Convergence of sequences and different modes of convergence.

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39
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2k views

Limit of sequence of growing matrices

Let $$ H=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} 0 & 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 & 0 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 0 & 1/2\\ 0 & 1/2 & 1/2 & 0 \end{array}\right), $$ ...
10
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193 views

Continued fraction with prime reciprocal entries

We know that the reciprocals of the primes form a divergent series. We also know that a necessary and sufficient condition for a continued fraction to converge is that its entries diverge as a series. ...
8
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93 views

Does $\sum_n |\sin n|^{cn^2}$ converge?

So I recently asked a question about convergence of $\sum_n |\sin n|^{cn}$ for arbitrary $c > 0$ and it turns out that the terms of the series don't even converge, for any $c > 0$, so the series ...
8
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256 views

Approximation of the exponential

Let $c>1,k\in\mathbb{N}$. Let's consider two approximations of the exponential function : The first one is the most common one $f_k(x)=\left(1+\frac{x}{c^k}\right)^{c^k}$ and the second one is ...
7
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124 views

Consider the problem minimize $f(x)= x^4 −1. $

I am studying for a test and I found this problem in the textbook that I'm using, there may be a conceptual problem that I'm coming across. My test is on unconstrained optimization (multi-variable) ...
6
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182 views

How do I evaluate this sum :$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin(n!)}{\cos(n!)}$?

How do I evaluate this sum :$$\displaystyle\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{\sin(n!)}{\cos(n!)}$$ Note : I used many criterions of convergence to show if it converges but i didn't up. Thank you for any ...
6
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167 views

Does $\displaystyle \lim_{m \to +\infty}f_{2,m}(x)$ converge?

This is related to a previous question where, as stated there, $f_{2}(n)$ gives the greatest power of $2$ that divides $n$. Specifically the sequence $\lbrace ...
5
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147 views

Sobolev spaces and using monotone convergence theorem (don't understand a paper)

I'm reading this paper. In it there the following argument (see page 240). Firstly, what precisely does the author mean by the displayed equation after 66? The PDE in (65) only holds weakly.. ...
5
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259 views

Weak and Probability convergences

I have a question about this book, "Topics in Random Matrices Theory" of Terence Tao. He claims that if $$\int_{\mathbb{R}}\varphi \ ...
5
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135 views

Can one use $e^n$ instead of $2^n$ in Cauchy condensation test?

Cauchy condensation test is useful for testing the convergence of infinite series. The test is stated here as follows: for a positive non-increasing sequence $f(n)$, the sum $\sum_{n=1}^\infty f(n)$ ...
5
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145 views

$\alpha <1$, series $n^{-\alpha} \sum _{k=1}^n \sin (k^2)$ is bounded

Could you help me answer the question, if there exists $\alpha <1$ such that series $n^{-\alpha} \sum _{k=1}^n \sin (k^2)$ is bounded?
5
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213 views

I need help about some compactness arguments

I need help to find some compact sets for my engineering problem. Through this page I learned quite much about it however since I have neither read a book yet nor have an experience I am not able to ...
5
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271 views

For infinite series convergence/divergence: Why doesnt meeting the conditions of the Divergence test imply the Cauchy Convergence Critierion

Assume that the limit of the sequence is zero, $\lim_{n\to\infty}a_n=0$. So its not plainly obvious if the series $\sum a_n$ converges or diverges. I have wondered for some time. If ...
4
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77 views

Positivity of alternating series

Let $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^{\infty}$ be a sequence of positive real numbers such that $\limsup_n \frac{1}{n}\log a_n=-\infty$. Then $$ f(x)=\sum_{n\geq 0}a_n x^n $$ converges absolutely for all $x$. Under ...
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40 views

Questionable Convergence of a Series

The summation is: $$ S = \sum_{k \geq 0} f(k) \int_{0}^{\pi/2} \sqrt{1-(1- \frac{f(k+1)^2}{f(k)^2})\sin^2(\theta)}d\theta $$ Now, we know that $f(k+1) < f(k)$ and as $k$ approaches infinity, ...
4
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39 views

Prove that the Weierstrass-type function is nowhere differentiable

Given $0<\alpha\leq1$. Show that the function $$f(x)=\sum_{j=1}^\infty 2^{-j\alpha}\sin(2^jx)$$ is nowhere differentiable. I have solved the case $x=0$. Taking $t_l=2^{-l-1}\pi$, then ...
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52 views

My proof of: Every convergent real sequence is a Cauchy sequence.

Is my proof correct? Let $(x_n)_{ n \in \mathbb{N} }$ be a real sequence. $\textbf{Definition 1.}$ $(x_n)$ is $\textit{convergent}$ iff there is an $x \in \mathbb{R}$ such that, for every ...
4
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110 views

Infinite Double Exponential Sum, with Functional Equation $g(x) = g(\sqrt{x})$

What is a closed form for $$ \sum_{-\infty}^{\infty}\frac{x^{2^i}(x^{2^i}-1)}{(x^{2^{i+2}}+1)} $$ The series has the form: $$... \frac{x^{\frac{1}{4}}(x^{\frac{1}{4}}-1)}{x+1} + ...
4
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45 views

A conditional normal rv sequence, does the mean converges in probability

$X_1, X_2, \dots, X_n$, are $n$ mutually independent r.v.s. $Y_1,\dots,Y_n$ are another set of mutually independent r.v.s. $X_k\mid Y_k=y_k\sim N(y_k,y_k^2)$ and $Y_k\sim\text{uniform}(-k,k)$ for ...
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80 views

Methods of constructing rapidly convergent series

It's fairly easy to see that the series $$1-\tfrac{1}{3}+\tfrac{1}{5}-\cdots=\tfrac{1}{4}\pi$$ is : 1. Convergent to the value given, and - 2. Very slowly converging, which can be seen just by ...
4
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67 views

Modes of convergence in infinite direct sums of $L^{2}$ spaces

It is known that if a sequence of random variables converges in norm then there exists a subsequence which converges almost surely. That is: let $\left(X_{n}\right)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}\subseteq ...
4
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108 views

Compact family of Lip functions under the sup norm metric, proof verification.

Hi everyone I'd like to know if the following is correct, I'd appreciate your opinion and also any suggestion to improve my argument. Thanks in advance for your time. If $(K,d)$ is a compact ...
4
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92 views

Riemann Zeta Function Analytic Continuation

I am struggling to understand how the analytic continuation of the Riemann Zeta function is derived to extend it to all complex values $z$ not equal to $1$, starting with the series which converges ...
4
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60 views

How to integrate scalar field over quarter torus? Infinite series does not converge.

This seems to be physics question, but the problem just concerns math. Preface If one wants to calculate the permeance $P$ of a rectangular bar: it is an easy task: $$P = \frac{\mu a b}{L} ...
4
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55 views

Strongly convergence in L^2

Let the sequence $(f_n(x,u))$ such as, for all $n,$ $f_n$ is Caratheodory, and $|f_n|\leq g$ where $g \in L^1(\Omega)$ Let $u_n \in H^1_0$ such as it is strongly convergent to $u$ in $L^2$ and a.e ...
4
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67 views

Prove that $||\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}{x_n}||\le\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}||{x_n}||$ when series $\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}{x_n}$ are absolutely converge?

I think it should be proved that: Since $$||\sum_{n=0}^{N}{x_n}||\le\sum_{n=0}^{N}||{x_n}||$$ so $$\lim_{N\to+\infty}||\sum_{n=0}^{N}{x_n}||\le\lim_{N\to+\infty}\sum_{n=0}^{N}||{x_n}||$$ so ...
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42 views

General and basic question about convergence of a series

Let $(a_{i,j})_{i,j=1}^n$ be a sequence of real numbers such that the following series converges $$ S = \lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{i=1}^n\sum_{j=1}^na_{i,j} $$ It is known that for each $i$th the ...
4
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102 views

Using formal power series to solve nasty equations

Consider a function $f:[0,\infty)\times \mathbb R\to\mathbb R$, and suppose that given some $a>0$, I would like to solve for $x\in\mathbb R$ satisfying \begin{align} f(\delta, x) = a. \end{align} ...
4
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93 views

For every space $X$, $C_p(X)$ is a topological group.

I try to show that for every space $X$, $(C_p(X), +)$ where $$+:C_p(X)\times C_p(X)\to C_p(X):(f,g)\mapsto f+g$$ and for every $x\in X$, $(f+g)(x)=f(x)+g(x)$ is a topological group. The family ...
4
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170 views

$\sum f_n(x)$ converges absolutely and uniformly in $[a,b]$, but $\sum |f_n(x)|$ doesn't converge uniformly

I'm studying uniform convergence, and am looking for some examples of series $\sum f_n(x)$ that converge absolutely and uniformly in $[a,b]$, but $\sum |f_n(x)|$ does not converge uniformly in the ...
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408 views

Interchanging the order of limits

Would you advise me on the references of Pringsheim Convergence about interchanging the order of limits? Where can I find the most general statement?
4
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360 views

How to prove stability of this dynamic system?

I'm trying to prove stability of the following dynamic system but I think my Mathematics knowledge is not deep enough. My dynamic system consists of a state vector $x \in \mathbb{R}^n$. The system ...
4
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174 views

Hölder Condition Implying Uniform Convergence

Define $g(z)=\frac{1}{2\pi i}\int_{-k}^k \frac{h(\zeta)}{\zeta-z}d\zeta$, where $h$ is continuous and defined on $[-k,k]$. Let $|h(x)-h(y)|\leq |x-y|^\alpha$ for all $x,y\in[-k,k]$ and for some ...
3
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39 views

Coconvergent topology basis?

Consider the space $X=\{\frac1n:n\in\mathbb N_+\}$, with the "coconvergent topology": $$\mathcal O=\{A:(A=\varnothing)\lor(\sum_{x\notin A}x<\infty)\}$$ That is, a nonempty set is open iff its ...
3
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24 views

Limit of $\frac{1}{2^n}\sum_{n=0}^{2^n-1}f(e^\frac{2k\pi}{2^n}i)$ for a complex-analytic function

Let consider a Laurent series $\displaystyle{ \sum_{k\in\mathbb Z}a_kz^k }$ with complex coefficients and converging inside the annulus $A=\{\ z\in\mathbb C\ |\ r<|z|<R\ \}$, with ...
3
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58 views

Prove that $f_n(x)$ is discontinuous at $x = 0$.

I am having problems with the following exercise, I am not sure if my procedure is correct. Exercise: Let $ \large f_n(x)=\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 ~~~if~~x = 0 ...
3
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45 views

Elemenatry topological proof of Erdos conjecture on Arithmetic Sequences

Define $C_n(A) = \{a \in A : \forall d \in \Bbb{N}$ one of $a + d, a +2d, \dots a + (n-1)d$ is not in $A\}$ For $n \leq m$, we have $C_n(A) \subset C_m(A)$. Proof. Let $x$ be in the LHS. Then ...
3
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53 views

$\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sin(nx)}{n^{\alpha}}$ does not converge uniformly for $\alpha \in (0,1]$

The question is, why $\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sin(nx)}{n^{\alpha}}$ does not converge uniformly for $\alpha \in (0,1]$. I have a solution, but I dont understand the estimates, sorry=(. ...
3
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113 views

Almost sure convergence and L1 convergence

I am preparing myself for the mid-term exam of my probability theory exam, and am solving questions from previous years exams. One of these questions I couldn't answer, and so far I haven't found ...
3
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0answers
24 views

Convergence of Arnoldi method

I would like to compute the largest real eigenvalue of a matrix in the following form: $$\begin{bmatrix} 0 & I_n \\ P & Q \end{bmatrix},$$ where $I_n$ is the $n \times n$ identity matrix, $P$, ...
3
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25 views

Product over a factorial convergences

I'm working on a problem and need this to converge to any value: $\displaystyle \frac{(1/2)((1/2)-1)((1/2)-2)\cdots ((1/2)-n+1)}{(n+1)!} = \Pi_{j=1}^{n} \frac{\frac{1}{2} - j+1}{j+1}$ The ...
3
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65 views

Weak vs strong convergence for unitary operators

Suppose $H$ is a separable complex Hilbert space with inner product $(\cdot,\cdot)$ and norm $\|\cdot\|$, where $\|u\|^2 = (u,u)$. Suppose $u, u_1, u_2, \dots \in H$. Then $\lim_{n \to \infty} u_n = ...
3
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0answers
41 views

Did I apply correctly the Lebesgue dominated convergence theorem?

Let's concentrate on $$\int_0^\pi e^{iRe^{i\theta}} i d\theta$$ If $R \to \infty$, this integrand converges pointwise to $0$; plus, the modulus of the function is $= e^{-R\sin\theta} \le ...
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63 views

Book on Convergence Concepts in Probability without Measure Theory

I am looking for a comprehensive book on Probability which discusses Convergence of Random Variables in detail, excluding portions of Measure Theory. Allan Gut's "Probability: A Graduate Course" seems ...
3
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40 views

Approximation of $L^2$ function by smooth functions on a manifold

Let $M$ be a $C^2$ compact Riemannian manifold with boundary. Suppose $f \in L^2(M)$ is such that $0 \leq f \leq 1$. Is it possible to find $f_n \in C^\infty(M)$ such that $0 \leq f_n \leq 1$ for ...
3
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49 views

Trying to show convergence (in probability) of integrals using Taylor expansion

I've been working for a long time now on how to prove a proposition given in a paper about the asymptotic normality of POT-quantile estimators. Hope somebody can help me out. Proposition (i) Let ...
3
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29 views

Properties of digit functions for numbers in $[0,1]$

Consider a function $g(n): \mathbb N \to \{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9\}$, ie. $g$ maps the natural numbers to natural numbers between $0$ and $9$. Then, no matter what $g(n), \ n\in \mathbb N$ is, the sum ...
3
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0answers
46 views

Does $L^{1}$ convergence implies almost everywhere cesaro convergence?

Let $X$ be a compact metric space, $\mu$ a Borel measure and $f_{n} \in L^{1}(X,\mu)$ continuous functions such that $f_{n}(x) \overset {L^{1}} \rightarrow 0 $. Now can we deduce that ...
3
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34 views

Convergence of sum of antiderivative and derivative

This question is inspired by this question: Solutions for $ \frac{dy}{dx}=y $?. It makes me wonder if there are any function where the sum of all antiderivative and derivative converges. The ...
3
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41 views

Asymptotic Bounds for the distribution of $f_n(X_n)$.

Let $\{X_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ be a sequence of $\mathbb{R}^{k}$-valued random variables defined on some probability space $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mathbb{P})$ converging almost surely to $X$. ...