Convergence of sequences and different modes of convergence.

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14
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496 views

Limit of sequence of growing matrices

Let $$ H=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} 0 & 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 & 0 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 0 & 1/2\\ 0 & 1/2 & 1/2 & 0 \end{array}\right), $$ ...
9
votes
0answers
138 views

Continued fraction with prime reciprocal entries

We know that the reciprocals of the primes form a divergent series. We also know that a necessary and sufficient condition for a continued fraction to converge is that its entries diverge as a series. ...
8
votes
0answers
428 views

Difference of differentiation under integral sign between Lebesgue and Riemann

Here is a consequence of Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem on differentiation under integral sign. Function $f(x, t)$ is differentiable at $x_0$ for almost all $t \in A$, and $t \to f(x, t)$ ...
6
votes
0answers
87 views

Convergence of $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \left (\sum_{j=1}^{k}\frac 1 j\right)^{-k}$

Does $\displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \left (\sum_{j=1}^{k}\frac 1 j\right)^{-k}$ converges ? Let's call the inner sum $a_k$ such that $\displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} (a_k)^{-k}$, applying ...
5
votes
0answers
55 views

Forcing series convergence

The following problem was posed by one of my lecturers: $(z_n)$ a null sequence in $\mathbb{C}$. Does there exist $(\epsilon_n)$ with each $\epsilon_n=\pm 1$ such that: $$\sum_n \epsilon_n ...
5
votes
0answers
52 views

Does this sequence of operators converge in norm or strongly?

Let $H$ be a Hilbert space and $\mathcal{L}(H)$ the set of all bounded linear operators $L:H\to H$, equiped with the usual norm $\|\cdot\|_{\mathcal{L}}$. Let $T:D(T)\subset H\to H$ be a ...
5
votes
0answers
104 views

Can one use $e^n$ instead of $2^n$ in Cauchy condensation test?

Cauchy condensation test is useful for testing the convergence of infinite series. The test is stated here as follows: for a positive non-increasing sequence $f(n)$, the sum $\sum_{n=1}^\infty f(n)$ ...
5
votes
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119 views

$\alpha <1$, series $n^{-\alpha} \sum _{k=1}^n \sin (k^2)$ is bounded

Could you help me answer the question, if there exists $\alpha <1$ such that series $n^{-\alpha} \sum _{k=1}^n \sin (k^2)$ is bounded?
5
votes
0answers
185 views

I need help about some compactness arguments

I need help to find some compact sets for my engineering problem. Through this page I learned quite much about it however since I have neither read a book yet nor have an experience I am not able to ...
4
votes
0answers
206 views

Weak and Probability convergences

I have a question about this book, "Topics in Random Matrices Theory" of Terence Tao. He claims that if $$\int_{\mathbb{R}}\varphi \ ...
4
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0answers
58 views

Prove that $||\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}{x_n}||\le\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}||{x_n}||$ when series $\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}{x_n}$ are absolutely converge?

I think it should be proved that: Since $$||\sum_{n=0}^{N}{x_n}||\le\sum_{n=0}^{N}||{x_n}||$$ so $$\lim_{N\to+\infty}||\sum_{n=0}^{N}{x_n}||\le\lim_{N\to+\infty}\sum_{n=0}^{N}||{x_n}||$$ so ...
4
votes
0answers
39 views

General and basic question about convergence of a series

Let $(a_{i,j})_{i,j=1}^n$ be a sequence of real numbers such that the following series converges $$ S = \lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{i=1}^n\sum_{j=1}^na_{i,j} $$ It is known that for each $i$th the ...
4
votes
0answers
82 views

Using formal power series to solve nasty equations

Consider a function $f:[0,\infty)\times \mathbb R\to\mathbb R$, and suppose that given some $a>0$, I would like to solve for $x\in\mathbb R$ satisfying \begin{align} f(\delta, x) = a. \end{align} ...
4
votes
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89 views

For every space $X$, $C_p(X)$ is a topological group.

I try to show that for every space $X$, $(C_p(X), +)$ where $$+:C_p(X)\times C_p(X)\to C_p(X):(f,g)\mapsto f+g$$ and for every $x\in X$, $(f+g)(x)=f(x)+g(x)$ is a topological group. The family ...
4
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175 views

For infinite series convergence/divergence: Why doesnt meeting the conditions of the Divergence test imply the Cauchy Convergence Critierion

Assume that the limit of the sequence is zero, $\lim_{n\to\infty}a_n=0$. So its not plainly obvious if the series $\sum a_n$ converges or diverges. I have wondered for some time. If ...
4
votes
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157 views

$\sum f_n(x)$ converges absolutely and uniformly in $[a,b]$, but $\sum |f_n(x)|$ doesn't converge uniformly

I'm studying uniform convergence, and am looking for some examples of series $\sum f_n(x)$ that converge absolutely and uniformly in $[a,b]$, but $\sum |f_n(x)|$ does not converge uniformly in the ...
4
votes
0answers
319 views

Interchanging the order of limits

Would you advise me on the references of Pringsheim Convergence about interchanging the order of limits? Where can I find the most general statement?
4
votes
0answers
256 views

How to prove stability of this dynamic system?

I'm trying to prove stability of the following dynamic system but I think my Mathematics knowledge is not deep enough. My dynamic system consists of a state vector $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$. The system ...
3
votes
0answers
31 views

Radius of convergence $\infty$

I need to prove that there is no power series representation for f(x)=|x|. I understand the steps, but I am stuck with one part. Proving by contradiction, we say $\displaystyle \sum_{j=0}^{\infty} ...
3
votes
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36 views

Strongly convergence in L^2

Let the sequence $(f_n(x,u))$ such as, for all $n,$ $f_n$ is Caratheodory, and $|f_n|\leq g$ where $g \in L^1(\Omega)$ Let $u_n \in H^1_0$ such as it is strongly convergent to $u$ in $L^2$ and a.e ...
3
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45 views

A basic problem on weak convergence

Let $f_n$ be $2^n$ times the indicator of the set of $x$ in the unit interval for which the digit from $n+1$ to $2n$ is zero in the dyadic expansion of $x$ (lets call it $A_n$). I have to show that ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

Difference between almost everywhere convergence of whole Fourier series and a subseries of $L^2$ functions

Let $f \in L^2(\mathbb{R})$ and $F_{N}f$ denote the $N$-th partial sum of its Fourier series. Then $||F_{N}f -f||_{L^{2}} \rightarrow 0$ as $N \rightarrow \infty$. But this implies there exists a ...
3
votes
0answers
78 views

Convergence of sequences of sets

Assume we have the indicator function $$I(x) \triangleq \begin{cases} 1, & \quad x \geq 0 \\ 0, & \quad x < 0 \end{cases}$$ and the sequence of its approximation functions $\{ I_{\nu}(x) ...
3
votes
0answers
70 views

Interchange of finite sum with convergence sequences.

Hi everyone I'm wondering if the following proof is correct (to be honest at the beginning I have some troubles to understand what the sequences of the sums of convergent sequences has to be, but I ...
3
votes
0answers
117 views

Show that $(X_{n},Y) \to^{\mathcal{D}} (X,Y)$ AND if $X=h(Y)$ where $h$ is a Borel function that $X_{n}\to^{P} X$

Let $X_{n}$, $X$, and $Y$ be real-valued r.v.'s all defined on the same space $(\Omega, \mathcal{A},\mathbb P)$. Assume that $\lim_{n \to \infty}\mathbb E\{f(X_{n})g(Y)\}=\mathbb E\{f(X)g(Y)\}$ ...
3
votes
0answers
57 views

convergence of series implies convergence of coefficients

Is it true that $$\sum_{i=0}^\infty a_{i_n} y^i \rightarrow \sum_{i=0}^\infty a_{i} y^i \quad \forall y \in [0,1]$$ implies $$a_{i_n} \to_{n \to \infty} a_{i} \quad \forall i$$ where $0 \leq ...
3
votes
0answers
130 views

derivative of limit function vs limit of derivatives

Suppose that we have a sequence of differentiable functions $f_n:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $f_n$ converges to some function $f$. Then it is not necessary that the sequence of ...
3
votes
0answers
52 views

How general is the convergence of the exponential function's power series?

Let $\mathbf{V}$ be a Fréchet space whose underlying set is $V$. Let $\;\; \beta \: : \: V\times V \: \to \: V \;\;$ be a continuous bilinear map that has an identity element and is ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

maximum renewal rate of a Markov chain

Consider a Markov chain $(X_t)$ on a state-space with a countably generated $\sigma$-algebra and assume this Markov chain allows for small sets of order one. This means there exist sets $\mathfrak{S}$ ...
3
votes
0answers
111 views

sequence convergence

Assume all terms $a(n) >0$ , $\sqrt{a(1)}\geqslant 1 +\sqrt{a(0)}$, and $$\left|\dfrac{a(n+1)}{a(n)}-\dfrac{a(n)}{a(n-1)}\right|\leqslant \dfrac{1}{a(n)} $$ for all $n>0$. Prove that ...
3
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0answers
156 views

Cluster point of $a_{n}:=n+(-1)^{n}n$

I am trying to find the cluster point of the sequence $a_{n}:=n+(-1)^nn$. Can you please check my solution? The subsequence diverges for increasing even $n$ since $2n$ grows infinitely. The ...
3
votes
0answers
124 views

Infinite product convergence

Reading some notes I have taken during class, I am unable to see the connection between these lines: $g(z)=\prod_{k\geqslant 0}(2z\lambda_k + 1)$, where $\lambda_k=4/((2k+1)^2 \pi^2)$ And The zeroes ...
3
votes
0answers
137 views

Cauchy criterion

We know that the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \dfrac{1}{n(n+1)}$ coverge to 1. I want use Cauchy criterion to show the series converges as an exercise. Is the following proof correct? Given $\epsilon ...
3
votes
0answers
61 views

The existence of the limit $\lim_{n\to\infty} S_{i_n}\circ…\circ S_{i_1}(x)=x_0$ for some $i_1, i_2,…\leq N$

Let $(X,\rho)$ be a Polish space. We are given continuous functions $S_i: X\rightarrow X$ ($i=1,...,N$) and a constant $0<r<1$. We assume the following: For each $x,y \in X$ there exists ...
3
votes
0answers
196 views

Convergence of sequence in $C^{k, \alpha}$ composed with $C^\infty$ function

Is it true that if a sequence $u_n \to u$ in $C^{k, \alpha}$ norm, and if you have a function $f \in C^\infty$, then $f(u_n) \to f(u)$ in $C^{k, \alpha}$? I think so, since this is true for ordinary ...
3
votes
0answers
310 views

Uniform convergence of analytic functions

Let $f_{n}(z), g(z)$ be entire functions, for all $n\geq 1$. Suppose that $g(x)$ doesn't vanish on $\mathbb H\cup\mathbb R$ (so we have $\frac{f_{n}(z)}{g(z)}$ analytic on $\mathbb H\cup\mathbb R$). ...
3
votes
0answers
171 views

How to prove that $\lim_{\lambda \rightarrow 0} f*h_\lambda (x)=f(x) $ a.e.

Assume that $h_\lambda(x)=\frac{1}{\pi} \frac{\lambda}{\lambda^2+x^2}$, for $\lambda>0$, $x \in \mathbb{R}$. I know that if $f\in L^p$ then $\lim_{\lambda \rightarrow 0} \|f*h_\lambda -f\|_p =0$, ...
3
votes
0answers
128 views

Uniform convergence of measures

Let $A\subset[0,1]^n\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a closed semi-algebraic set. Let $f_k: [0,1]\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, $f_k(x_i)=\mu^{n-1}(A_{|_{x_i}}+B^{n-1}_{1/k})$ where $A_{|_{x_i}}=A\cap H^i_{x_i}$ ...
3
votes
0answers
132 views

Convergence of marginal distribution in the case of convergence in distribution

Suppose a random variable $Z_n=(X_n,Y_n)$ takes a value on $A= [0,1] \times B=[0,1]$. We can consider a conditional distribution of $Y_n$ given the realized value of $X_n$. Now suppose $Z_n$ converges ...
3
votes
0answers
148 views

Uniform convergence of a series

This problem came from the Krantz text ($2^{nd}$ ed. ch. 9, prob. 17): Prove that the series $\displaystyle\sum_{j=1}^{\infty }{\frac{\sin{(jx)}}{j}}$ converges uniformly on compact intervals that do ...
3
votes
0answers
155 views

Hölder Condition Implying Uniform Convergence

Define $g(z)=\frac{1}{2\pi i}\int_{-k}^k \frac{h(\zeta)}{\zeta-z}d\zeta$, where $h$ is continuous and defined on $[-k,k]$. Let $|h(x)-h(y)|\leq |x-y|^\alpha$ for all $x,y\in[-k,k]$ and for some ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

When to Interchange Limit & Integral

I really got stuck in the proof of Cauchy's Integral Formula for higher derivatives: Under what Conditions over a function $f$, we can infer that : $\displaystyle\lim_{h\rightarrow ...
2
votes
0answers
34 views

Does this condition imply convergence of $\sum_k x_k$?

Let $\{x_n\}_{n \geq 1}$ be a sequence of real numbers (in principle, they could be complex numbers, but I don't think this makes much of a difference for this problem). Suppose the sequence $x_n$ ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Convergence of Iteration with Sum

Consider a continuous function $f: \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^n$, and the iteration $$ x_{k+1} = \frac{1}{k} \sum_{i=1}^{k} f( x_i ) $$ for some given initial condition $x_1 \in ...
2
votes
0answers
41 views

False convergence result

I wrote a proof below that if A(n) is decreasing and lim A(n) = 0 for some sequence, then the corresponding series must converge. I know this is false, with the harmonic series as a counterexample, so ...
2
votes
0answers
69 views

Convergence of a sequence pointwise a.e. on a manifold given that it converges on a reference manifold

Let $\Gamma_t$ be a compact hypersurface for each $t \in [0,T]$. Let $Q=\Gamma_0\times(0,T)$ and $$Q_T :=\bigcup_{t \in (0,T)} \Gamma_t \times \{t\}.$$ For each $t \in [0,T]$, suppose that ...
2
votes
0answers
82 views

Infinitely differentiable function with divergent Taylor series?

I'd greatly appreciate it if someone could provide examples of the following: 1) A infinitely differentiable function whose Taylor series does not converge to the function. 2) An infinitely ...
2
votes
0answers
33 views

Are all functions in a Banach space convergent?

Are all functions in a Banach space convergent? I need this answer in a study of wavelet analysis. My thoughts are: since we have this definition: Let $X$ be a Banach space. A sequence of vectors ...
2
votes
0answers
30 views

Monotone convergence for monotone functions in BV

For $n \geq 1$ let $f, f_n : [0, 1] \to \mathbb{R}$ be monotone nonincreasing functions. Suppose that $f_n \nearrow f$ pointwise monotonically as $n \to \infty$. Is then $\mathrm{TV}(f - f_n) \to 0$ ...
2
votes
0answers
110 views

Unordered summation

I have a question regard unordered sumation. Definitions: Let $X$ be a set (possible uncountable) and let $f: X\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a function. We say that $\sum _{x\in X}f(x)$ converges ...