# Tagged Questions

For questions related to cyclotomic polynomials and their properties.

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### Irreducibility of $~\frac{x^{6k+2}-x+1}{x^2-x+1}~$ over $\mathbb Q[x]$

The Artin—Schreier polynomial $~x^n-x+1~$ is always irreducible over $\mathbb Q[x]$, unless $n=6k+2$, in which case it seems to have only two factors, one of which is always $x^2-x+1$. The ...
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### If $\zeta= e^{2\pi i/7}$ then $2\cos(2\pi/7) = (\zeta+ \zeta^6)$. Find a cubic polynomial satisfied by $\zeta + \zeta^6$.

My approach was to set $\zeta + \zeta^6 = a_1x + a_2x^2 + a_3x^3$ and then solve for the constants. I know there is a better way to solve this using the cyclotomic polynomials, but I don't understand ...
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### how can I find the smallest integer n such that a polynomial divides x^n-1

I have a simple question.. Assume that I have an arbitrary polynomial $f$ in $F_q[x]$. Is there a practical way to find the smallest integer $n$ for which $f$ divides $x^n-1$ ? A small example ...
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### elementary properties of cyclotomic polynomials

How can one rewrite $1+x^2+x^4+x^8+\cdots x^{2^n}$ as a product of cyclotomic polynomials? more general how can we express $1+x^p+\cdots+x^{p^n}$, where $p$ is a prime, in term of product of ...
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### Cyclotomic polynomial identity [duplicate]

STATEMENT Show that $$\Phi_n(X)=\prod_{d\mid n}(X^{n/d}-1)^{\mu(d)}$$ where $\Phi_n(X)$ is the n-th cyclotomic polynomial. QUESTION Could anyone offer any help on how to show this result.
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### For $p$ prime, show that $\Phi_{p^n}(x) = 1 + x^{p^{n-1}} + x^{2p^{n-2}} + \dots +x^{(p-1)^{p^n-1}}$

Well I attempted to try this but I failed to solve it: So $$\Phi_{p^{n}}(x)= \frac{x^{p^{n}} - 1}{\Phi_{1}(x) \Phi_{p^{2}}(x) \dots \Phi_{p^{n-1}}(x)}$$ Now I'm just stuck here. I saw a result ...
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### Points on a unit circle

Let $P_1, P_2,..., P_n$ be points equally spaced on a unit circle. For how many integer $n \in \{2,3,...,2013\}$ is the product of all pairwise distances: $$\prod_{1\le i\lt j\le n} P_{i}P_{j}$$ a ...
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### Irreducibility of cyclotomic polynomials via schemes

A few months ago, someone told me there existed a scheme theoretic proof of the irreducibility of cyclotomic polynomials. I've tried coming up with a proof, and when that didn't really yield anything ...
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### Finding the Extension Degree of a Cyclotomic Field

Greetings Mathematics Community. I am having much difficulty in solving the following problem: If $m\equiv 2$ (mod 4), show that $\mathbb{Q(\zeta_m)}=\mathbb{Q(\zeta_{\frac{m}{2}})}$ where $\zeta$ ...
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### Find a positive integer $n$ such that there is a subfield of $\mathbb{Q}_n$ that is not a cyclotomic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$

I'm in trouble with this simple exercise. If we denote $\mathbb{Q}_n:=\mathbb{Q}(\omega)$, where $\omega$ is a primitive $n$th of unity in $\mathbb{C}$, can we find a positive integer $n$ such that ...
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### Norm of an element in cyclotomic extension (Exercises VI.19 Lang's Algebra)

Let $\zeta$ be a primitive $n^{\rm{th}}$ root of unity. Let $K=\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$. If $n=p^r (r\geq 1)$ is a prime power, show that $N_{K/F}(1-\zeta)=p$ If $n$ is divisible by at least two distinct ...
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### Inertia Degree in Cyclotomic Extensions

Let $\zeta$ be a primitive $l$th root of unity, where $l$ is prime. If $p$ is another prime number, let $f$ be the order of $p$ in $U(\mathbb{Z}/l \mathbb{Z})$. Then in $\mathbb{Z}[\zeta]$, $p$ ...
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### product considering the period of index over a cyclotomic extension

This is an exercise from Milne Galois Theory (Chapter 3 Exercise 13). Let p be an odd prime, and let $\zeta$ be a primitive $p^{\text{th}}$ root of 1 in $\mathbb C$. Let $E = \mathbb Q[\zeta ]$, and ...
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### A cyclotomic polynomial whose index has a large prime divisor cannot be too sparse

Working on this recent MSE question, I was led to the following conjecture : Suppose that $n$ is an integer with at least one prime divisor $\geq 7$. Then $\Phi_n$ has at least seven non-zero ...
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### Factorization of seventh cyclotomic polynomial

The fifth cyclotomic polynomial $\Phi_5(z)$ factors as $$\Phi_5(z)=(z^2+\varphi z+1)(z^2+(1-\varphi)z+1)$$ where $\varphi$ and $1-\varphi$ are the solutions to $x^2-x-1$. Of course, $\varphi$ is ...
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### When is a sum of consecutive roots of unity an integer

Let $\xi \neq 1$ be an $n$th root of unity. When is a sum of the form $$1+\xi+\xi^2+\ldots+\xi^r, \quad 1 \leq r \leq n-1,$$ an integer? What are the possible integers? I suspect that the answers ...
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### Sum of roots of unity an algebraic integer proof

Let S be the sum of a finite number of nth roots of unity (where n is fixed, and the sum is non-zero). How do I go about showing that S is an algebraic integer in the cyclotomic field of order n ?
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### Irrational roots of unity?

Is it possible to take irrational roots of unity? For example, say I wanted to solve $f(x)=(x+1)^{\sqrt{2}}=1$. I found that one solution is the obvious $x=0$, and another one can be written nicely as ...
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### Splitting $\Phi_{15}$ in irreducible factors over $\mathbb{F}_7$

I have to split $\Phi_{15}$ in irreducible factors over the field $\mathbb{F}_7$. It has been a while that I did this kind of stuff, and to be the honest, I've never really understood this matter. I'd ...
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### Galois group of a cyclotomic extension

Do you know a condition on the field $k$ for that the injection of $\text{Gal}(k[\zeta_n]/k)$ in $(\Bbb Z/n\Bbb Z)^*$ is bijective ? It is the case for $k = \mathbb{Q}$, but not for $k = \mathbb{R}$ ...
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### Number of terms containing primitive root of unity

It is well known that the degree of the n-th cyclotomic polynomial is $\varphi(n)$, where $\varphi$ is the Euler totient function. I define the ${minimal}$ sum to be of the form \begin{align} \xi_0 ...
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### Detect cyclotomic polynomials

I was reading this question: When does a polynomial divide $x^k - 1$ for some $k$? I followed the procedure given by Bill Dubuque in his answer (the "Graeffe" method) for the polynomial $f(x) = x+1$. ...
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### Towards a formula for the Euler $\phi$ function?

$\Phi_n(1)$ and $\Phi_n(-1)$ for the cyclotomic polynomials are well-known. I am now looking for $$\Phi_n(i)$$ and/or $$\Phi_n(-i)$$ with $i$ the complex unit. The reason is : I suppose it is ...
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### Cyclotomic field of $5$ th root of Unity

Question is : Let $K$ denote the field $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$ where $\zeta=e^{\frac{2\pi i}{5}}$ Find $[K:\mathbb{Q}]$ Show that the splitting field of $x^{10}-1$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ is $K$ Find the ...
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### Minimal polynomial for $\zeta+\zeta^5$ for a primitive seventh root of unity $\zeta$

Minimal polynomial for $\zeta+\zeta^5$ for a primitive seventh root of unity $\zeta$ I have asked a similar problem Minimal Polynomial of $\zeta+\zeta^{-1}$ and i tried to repeat similar idea ...
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### Factoring Cyclotomic Polynomials Over $\mathbb{F}_p$.

How can I show that the irreducible factors of the cyclotomic polynomial $\Phi_{p^d-1}(x)$ all have degree $d$ over $\mathbb{F}_p[x]$? I'm particularly interested in a proof using the fact that for ...
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### Multiplicity of roots in finite fields of order prime. [closed]

I am having trouble with completing this question from last years exam (part a and d) Let p be a prime, and $f = x^5-1 = (X-1)(X^4+X^3+X^2+X+1) \in \mathbb{F}_p[X]$ Show: (a) if $p\neq 5$ then every ...
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### When is $(x^n-1)/(x-1)$ a prime number?

Let $x > 1$ and let $n$ be a prime. I'm wondering if a characterization of this is known. That is, what are sufficient and necessary conditions for  \dfrac{x^n-1}{x-1} = 1 + x + x^2 + \cdots + ...
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### Primitive element of the fixed field of a subgroup of the galois group of a prime cyclotomic extension

This is a question on one step in a proof from Dummit and Foote pg. 597. Let $p$ be an odd prime (there isn't much to say for the $p=2$ case) and let $G=\text{Gal}(\mathbb{Q(\zeta_p)}/\mathbb{Q})$ ...
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### Lower bound for cyclotomic polynomials evaluated at an integer

In a paper about Zsigmondy's theorem, there is the following statement as a remark, without proof, nor reference: Let $n, a$ be integers $(\gt1)$ and $q$ a prime divisor of $n=q^{i}.r$, such that ...
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### For $a=\cos(2\pi/n)$, show that $[\mathbb{Q}(a):\mathbb{Q}] = \ldots$

For $a=\cos(2\pi/n)$, show that $[\mathbb{Q}(a):\mathbb{Q}] = \{1 \text{ for } n=1,2; (1/2)\phi(n) \text{ for } n>2\}$. $\phi$ is the Euler totient function which gives the number of coprime ...
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### Intermediate field of $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta_{17})/\mathbb{Q}$ by $\sigma^8$

$\zeta = \zeta_{17}$. As stated, the set up is looking at $Gal(\mathbb{Q}(\zeta_{17})/\mathbb{Q}) \simeq \mathbb{Z}/16\mathbb{Z},$ generated by $\sigma: \zeta \to \zeta^2$. I'm looking for the ...
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### $\zeta$ primitive $n$th root of unity, help showing that $\sqrt{n},\sqrt{-n}\in \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$ under some conditions.

Consider $\zeta$ a primitive $n$th root of unity, show that if $n\equiv 1\mod{4}\implies \sqrt{n}\in \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$ if $n\equiv -1\mod{4}\implies \sqrt{-n}\in \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$. I know that ...
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### Show that $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$ contains one of the two numbers $\sqrt{\pm5}$ and decide which one is contained in $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$.

Let $\zeta$ be the 15th primitive root of unity in $\mathbb{C}$, show that $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$ contains one of the two numbers $\sqrt{\pm5}$ and decide which one is contained in $\mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$. ...
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### Lemma about a prime ideal in a commutative ring with identity

I am trying to prove the Cyclotomic polynomial is irreducible over $\mathbb{Q}[x]$ for any prime $p$ using Eisenstein's Criterion. However, I would like to be more specific and prove the following ...
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### Why are two statements about a polynomial equivalent?

I am reading a claim that the following two statements are equivalent. One of the roots of a polynomial $v(t)$ is a $2^j$-th root of unity, for some $j$. The polynomial $v(t)$ is divisible either by ...
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### Cyclotomic polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}/(p)$

Let $p$ be prime, $n \in \mathbb{N}$ and $p \nmid n$. $\Phi_n$ is the $n$-th cyclotomic polynomial. How can I find the maximum $n \in \mathbb{N}$ (with $p \nmid n)$ so that $\Phi_n$ splits into ...
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### Roots of unity in a residue field of a Cyclotomic extension

Neukirch makes the following assertion in Algebraic Number Theory: Let $L = \mathbb{Q}(\zeta)$ where $\zeta$ is a primitve $n$th root of unity. Let $p$ be an integer coprime to $n$. For any prime ...
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### Is is true that $\zeta$ has finite order?

Let $\zeta$ be a complex number on the unit circle $\{z\in \mathbb{C}: |z|=1\}$.Suppose that $[\mathbb{Q}(\zeta):\mathbb{Q}] < \infty$.Is it true that $\zeta ^n=1$ for some positive integer $n$?
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### Roots of Unity: Sums, Products, and Field Extensions

(1) I have to prove the following: $\forall p \in \mathbb{P} \setminus \left\{ {2}\right\}, \sum_{k=1}^{p-1}(\zeta_{p}^{k})=-1$ where $\mathbb{P}=\left\{ {p\in \mathbb{Z}:p>0, prime}\right\}$. ...
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### Isomorphism betwixt a Galois Group and the set of $n$th roots of unity

Let $p \in \mathbb{P}$ and $n \in \mathbb{N}: p \nmid n$; the set of $n$th roots of unity be $W_n$; $\mathbb{F}$ be a field$: char(\mathbb{F}) \in \left\{ {0,p}\right\}, \mathbb{F} \supseteq W_n$ (set ...
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### Irreducibility of $X^n-a$

Let ${\mathbb K}$ be a subfield of ${\mathbb C}$. Let $a\in{\mathbb K}$ such that $X^d-a$ has no root in ${\mathbb K}$, for any divisor $d>1$ of $n$. Does it follow that $X^n-a$ is irreducible ...
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### Cyclotomic polynomial - coefficient

For a polynomial $f=X^n+a_1X^{n-1}+\ldots+a_n \in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ we define $\varphi(f):=a_1 \in \mathbb{Q}$. Now I want to show that for the $n$th cyclotomic polynomial $\Phi_n$ it holds that ...
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### Modulo factoring of cyclotomic polynomials

The excercise is to factorize $\Phi_7$ into irreducible factors modulo $2$. A theorem in my course: Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field of characteristic $p$ and $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that ...
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### Beating Gauss on Irreducibility of Cyclotomic Polynomials?

I am considering how to provide an alternative proof of the lemma used in the proof that $\Phi_n$ is irreducible: Lemma: If $\Phi_n=f_1 f_2\cdots f_r$ is a factorization into monic irreducible ...
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### The cyclotomic polynomial $g_m$ is irreducible over $\mathbb{Z}_p$ if and only if $U(\mathbb{Z}_m)$ is a cyclic group generated by $\bar{p}$.

Let $p$ be a prime which does not divide $m$ and $\alpha$ be a primitive $m^{th}$ root of unity over $\mathbb{Z}_p$. Let $k$ be the order of $\bar{p}=p (\mod m)$ in the group of units in ...
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### irreducible polynomial of $\alpha$ over $\mathbb{Q}$ and $[\mathbb{Q}(\alpha):\mathbb{Q}]$.

Let $\epsilon=\exp({\frac{2i\pi}{9}})$ and $\mathbb{Q}(\epsilon)$ be a cyclotomic extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ of order 9. (i) Sketch the entire lattice diagram of subfields of $\mathbb{Q}(\epsilon)$. ...
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### Roots of unity modulo $p$

Let $f(X)$ be the minimal polynomial of something like $\zeta + \frac{1}{\zeta}$, where $\zeta$ is a primitive $p$-th root of unity for some prime $p > 2$. I'd like to show that \$f(X) \equiv ...