Questions on coordinate systems, a geometric method where a point in n-dimensions is assigned a corresponding n-tuple of numbers.

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19
votes
1answer
400 views

Infinite staircase to a circle

Suppose you start at $(0,0)$ on the unit disc and repeat the following procedure again and again: Face east and walk half-way to the circumference. Face north and walk half-way to the circumference. ...
14
votes
2answers
199 views

Was there some prior idea that inspired both Fermat & Descartes to invent coordinates?

It seems incredible to me that both Descartes & Fermat could have both simultaneously discovered such a novel & significant idea, without there being some single prior idea that they both ...
11
votes
1answer
859 views

Can someone please explain the cube to sphere mapping formula to me?

I am wondering if anyone could explain how the following formula works, it is supposed to take the input as a point on a cube then map that to points on a sphere, please go gentle on me, I'm in 9th ...
9
votes
4answers
4k views

Simple proof of integration in polar coordinates?

In every example I saw of integration in polar coordinates the Jacobian determinant is used, not that i have a problem with the Jacobian, but I wondered if there's a simpler way to show this which ...
9
votes
2answers
180 views

Is there any way to find the equation for this situation?

$\mathbb N = \{1,2,3,4\dots\}$ Let us suppose we are starting at a point with coordinates $(0,0)$. Now draw a line from $(0,0)$ to $(1,0)$ and from $(1,0)$ to $(1,2)$. Now by the Pythagorean theorem, ...
8
votes
4answers
512 views

Is there any good reason why a protractor starts from right to left, unlike a scale, which starts from left to right?

While studying through the number system, i notice that positive side is from 0 to +ve infinity. The direction is left to right. However, this is opposite in case of angles. The sort of curved number ...
8
votes
2answers
3k views

Plotting in the Complex Plane

I just wonder how do you plot a function on the complex plane? For example,$$f(z)=\left|\dfrac{1}{z}\right|$$ What is the difference plotting this function in the complex plane or real plane?
8
votes
3answers
284 views

Direct formula for area of a triangle formed by three lines, given their equations in the cartesian plane.

I read this formula in some book but it didn't provide a proof so I thought someone on this website could figure it out. What it says is: If we consider 3 non-concurrent, non parallel lines ...
7
votes
2answers
375 views

How do I convert a vector field in Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates?

I have a vector field in terms of $\mathbf{\hat i}$, $\mathbf{\hat j}$, and $\mathbf{\hat k}$, $$\mathbf{F} = x\mathbf{\hat i} + y\mathbf{\hat j} + z\mathbf{\hat k}$$ How do I convert it to the ...
7
votes
1answer
490 views

Is the “Constant Rank Theorem” the same as the “Domain Straightening Theorem”? Which theorem is which?

Wikipedia says that the inverse function theorem is a special case of the "constant rank theorem". I'm pretty sure this is supposed to be the same theorem as the "Rank Theorem" on p. 47 of Boothby ...
6
votes
4answers
12k views

finding out the area of a triangle if the coordinates of the three vertices are given

What is the simplest way to find out the area of a triangle if the coordinates of the three vertices are given in x-y plane? One approach is to find the length of each side from the coordinates given ...
6
votes
1answer
395 views

Minimum number of lines covering n points

Let there be n points in the plane. I want to know the minimum number of horizontal and vertical lines covering all the points in the plane. My initial approach started like this, 1) for each point I ...
6
votes
1answer
143 views

What do we know about non linear coordinate systems?

I first learned about coordinate systems by Gelfand and I knew that we basically have two axis x and y with origin O and some unit vectors $\hat i$ and $\hat j$ and if $\vec{OA}=x\hat i+y\hat j$ then ...
6
votes
1answer
251 views

Describing co-ordinate systems in 3D for which Laplace's equation is separable

Laplace's Equation in 3 dimensions is given by $$\nabla^2f=\frac{ \partial^2f}{\partial x^2}+\frac{ \partial^2f}{\partial z^2}+\frac{ \partial^2f}{\partial y^2}=0$$ and is a very important PDE in ...
5
votes
2answers
301 views

Question about the nature of coordinate systems

I couldn't really think of a good one line title for my question, so I will try to elaborate. From what I have sort of gathered over my years, if you want to locate an arbitrary point in an ...
5
votes
1answer
211 views

Are spherical coordinates unique orthogonal coordinates on sphere?

Spherical coordinates on unit sphere are defined by the following transformation: $$\begin{cases}x=\sin\theta\cos\varphi\\ y=\sin\theta\sin\varphi\\ z=\cos\theta\end{cases}$$ Are these coordinates ...
5
votes
2answers
125 views

Why does it always take n numbers to characterize a point in n-dimensional space (or does it)?

I don't know if this is obvious and a dumb question or not, but, here we go. To characterize a point in 2-d space we can use standard $x,y$ coordinates or we can use polar coordinates. There are ...
5
votes
3answers
156 views

Alternative form of equation of circle?

In a problem set I was solving, one of the solutions used the equation of a circle in the form $$(x-h)^2 + (y-k)^2 + \lambda(ax + by +c) = 0$$ where, $(h,k)$ is any point on the circle $ax+by+c ...
5
votes
3answers
326 views

move a point up and down along a sphere

I have a problem where i have a sphere and 1 point that can be anywhere on that sphere's surface. The Sphere is at the center point (0,0,0). I now need to get 2 new points, 1 just a little below the ...
5
votes
1answer
970 views

Calculate average latitude / longitude

I have the array of geographical coordinates (latitude & longitude). What is the best way to calculate average latitude and longitude? Thanks!
5
votes
1answer
160 views

Using paraboloidal coordinates

I have the 3-dimensional paraboloidal coordinates $$s_{\pm}=\sqrt{x^2+y^2+z^2}\pm z$$ $$\phi=ArcTan(y/x)$$ with the inverse transformation $$x=\sqrt{s_+ \cdot s_-}\cdot cos(\phi)$$ $$y=\sqrt{s_+ ...
5
votes
1answer
230 views

Jacobian of Fourier Transformation

I am trying to calculate the Jacobian determinate of the Fourier transform which I stumbled upon when studying the Path Integral in Quantum Field Theory. I know the answer should be $1$ but I don't ...
5
votes
1answer
145 views

Coordinate Transformations

I am physics student. My mathematical background is quite weak. I just want to know the similarities (if there are any) between coordinate transformation of two kinds : Rotation of coordinate (and ...
5
votes
1answer
88 views

Transforming a PDE given basis vectors

I have a non-orthogonal coordinate system defined by $\mathbf x=\mathbf x(r,\beta,z)$, and so I can find the basis vectors as $$ \mathbf g_r=\frac{\partial \mathbf x}{\partial r},\quad\mathbf ...
5
votes
2answers
148 views

Cylindrical coordinates on elliptic paraboloids.

I want to compute the volume bounded by: the cylinder $x^2+4y^2=4$. the $z=0$ plane. the elliptic paraboloid $z = x^2 + 6y^2$. I would like to use cylindrical coordinates. However I have never ...
5
votes
0answers
68 views

Elastic wave equation in curvilinear coordinates: how do you perform a coordinate change?

The essence of this question is that I don't know how to convert an equation from Cartesian coordinates into curvilinear coordinates, and would like to know how, preferably using the language of ...
4
votes
1answer
207 views

Number of integer solutions of $xy - 6 (x+y)=0$

What are the number of integer solutions of $xy - 6 (x+y)=0$ with $x\leq y$ is ? Equation $xy - 6 (x+y)=0$ can also be written as $1/x + 1/y = 1/6$
4
votes
1answer
36 views

Formula for the angle of a line $y = mx$ as a function of $m$.

I was wondering if there was a way to calculate the angle made by a line $(\space y=mx)$ in the Cartesian plane using only $m$. I used the Pythagorean theorem in this figure: $$AO= ...
4
votes
2answers
91 views

Number of solutions of a simple equation

Problem How to count the number of distinct integer solutions $(x_1,x_2,\dots,x_n)$ of the equations like : $$|x_1| + |x_2| + \cdots + |x_n| = d $$ the count gives the number of coordinate points ...
4
votes
1answer
50 views

What is the name of two points that share one coordinate?

Is there an adjective to characterize two points in $\mathbb R^2$ that have the same value for one of the coordinates?
4
votes
1answer
3k views

How to find an end point of an arc given another end point, radius, and arc direction?

Given an arbitrary arc, where you know the following values: end point (x1,y1), radius (r) and arc direction (e.g. clockwise or counterclockwise from start to end), how can I calculate the other ...
4
votes
1answer
119 views

Changing local coordinates on a manifold by a diffeomorphism

This is the set up of my problem: Let $M$ be a manifold with local coordinates $x^1,\dots, x^n$. Let $x^1,\dots,x^n,\xi_1,\dots,\xi_n$ denote the induced coordinates on $T^\ast M$. Let $f:M\to M$ be ...
4
votes
1answer
39 views

Family of lines $\sin\alpha x +\sin\beta y +\sin\gamma =0$

Problem : If $\sin(\alpha + \beta)\sin(\alpha -\beta) =\sin\gamma (2\sin\beta +\sin\gamma), 0 < \alpha , \beta ,\gamma <\pi$ then the family of lines $\sin\alpha x +\sin\beta y +\sin\gamma =0$ ...
4
votes
2answers
162 views

Coordinates of parallel triangle with a distance of 'd' between the parallel edges?

I have a triangle with Co-ordinates $\{(x_1,y_1),(x_2,y_2),(x_3,y_3)\}$. I need to find co-ordinates of a triangle,whose edges are exactly $\alpha$ distance from previous triangle. Below is the figure ...
4
votes
2answers
398 views

How to solve an overdetermined system of point mappings via rotation and translation

I have a set of points in one coordinate system $P_1, \ldots, P_n$ and their corresponding points in another coordinate system $Q_1, \ldots , Q_n$. All points are in $\mathbb{R}^3$. I'm looking for a ...
4
votes
1answer
58 views

Find the maximum length of a line segment enclosed in a given area

$A = \{ (x, y) : x = u + v , y = v , (u^2) + (v^2) \le 1 \}$ . Then what is the maximum length of a line segment enclosed in this area? My friend suggested the answer $\sqrt{5}$, but I think it ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

derivatives transformation

I'm currently doing a calculation for the connection coefficients using the standard space-time coordinates, namely x[0],x[1],x[2],x[3]. The setup is a spherically symmetric problem. In my ...
4
votes
2answers
376 views

How to calculate x,y position of 3D points?

I have points in 3D system like this $$p1=(2,3,4)$$ $$p2=(3,5,5)$$ Here I would like draw point $p1$ and $p2$ in $2D$ view. Project type = orthographic. Coordinate system = Cartesian X- axis, ...
4
votes
1answer
88 views

Calculate the X,Y values of an ellipse

I guess am confused somewhere. I have the length(l) and breadth(b) of an ellipse enclosing rectangle. I know the center point and the angle(x) that the line makes with the center. I want to know the ...
4
votes
0answers
42 views

Solving a system of equations

I'm trying to prove the existence of a solution to the system of equations $$c_i = \gamma x_i + (1-\gamma) \frac{x_i^2}{\sum_{j=1}^\infty x_j}$$ for $i\in\{1,2,....\}$ where $\sum c_i=1$. I am also ...
4
votes
0answers
207 views

Orthogonal Coordinate Systems Intuition

I'd really love it if you could give some intuition on how to derive the $x$, $y$ & $z$ coordinates from all/any of the orthogonal coordinate systems in this list, how you think about, say, ...
3
votes
3answers
303 views

What is wrong with this method for a rotated and shifted parabola?

$(x+2y)^2=4(x-y)$ Disecting the above parabola is the question. (vertex, axis,tangent at vertex,etc). So at first what I thought of was making its equations at LHS and RHS perpendicular. I thought ...
3
votes
3answers
531 views

Tetrahedron problem (proving)

Prove that if $P$ is the intersection of the altitudes of a tetrahedron $ABCD$ and $r$ is the circumradius then $PA^2+PB^2+PC^2+PD^2=4\cdot r^2$.
3
votes
4answers
1k views

Why do we draw the $xyz$ coordinate system like this?

Usually people (including, for instance, Calculus teachers) draw the $xyz$ coordinate system in such a way that the $y$ and $z$ axes are perpendicular to each other: Imagine I actually got three ...
3
votes
2answers
2k views

How to transform a Laplacian operator from (x,y) coordinate system to polar system?

for any functions in $C_2^2$, we have a $-D^2$ operator $-D^2u=-(u_{xx}+u_{yy})$ However now i need to transform this operator from $(x,y)$ to $(r,\theta)$ for some sphere boundary condition, how am ...
3
votes
2answers
554 views

Quick question regarding coordinate geometry

Note: My exam is in about 1 hour and i just realized that i have a unsolved paper, this is one of the questions that i wasn't able to answer from it. I would highly appreciate it if a full explanation ...
3
votes
3answers
6k views

Convert coordinates from Cartesian system to non-orthogonal axes

I have a 2D coordinate system defined by two non-perpendicular axes. I wish to convert from a standard Cartesian (rectangular) coordinate system into mine. Any tips on how to go about it?
3
votes
3answers
206 views

Drawing a Right Triangle With Legs Not Parallel to x/y Axes?

I have been presented with an interesting problem. How can I decide whether a right triangle with given side lengths can be placed (with integer coordinate vertices) on a Cartesian plane so that the ...
3
votes
3answers
233 views

Two questions for coordinate geometry

Note: I am burning through dozens of questions from sample papers and these i couldnt understand, these are not homework and i would appreciate it if the full answer could be provided. The first ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

Check if line intersects with circles perimeter

Say I have this circle here. What would be an algorithm to check if lines like the green or blue lines intersect the edge of the circle, but not the red line. So lets say ...