help to see if the definition I found of Cycles and Cycles Decomposition is right, here it is: A graph is a Cycle if it is isomorph to another graph $G=(V,E)$ with the following ...
5
votes
1answer
275 views

What is “algebra” in $\sigma$-algebra (or “field” in $\sigma$-field)?

I know that $\sigma$ in $\sigma$-algebra stands for the closure under countable union property. What about "algebra"? Surely it cannot algebra over a field or a ring as defined in algebra textbooks. ...
1
vote
0answers
249 views

different kind of convergence in Real analysis

Now I am studying real analysis, I wonder if anyone can sum up all the relations between all kinds of convergence, convergence in measure, convergence a.e., convergence a.u., and convergence in ...
2
votes
1answer
385 views

bipartite graph - sufficient and necessary conditions

Sorry for a silly question, I got confused with the definition of bipartite graph. What is a necessary and sufficient condition for a bipartite graph. ...
0
votes
3answers
166 views

If there is only one one-sided limit, the limit exists?

Question on theory: If $\lim_{x\to a^+}F(x)=L$ and $\lim_{x\to a^-}F(x)$ doesn't exist, then does the $\lim_{x\to a}F(x)$ exists and is $L$? Thanks.
11
votes
3answers
363 views

Why does the definition of limits of a function have strict inequality?

Definition (As written in Michael Spivak's Calculus) The function $f$ approaches a limit $l$ near $a$ means: for every $\epsilon >0$ there is some $\delta > 0$ such that, for all $x$, if ...
4
votes
1answer
123 views

What is a “set-like class”?

Just / Weese contains the following theorem (p 126): Theorem 5: Let $\mathbf Z \neq \varnothing$ and let $\mathbf W \subseteq \mathbf Z \times \mathbf Z$ be a wellfounded set-like class. Let $\mathbf ...
1
vote
2answers
98 views

Number of Vertices of Graphs

So, I was looking at some graph theoretical stuff, more specifically Topological Graph Theory, and I had a question about the definition of graphs: is there usually a condition in the definition ...
0
votes
0answers
247 views

What is derived number definition? ( in Vitaly covering)

In Vitali covering definition i see "derived number" word, but I dont know what that mean. Example for vitali covering: If $f$ is strictly increasing and $$E=\{x: \text{ there is a derived number } ...
2
votes
0answers
200 views

Explanation of Mixed Strategy Definition in Game Theory

Definition: Let $(N, A, u)$ be normal-form game, and for any set $X$ let $\Pi(X)$ be the set of all probability distributions over $X$. Then the set of fixed strategies for player $S_i=\Pi(A_i)$. ...
10
votes
2answers
439 views

True Definition of the Real Numbers

I've found lots of resources that say this is a real number if it's not rational, but what is a real number, really? I mean what is the definition of a real number? If nothing else, anyone know of a ...
2
votes
1answer
113 views

Why is the term “composition” used to mean a certain binary operation on the set of relations on a given set?

I looked for material relating to compositions of equivalence relations, and was surprised to find the claim (here) that the composition of equivalence relations is not necessarily again an ...
0
votes
1answer
96 views

Meaning of index in matrices

Question is, what does "index" mean? For systems of order greater than the number of characteristic roots of $C$ of index one Also, can anyone explain why is $u_1 + u_2 + n -1 =0$ and what ...
2
votes
1answer
843 views

What is the difference between a function and a map? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there any difference between mapping and function? I am an aspiring mathematician who just started out. What is the difference between a function and a map? Or are ...
2
votes
1answer
267 views

What is the intuitive meaning of the adjugate matrix?

The definition of the adjugate matrix is easy to understand, but I have never seen it used for anything. What is the intuitive meaning of this matrix? Are there examples of applications which may ...
3
votes
3answers
77 views

Definition of a tangent

I've been involved in a discussion on definition of a tangent and would appreciate a bit of help. At my high school and at my college I was taught that a definition of a tangent is 'a line that ...
2
votes
1answer
315 views

finding nearest perfect square for a fractional number

Is it possible to have a clear definition for the nearest perfect square number for a fractional number? For example, let us consider a number 0.004. What is another decimal number closest to it, that ...
2
votes
1answer
63 views

Using the notation $m^{O(1)}$

$m^{O(1)}$ denotes the set of functions $\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$ which are polynomially bounded. (Is that what is usually means?) Now it used as follows: $$ f(m) \leq m^{O(1)}$$ To express that ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Direct sums and direct products

This question has been in my head for a while. And today it appears again when I am reading Arveson's book on $C^*$-algebras. He says Countable direct products of Polish spaces are Polish. ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Why are vector spaces sometimes called linear spaces?

I have never come across the term 'linear space' as a synonym for 'vector space' and it seems from the book I am using (Linear Algebra by Kostrikin and Manin) that the term linear space is more ...