1
vote
3answers
76 views

What is the “Principle of permanence”?

While reading the book "The Number-System of Algebra (2nd edition)." term "Principle of permanence" occurred to me. I remember I had read this in the book "Beginning algebra for college students.". I ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Odd and even functions.

I have a book which says: If a function $f$ satisfies $f(-x)=f(x)$ for all $x$ in its domain, then $f$ is called an even function. However, if $f(-x)=-f(x)$ for every $x$ in the domain of $f$, ...
4
votes
0answers
68 views

Defining “Penon Infinitesimals”.

In this lecture (which is accompanied by these slides), right near the end (so page 9 in the pdf of the slides; I don't think you have to watch the lecture), P. Johnstone refers to the "Penon ...
1
vote
0answers
31 views

What does “weakly compact” mean when applied to subsets $X \subset Y$?

Let $X$ be a subset of a Banach space $Y$. Please can you give me a definition of what "$X$ is weakly compact" means? I want one which is in terms of sequences and boundedness, as opposed to one with ...
3
votes
3answers
152 views

Equality of positive rational numbers.

I am reading the second article Rational Numbers of the book "A Treatise on Advanced Calculus" by Philip Franklin. I have mainly 3 questions regarding this article. I am writing all these $3$ ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

“Preimage” of a binary relation

Consider the binary relation $R \subseteq X \times Y$. Is there a standard name and notation for the set $X' = \{x\ |\ (x, y) \in R\}$? ProofWiki calls $X'$ the preimage of $R$, denoted as ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

Conglomerate in mathematical literature.

I rememeber I downloaded a pdf in category theory and after talking about classes it defined something called conglomerates, but I can't remember what that is and wikipedia has no article on it. ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Definition of the higher dimensional mapping tori

This is proving harder to search for than I imagined. The usual definition of a mapping torus $\mathcal{M}_h$ associated to a homeomorphism $h\colon X\rightarrow X$ on a topological space $X$ is the ...
3
votes
3answers
160 views

what are first and second order logics? [duplicate]

The only knowledge I have on logic is due to a book I read a couple of years ago called Introduction to logic: and to the methodology of deductive sciences by Alfred Tarski. And in it he talks about ...
4
votes
3answers
106 views

What does boson-type realization mean?

I have seen several different contexts the expression "boson-type realization", for instance in the study of algebras growth and realization of affine algebras. To be or not be a boson-type ...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

What is a “distinguished automorphism” of a field?

Math people: The title is the question. The reason I am asking is that I am trying to determine exactly what fields can be used for an inner product. I posed that question at ...
1
vote
2answers
78 views

What does relax mean in the mathematical context

Here is a direct citation from wikipedia: The assumptions were further relaxed in the works of Terence Tao and Van H. Vu, Friedrich Götze and Alexander Tikhomirov. Finally, in 2010 Tao and Vu ...
2
votes
1answer
81 views

A question on linear ordered space

A space $X$ is called left-separated if it can be well-ordered in such a way that every initial segment is closed in $X$. And we know every space contains a dense left-separated subspace. My question ...
6
votes
7answers
426 views

The definition of “number”

Maybe my question is very trivial. I would like to have the definition of "number". Can anyone advise me some documents online? thank you very much
0
votes
1answer
137 views

Rate of convergence of random variables for weak convergence

Suppose $X_{n}$ be a sequence of random variable that converges to $X$ in distribution. How can we define the rate of convergence? What would be the reference?
0
votes
1answer
74 views

Rate of convergence of double sequences

Suppose $ \{X_{n,m} \}$ be a double sequence of real numbers and suppose $\lim_{n}\lim_{m}X_{n,m}=X$. What is the definition and reference for the rate of convergence of double sequences?
4
votes
1answer
92 views

Sequences convergent to 'cycles'

Consider sequences $(x_n)_{n=1}^\infty\subset\mathbb R$. Is there a name for the following property? There exists $L\in\mathbb N$ such that: ...
8
votes
2answers
352 views

Exact sequence in a nonabelian category [previously: “Exact sequence for topological groups?”]

If $A$, $B$, and $C$ are topological groups, and $f: A \to B$ and $g: B \to C$ are two continuous group homomorphisms, what does it usually mean for $$1 \to A \stackrel{f}{\to} B \stackrel{g}{\to} C ...
16
votes
7answers
1k views

What is combinatorics?

I've tried to search the web and in books, but I haven't found a good definition or definitive explanation of what combinatorics is. Could anyone give me a definition/explanation of combinatorics, ...
14
votes
5answers
620 views

Definition of definition

I was wondering if there is a good way to "define" what definition means exactly in mathematics. Since the answers may be subjective or philosophical, I want to ask only for references on this topic. ...