Questions on coordinate systems, a geometric method where a point in n-dimensions is assigned a corresponding n-tuple of numbers.

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13
votes
2answers
179 views

Was there some prior idea that inspired both Fermat & Descartes to invent coordinates?

It seems incredible to me that both Descartes & Fermat could have both simultaneously discovered such a novel & significant idea, without there being some single prior idea that they both ...
10
votes
1answer
697 views

Can someone please explain the cube to sphere mapping formula to me?

I am wondering if anyone could explain how the following formula works, it is supposed to take the input as a point on a cube then map that to points on a sphere, please go gentle on me, I'm in 9th ...
9
votes
2answers
155 views

Is there any way to find the equation for this situation?

$\mathbb N = \{1,2,3,4\dots\}$ Let us suppose we are starting at a point with coordinates $(0,0)$. Now draw a line from $(0,0)$ to $(1,0)$ and from $(1,0)$ to $(1,2)$. Now by the Pythagorean theorem, ...
8
votes
4answers
355 views

Is there any good reason why a protractor starts from right to left, unlike a scale, which starts from left to right?

While studying through the number system, i notice that positive side is from 0 to +ve infinity. The direction is left to right. However, this is opposite in case of angles. The sort of curved number ...
6
votes
4answers
3k views

Simple proof of integration in polar coordinates?

In every example I saw of integration in polar coordinates the Jacobian determinant is used, not that i have a problem with the Jacobian, but I wondered if there's a simpler way to show this which ...
6
votes
1answer
227 views

Minimum number of lines covering n points

Let there be n points in the plane. I want to know the minimum number of horizontal and vertical lines covering all the points in the plane. My initial approach started like this, 1) for each point I ...
6
votes
0answers
403 views

Is the “Constant Rank Theorem” the same as the “Domain Straightening Theorem”? Which theorem is which?

Wikipedia says that the inverse function theorem is a special case of the "constant rank theorem". I'm pretty sure this is supposed to be the same theorem as the "Rank Theorem" on p. 47 of Boothby ...
5
votes
2answers
255 views

Question about the nature of coordinate systems

I couldn't really think of a good one line title for my question, so I will try to elaborate. From what I have sort of gathered over my years, if you want to locate an arbitrary point in an ...
5
votes
2answers
117 views

Why does it always take n numbers to characterize a point in n-dimensional space (or does it)?

I don't know if this is obvious and a dumb question or not, but, here we go. To characterize a point in 2-d space we can use standard $x,y$ coordinates or we can use polar coordinates. There are ...
5
votes
2answers
2k views

Plotting in the Complex Plane

I just wonder how do you plot a function on the complex plane? For example,$$f(z)=\left|\dfrac{1}{z}\right|$$ What is the difference plotting this function in the complex plane or real plane?
5
votes
1answer
857 views

Calculate average latitude / longitude

I have the array of geographical coordinates (latitude & longitude). What is the best way to calculate average latitude and longitude? Thanks!
5
votes
1answer
124 views

Jacobian of Fourier Transformation

I am trying to calculate the Jacobian determinate of the Fourier transform which I stumbled upon when studying the Path Integral in Quantum Field Theory. I know the answer should be $1$ but I don't ...
5
votes
1answer
112 views

What do we know about non linear coordinate systems?

I first learned about coordinate systems by Gelfand and I knew that we basically have two axis x and y with origin O and some unit vectors $\hat i$ and $\hat j$ and if $\vec{OA}=x\hat i+y\hat j$ then ...
4
votes
1answer
141 views

Number of integer solutions of $xy - 6 (x+y)=0$

What are the number of integer solutions of $xy - 6 (x+y)=0$ with $x\leq y$ is ? Equation $xy - 6 (x+y)=0$ can also be written as $1/x + 1/y = 1/6$
4
votes
1answer
131 views

Are spherical coordinates unique orthogonal coordinates on sphere?

Spherical coordinates on unit sphere are defined by the following transformation: $$\begin{cases}x=\sin\theta\cos\varphi\\ y=\sin\theta\sin\varphi\\ z=\cos\theta\end{cases}$$ Are these coordinates ...
4
votes
2answers
281 views

How do I convert a vector field in Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates?

I have a vector field in terms of $\mathbf{\hat i}$, $\mathbf{\hat j}$, and $\mathbf{\hat k}$, $$\mathbf{F} = x\mathbf{\hat i} + y\mathbf{\hat j} + z\mathbf{\hat k}$$ How do I convert it to the ...
4
votes
1answer
47 views

What is the name of two points that share one coordinate?

Is there an adjective to characterize two points in $\mathbb R^2$ that have the same value for one of the coordinates?
4
votes
2answers
132 views

Coordinates of parallel triangle with a distance of 'd' between the parallel edges?

I have a triangle with Co-ordinates $\{(x_1,y_1),(x_2,y_2),(x_3,y_3)\}$. I need to find co-ordinates of a triangle,whose edges are exactly $\alpha$ distance from previous triangle. Below is the figure ...
4
votes
3answers
228 views

move a point up and down along a sphere

I have a problem where i have a sphere and 1 point that can be anywhere on that sphere's surface. The Sphere is at the center point (0,0,0). I now need to get 2 new points, 1 just a little below the ...
4
votes
2answers
301 views

How to solve an overdetermined system of point mappings via rotation and translation

I have a set of points in one coordinate system $P_1, \ldots, P_n$ and their corresponding points in another coordinate system $Q_1, \ldots , Q_n$. All points are in $\mathbb{R}^3$. I'm looking for a ...
4
votes
1answer
104 views

Coordinate Transformations

I am physics student. My mathematical background is quite weak. I just want to know the similarities (if there are any) between coordinate transformation of two kinds : Rotation of coordinate (and ...
4
votes
2answers
697 views

derivatives transformation

I'm currently doing a calculation for the connection coefficients using the standard space-time coordinates, namely x[0],x[1],x[2],x[3]. The setup is a spherically symmetric problem. In my ...
4
votes
1answer
117 views

Every conic in $\Bbb{P}^2$ equivalent to $XZ - Y^2$ - what is meant by hint here?

I am looking at Miles Reid's UAG book. There he claims that every projective conic is projectively equivalent to $XZ = Y^2$. He asks to show that $Q$ a non-degenerate quadratic form is such that ...
4
votes
2answers
338 views

How to calculate x,y position of 3D points?

I have points in 3D system like this $$p1=(2,3,4)$$ $$p2=(3,5,5)$$ Here I would like draw point $p1$ and $p2$ in $2D$ view. Project type = orthographic. Coordinate system = Cartesian X- axis, ...
4
votes
0answers
146 views

Describing co-ordinate systems in 3D for which Laplace's equation is separable

Laplace's Equation in 3 dimensions is given by $$\nabla^2f=\frac{ \partial^2f}{\partial x^2}+\frac{ \partial^2f}{\partial z^2}+\frac{ \partial^2f}{\partial y^2}=0$$ and is a very important PDE in ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

Calculate the X,Y values of an ellipse

I guess am confused somewhere. I have the length(l) and breadth(b) of an ellipse enclosing rectangle. I know the center point and the angle(x) that the line makes with the center. I want to know the ...
4
votes
0answers
41 views

Solving a system of equations

I'm trying to prove the existence of a solution to the system of equations $$c_i = \gamma x_i + (1-\gamma) \frac{x_i^2}{\sum_{j=1}^\infty x_j}$$ for $i\in\{1,2,....\}$ where $\sum c_i=1$. I am also ...
3
votes
3answers
218 views

What is wrong with this method for a rotated and shifted parabola?

$(x+2y)^2=4(x-y)$ Disecting the above parabola is the question. (vertex, axis,tangent at vertex,etc). So at first what I thought of was making its equations at LHS and RHS perpendicular. I thought ...
3
votes
3answers
436 views

Tetrahedron problem (proving)

Prove that if $P$ is the intersection of the altitudes of a tetrahedron $ABCD$ and $r$ is the circumradius then $PA^2+PB^2+PC^2+PD^2=4\cdot r^2$.
3
votes
4answers
915 views

Why do we draw the $xyz$ coordinate system like this?

Usually people (including, for instance, Calculus teachers) draw the $xyz$ coordinate system in such a way that the $y$ and $z$ axes are perpendicular to each other: Imagine I actually got three ...
3
votes
2answers
283 views

Quick question regarding coordinate geometry

Note: My exam is in about 1 hour and i just realized that i have a unsolved paper, this is one of the questions that i wasn't able to answer from it. I would highly appreciate it if a full explanation ...
3
votes
3answers
5k views

Convert coordinates from Cartesian system to non-orthogonal axes

I have a 2D coordinate system defined by two non-perpendicular axes. I wish to convert from a standard Cartesian (rectangular) coordinate system into mine. Any tips on how to go about it?
3
votes
3answers
135 views

Two questions for coordinate geometry

Note: I am burning through dozens of questions from sample papers and these i couldnt understand, these are not homework and i would appreciate it if the full answer could be provided. The first ...
3
votes
4answers
645 views

Position of a point with fixed distance between other two points

I have two points, $p_1$ and $p_2$, in a cartesian plane, and a fixed radius, $r$. I want to find the coordinates of another point, $p_3$, that is in the same line of the $p_1$ and $p_2$, and always ...
3
votes
1answer
69 views

Given a set of 2D points (x,y) (cloud of points), find the points that, when connected, will contain all other points

Given a set of 2D points I have to find the points that when connected will form a polygon that contains all the points in the set. A quick example: imagine you have a set ...
3
votes
2answers
78 views

What is (fundamentally) a coordinate system ?

Consider the following construction of vectors and points. Let's start with a vector space, or more specifically a coordinate space $F^N$ over a field $F$ and of $N$ dimensions. The elements of this ...
3
votes
2answers
361 views

Coordinates and distance in higher dimensional spherical and hyperbolic space

For n-dimensional spherical space, it seems to me the representation of points is easiest and most manipulable as unit vectors, with distance being the vector dot product (which is the cosine of the ...
3
votes
2answers
131 views

Check Points are line, triangle, circle or rectangle

How to determine geometric properties of four distinct points in a plane (x1,y1), (x2,y2), (x3,y3), (x4,y4) represented in the 2-D Cartesian coordinate system, whether these four points are on a ...
3
votes
1answer
2k views

How to find an end point of an arc given another end point, radius, and arc direction?

Given an arbitrary arc, where you know the following values: end point (x1,y1), radius (r) and arc direction (e.g. clockwise or counterclockwise from start to end), how can I calculate the other ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Finding the coordinates of an unknown point.

I have 10 points on a 2D plane where I know the $(x,y)$ coordinates of 9 of the points. For 1 point, $p$, I do not know its location. Additionally, I have the distances from each of the known 9 points ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Cauchy-Riemann equations in arbitrary coordinates?

The CR equations in rectangular coordinates can be written as one equation in the following way: $$\frac{\partial f}{\partial x} = \frac{1}{i} \frac{\partial f}{\partial y}$$ Likewise, in polar ...
3
votes
1answer
117 views

Are cartesian coordinates “more fundamental” than other coordinates, and are they inherently tied to $\mathbb R^n$?

Are the Cartesian coordinates more "fundamental" than other coordinate systems? When someone says $\mathbb R^n$ do we implicitly mean the set of points PLUS Cartesian coordinate system? Sometimes I ...
3
votes
1answer
757 views

Calculate Camera Pitch & Yaw To Face Point

How do you calculate pitch & yaw for a camera so that it faces a certain 3D point? Variables Camera X, Y, Z Point X, Y, Z Current Half Solution Currently I know how to calculate the pitch, ...
3
votes
1answer
360 views

Convert LLA (long, lat, alt) to flat earth model

I would like to divide the globe into 1000 $\times$ 1000 meter geodesic squares, and then map any long / lat to the applicable square. The altitude of each block would be the altitude of the earth at ...
3
votes
1answer
369 views

Coordinate transformation

I have some problems with a geometrical calculation. I want to know the coordinates of the point $P_2$ in my coordinate system $A \ (x,y,z)$ as shown in the following figure. Point $P_1$ (in $A \ ...
3
votes
2answers
469 views

Plane and Matrix Question

I have this questions and it's really tough for me. Flat on a plane (with normal N through point P) sits a tank at point Q. The tank's local coordinate system is described by the 3x3 rotation ...
3
votes
1answer
98 views

Inverse of Ulam's spiral

I have a program and I need a function that takes a coordinate as input and returns an integer corresponding to the position in Ulam's spiral. The simple (but slow) way to do this would be to ...
3
votes
1answer
67 views

maximising the angle $\theta$

OK, suppose I have two points in cartesian coordinate system, say $P(x_1,y_1)$ and $Q(x_2,y_2)$. I have a line as well, that is, for simplicity $$y=mx$$ Assuming that $$y_1\neq mx_1,y_2\neq mx_2$$ I ...
3
votes
1answer
94 views

Unusual function format and its partial derivatives.

I came across a function of this format: $z = f(u,v)$ where $u = x^2y^2$ and $v = 5x + 1$ Because this function is not in the same format of the ones I've seen before (explicit or implicit), I don't ...
3
votes
1answer
416 views

Computing gradient in cylindrical polar coordinates using metric?

I am trying to understand coordinate transformations properly (having studied some general relativity in the past). Let us consider the transformation from cartesian to cylindrical coordinates, ...