Definitions are the core of mathematical precision; they come to answer "what is X" in mathematics. Into this category fit questions regarding equivalence of definitions; clarifications regarding complicated definitions; as well questions with purposed definitions for mathematical notions with ...

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what are and why are sine and cosine modulated integrals used?

I have found the definition of the following formulas in a paper, where they are called sine and cosine modulated integrals. $y$ is a signal with a strong periodic component of frequency $N\Omega$ ...
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Non Borel Spaces: Gauge Integral

Is there a gauge integral over non Borel spaces? (My interest lies in finite measure spaces.) It seems as the definition of the gauge integral crucially depends on the existence of open sets for a ...
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0answers
29 views

Types of definitions

My question is about terminology. Consider the following two types of definitions of a circle: A circle is the collection of all points at the same distance from a given point. A circle is the ...
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2answers
79 views

Why in open balls is radius $r>0$?

the usual definition is the following: Def.1: let be $(a,f)$ a metric space, $c \in a$ and $r \in \Bbb{R}_{>0}$, the open ball of radius $r$ about $c$ is the set $$\mathcal{B}_f(c,r)=\{x \in a| ...
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1answer
29 views

Localization of the Integer Ring

Let $\mathbb{Z}$ be the ring of integers and let $p$ be a prime, then the $p$-localization of $\mathbb{Z}$ is defined as $\mathbb{Z}_{(p)}=\{\displaystyle\frac{a}{b}|a,b\in\mathbb{Z},p\nmid b\}$. I ...
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1answer
37 views

Is there a name for a property defined in terms of open sets?

We know that if a property is defined in terms of open sets then the property is preserved under a homeomorphism. Is there a name for such a property?
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2answers
31 views

Usage of the term $\arg(z)$

Consider the complex number $z = -1 - i$. Is it mathematically correct to say that $\arg(z) = 5\pi/4$? Sure, $5\pi/4$ is not the principle argument of $z$, but it is an element of the set $\arg(z)$. ...
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13 views

Conjugate actions

What is the definition for two group actions to be conjugate? For example a smooth action of a finite group on a manifold is locally conjugate to an orthogonal action.
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2answers
33 views

Could anybody provide a more detailed explanation of a tangent equation in its general form?

In my textbook I'm currently at the topic of a tangent line to an ellipsis and hyperbola. And there I've encountered this statement: If a curve has an equation $$ y = f(x) $$ then an equation of a ...
3
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0answers
61 views

Why not defining a measure as a function on functions?

A measure $\mu$ is a function to $\left[0,\infty\right]$ on the sets belonging to a $\sigma$-algebra. Then for integrable functions $f$ the integral $\int fd\mu$ comes in, having nice properties ...
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1answer
37 views

Definition of elliptic pde

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliptic_partial_differential_equation Very confusing. So are there non-linear elliptic pdes? It seems to be the case. And what about $$A u_{xx} + C u_{yy} + F u = 0$$ ...
3
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1answer
87 views

Has anyone succeeded in formalizing Leibniz notation in such a way that the chain rule and inversion rule “work”?

The notation $\frac{\partial}{\partial x}$ is ubiquitous and totally useful, but also kind of weird. It seems to be doing the following: Bind $x$ Compute the derivative Evaluate at $x$ To ...
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2answers
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Definition of dimension

Let us consider Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^n$. We say it is $n$-dimensional because each vector in it is an $n$-tuple $(x_1,...,x_n)$. However, it is possible to represent this exact same space using ...
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0answers
34 views

Rapidly Decreasing Functions

Can someone explain the notion of a rapidly decreasing function? Namely, a function in the Schwartz space: $$\mathscr{S}(\mathbb{R}^n):= \{ f \in C^{\infty} (\mathbb{R}^n) : ||f||_{\alpha, \beta} ...
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1answer
31 views

Definition of global field

This is very embarrassing thing to ask but what is a definition of global field? Every text or internet sources says either a number field or function field over finite field. (Yes, I understand there ...
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0answers
11 views

Definition of Non-characteristic Manifold

What is the definition of non-characteristic manifold in the following context. "Since $ f (x, y)=0 $ is assumed to be a non-characteristic singularity manifold, we have $ f_{x}\neq 0 $." Thanks, ...
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1answer
45 views

Why we use ANY in the definition of a maximal element?

I am confused about the following definition: "a maximal element of a subset S of some partially ordered set is an element of S that is not smaller than any other element in S." I do not understand ...
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3answers
121 views

Functions with different codomain the same according to my book?

My book gives the following definition: A function $f$ from $A$ to $B$ is defined as $f\subseteq A\times B$ such that if $(a,b)\in f$ and $(a,b_1)\in f$ then $b=b_1$ and there exists a $(a,b)\in ...
0
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1answer
37 views

Is a definition either intensional or extensional?

Is a definition either intensional or extensional? Can a definition be neither? Can a definition be both? How about this definition? when there is only one object that satisfies a definition, e.g. ...
2
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1answer
51 views

What's the difference between a cyclic and periodic function?

I've seen the words "cyclic" and "periodic" used to describe characteristics of a given function. What do they mean? I can't seem to find a difference. Wikipedia says a periodic function is one that ...
1
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1answer
25 views

Solutions depending on something continuously

Let $V$ be a a real Banach space, $K \subset V$ a closed convex set, $A: K \rightarrow V^{*}$ a (nonlinear) operator and $F \in V^{*}$. Then the variational inequality is the following problem: find ...
2
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4answers
55 views

What is a complex constant and how do I use it?

I have a question I am trying to understand: "Let $b$ and $c$ be complex constants such that $z^2+bz+c=0$ has two different real roots. Show that $b$ and $c$ are real." My biggest problem here is ...
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3answers
90 views

Why is this definition of complex numbers “informal”?

I'm reading the proofwiki page about complex number: https://proofwiki.org/wiki/Definition:Complex_Number According to proofwiki there is an informal and formal definitions of complex numbers. The ...
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1answer
50 views

How is this definition of a constant divided by zero called?

I divide a constant by zero. One example is the following: 2/0 My father told me he learned at school earlier that the result is "not defined". If I enter this arithmetic problem in Wolfram Alpha, I ...
0
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1answer
31 views

About definition of lexicographical order

Def. let be $\preceq_A$ a total order, $(a_1,a_2,...,a_n),(b_1,b_2,...,b_n) \in A^n$, $(a_1,a_2,...,a_n) \leq^d (b_1,b_2,...,b_n)$ if one and only one of the following holds is true: $$a_1 \prec_A ...
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1answer
60 views

Definition of disc and open ball

I have the following definitions in my notes for arbitrary discs and open balls - $$D^n = \{x \in \mathbb{R^{n+1}}: ||x|| \le 1\}$$ $$B^n = \{x \in \mathbb{R^{n+1}}: ||x|| < 1\}$$ The ...
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0answers
18 views

Vanishes of second order

I encountered the following statement in an article: Let $f(X) = f(X_1, ..., X_N) = \sum_{|\alpha| \geq 2} {a_{\alpha}X^{\alpha}}$ be a convergent power series which vanishes of second order at ...
5
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2answers
457 views

What is an ordered pair actually?

What does $(a,b)$ mean actually? I saw this in the 'formal defintion' of functions, and it tripped me up. We haven't even defined what an ordered pair is, before using it. Is it just a notation of ...
0
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1answer
32 views

What are the differences between a collation and a rule of formation?

I'm a beginner in mathematical logic, and currently studying(myself, without any colleague, which is sad and so asking in here) basics of formal system. Before asking a question, I'll introduce my ...
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0answers
53 views

Different definitions of uniform integrability

In different books and resources, I saw different definitions of uniformly integrable. For example, in some books the definition is like: Definition 1: $\{f_k\}\in L^1(E)$ is uniformly integrable ...
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3answers
107 views

Why isn't an injection an iif?

Suppose that $f:X \rightarrow Y$ is a function. Then an injection can be defined as: $\forall x_1,x_2 \in X, f(x_1) = f(x_2) \Rightarrow x_1=x_2$ Why isn't it defined instead as follows: $\forall ...
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1answer
41 views

Definition of null space

I have two definitions of null space. One by Serge Lang Suppose that for every element $u$ of $V$ we have $\langle u,u\rangle=O$. The scalar product is then said to be null, and $V$ is called a ...
2
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1answer
38 views

In arbitrary commutative rings, what is the accepted definition of “associates”?

In an integral domain, the following are equivalent: $r \mid s$ and $s \mid r$ $r=us$ for some unit $u$ However in arbitrary commutative rings this is no longer the case; in particular, (2) ...
3
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1answer
54 views

writing papers: definition in word or formula?

If we write papers, is it or is it not desirable to write definitions in formulas AND words. So if I want to define the following set: $$S:=\{ x \in \mathbb{N} : P(x) \}$$ where $P$ is some predicate ...
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3answers
49 views

The difference between a fiber and a section of a vector bundle

If $ E_x := \pi^{-1}(x) $ is the fiber over $x$ where $(E,\pi,M)$ is the vector bundle. And the section is $s: M \to E $ with $\pi \circ s = id_M $. This implies that $\pi^{-1} = s $ on $M$. So then ...
3
votes
4answers
61 views

Variable vs Constant

What is the definition of a variable as opposed to a constant? I was trying to figure it out the other day. First I thought that a constant must only take 1 value (e.g. if $x+1=0$, then $x$ must be ...
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2answers
33 views

Calculate random integer inside a range of real numbers

$$F : \Bbb R \times \Bbb R \rightarrow \Bbb N $$ $$F(\text{minReal},\ \text{maxReal}) = \text{randomInt} \in \left[\text{minReal},\ \text{maxReal}\right] $$ Let $r \in [0, 1)$ be a random value. How ...
6
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1answer
62 views

Name of a shape that is intersected once by each ray that starts at a given point

Is there a particular name for a shape that is intersected exactly once by each ray that starts at a given point? To illustrate: I'm looking for a name for shapes like the left one in this image: ...
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6answers
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What is Abstract Algebra essentially?

In the most basic sense, what is abstract algebra about? Wolfram Mathworld has the following definition: "Abstract algebra is the set of advanced topics of algebra that deal with abstract algebraic ...
0
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1answer
51 views

How do I define a string in formal language by means of a definition of tuple?

I'm constructing mathematical notions and definition from the bottom of the mathematical structure. So whenever I learn, or encounter new concepts, I try to define it step by step, without using any ...
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2answers
53 views

Abbreviate a tuple with a variable?

In a book I found the following notation $M = \{(x_1,y_1,z_1), \ldots, (x_n,y_n,z_n)\}$ for a set of 3-tuples. The author always refers to a tuple by writing $(x_i,y_i,z_i) \in M$. I'm wondering if I ...
21
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2answers
1k views

Determinant of a non-square matrix

I wrote an answer to this question based on determinants, but subsequently deleted it because the OP is interested in non-square matrices, which effectively blocks the use of determinants and thereby ...
0
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0answers
41 views

How do you call a scale that starts at $∞$, has $1/n$ divisions and tends to $0$?

A linear scale $2n$ divisions: 0 2 4 6 8 Logarithmic scales $10^n$ divisions: 1 10 100 1000 10000 ...
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3answers
70 views

Why do we define functions to be set theoretic objects?

Why do we define functions to be set theoretic objects? Functions are so intuitive, why do we define it in complicated set theory language?
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1answer
28 views

What does it mean for two conjectures to be incompatible?

What does it mean for two conjectures to be incompatible? I read about Incompatibility of two Hardy-Littlewood Conjectures. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Hardy-LittlewoodConjectures.html What does ...
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1answer
49 views

Collection vs set in this textbook about category theory, and some related questions.

What is the meaning of collection in this context ? Is it here a synonym of set ? Can someone please explain what the author means by "A moment's though shows that, as sets of functions, these two ...
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2answers
170 views

Definition of forgetful functor [duplicate]

Is there an actual definition of "forgetful functor?" Wolfram MathWorld defines it in terms of functors from algebraic categories to the category of sets, but then says, "Other forgetful functors..." ...
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3answers
480 views

Can asymptotes be curved?

When I was first introduced to the idea of an asymptote, I was taught about horizontal asymptotes (of form $y=a$) and vertical ones ( of form $x=b$). I was then shown oblique asymptotes-- slanted ...
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2answers
84 views

How to define the disciplines of mathematics

Would you say that it is possible to give a unified, general definition of the different structures of mathematics and draw a clear distinction between them? I have been repeatedly trying to come up ...
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2answers
121 views

Categorial definition of free products?

If $X$ and $Y$ are objects of a concrete category $\mathcal{C}$, is there an accepted definition of "free product of $X$ and $Y$," generalizing the in the special case where $\mathcal{C}$ is the ...