Convergence of sequences and different modes of convergence.

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Which sequences converge in a cofinite topology and what is their limit?

This is an exercise from an earlier calculus 1 reading at my university: Let $X$ be a space containing infinitely many elements. In the cofinite topology, a set $\Omega$ is open iff $\Omega = ...
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Does $\sum{\frac{\sin{(nx)}}{n}}$ converge uniformly for all $x$ in $[0,2\pi]$

This question arises because of a problem I was doing (Bartle 3rd edition, section 9.4 problem 3). It was like this. Given $a_n$ a decreasing sequence of positive numbers and suppose that ...
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2answers
616 views

Stone-Čech compactifications and limits of sequences

I've been working on some old prelims from my university when they used to just be on point-set topology. We don't cover a couple of the topics so I've been teaching myself some of the material, one ...
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2answers
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Prove that if $\sum{a_n}$ converges absolutely, then $\sum{a_n^2}$ converges absolutely

I'm trying to re-learn my undergrad math, and I'm using Stephen Abbot's Understanding Analysis. In section 2.7, he has the following exercise: Exercise 2.7.5 (a) Show that if $\sum{a_n}$ converges ...
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468 views

Convergence of $\sum _{k=1}^\infty \sin \left(\sqrt{k}\right)/k$

This was asked at an oral examination. Does the series $\displaystyle \sum _{k\geq1}\frac{\sin\left(\sqrt{k}\right)}{k}$ converge ? After playing with Mathematica, it's very likely it ...
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1answer
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Monotone Convergence Theorem for non-negative decreasing sequence of measurable functions

Let $(X,\mathcal{M},\mu)$ be a measure space and suppose $\{f_n\}$ are non-negative measurable functions decreasing pointwise to $f$. Suppose also that $\int f_1 \lt \infty$. Then $$\int_X f~d\mu = ...
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276 views

Is there a $k$ such that $a_n=\frac{n^k!}{(n^k!!)^2}$ converges?

Lately I have been playing around with the sequence $$a_n(k) := \frac{n^k!}{(n^k!!)^2}.$$ For $k=1$, it does not look much like it converges. I don't know $k=2$ it converges, but it doesn't really ...
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301 views

For what $t$ does $\lim\limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{1}{n^t} \sum\limits_{k=1}^n \text{prime}(k)$ converge?

The average of all primes is $$\lim\limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{1}{n} \sum_{k=1}^{n} \text{prime}(k) ,$$ which diverges. What is the smallest $r$ such that for $t>r$, $$\lim_{n \to \infty} ...
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Equicontinuity on a compact metric space turns pointwise to uniform convergence

I know that If $\{f_n\}$ is an equicontinuous sequence, defined on a compact metric space $K$, and for all $x$, $f_n(x)\rightarrow f(x)$, then $f_n\rightarrow f$ uniformly. I'm having trouble ...
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How prove this integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}f^{\alpha}(x)dx,\alpha>1$ is convergent

Question: let the function $f(x)\ge 0$,and such $$f'(x)\le\dfrac{1}{2},\forall x\ge 0$$ and this integral $\displaystyle\int_{0}^{\infty}f(x)dx$ is convergent. show that: ...
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Prove the divergence of a particular series, given that another series diverges

Suppose $\{a_i\}_{i\in\mathbb N}$ is an increasing sequence of positive real numbers such that $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{a_n}=+\infty.\tag{1}$$ Then I have to show that also ...
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1answer
232 views

Matrix algorithm convergence

Suppose I start with a $n \times n$ matrix of zeros and ones: $$ \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 1\\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1\\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1\\ 1 ...
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1answer
328 views

Sum of cosines of primes

Let $p_n$ be the nth prime number, $p_1=2,p_2=3,p_3=5,\ldots$ How to prove this series converges/diverges? $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \cos{p_n}$$
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Convergence in topologies

Let $\tau_1\subseteq \tau_2$ be two Hausdorff regular topologies in an infinite set $X$ such that the convergences of sequences in $\tau_1$ and $\tau_2$ coincide (they have the same convergent ...
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351 views

Convergence in $L^1$ space

Suppose that $f_{n}$ is a sequence of measurable functions, in a finite measure space, $f_{n}\to f $ in $m$-measure and that there exists $g$ in $L^1$ such that $\vert f_n\vert \le g$. Prove that ...
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In what spaces does the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem hold?

The Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem says that every bounded sequence in $\Bbb R^n$ contains a convergent subsequence. The proof in Wikipedia evidently doesn't go through for an infinite-dimensional space, ...
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Convergence of the sequence $(1+\frac{1}{n})(1+\frac{2}{n})\cdots(1+\frac{n}{n})$

I have a sequence $(a_n)$ where for each natural number $n$, $$a_n = (1+\frac{1}{n})(1+\frac{2}{n})\cdots(1+\frac{n}{n})$$ and I want to find its limit as $n\to\infty$. I obviously couldn't ...
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Fastest Square Root Algorithm

What is the fastest algorithm for finding the square root of a number? I created one that can find the square root of "987654321" to 16 decimal places in just 20 iterations (I'm not ready to release ...
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Convergence of $a_{n+1}=\frac{1}{1+a_n}$

We define $$a_{n+1}=\frac{1}{1+a_n}, a_0=c> 0$$ I stumbled across that sequence and Mathematica gives me that it converges against $\frac{1}{2} \left(\sqrt{5}-1\right)$ which doesn't even depend ...
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Integral of odd function doesn't converge?

When I look up $$\int_{-1}^1 \dfrac{1}{x} dx$$ on Wolfram Alpha, it says it doesn't converge. While this is a sum of two diverging integrals, the two areas are clearly symmetric, and I'd assume the ...
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convergence of $\sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty }\bigl\{ \frac {1\cdot3 \cdots (2n-1)} {2\cdot 4\cdots (2n)}\cdot \frac {4n+3} {2n+2}\bigr\} ^{2}$

I am investigating the convergence of $$\begin{split}\sum _{n=1}^{\infty }\left\{ \dfrac {1\cdot 3\cdots (2n-1)} {2\cdot 4\cdots (2n)}\cdot \dfrac {4n+3} {2n+2}\right\} ^{2} &= \sum _{n=1}^{\infty ...
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Pointwise Convergence of $\sum \frac{\sin(\sqrt{n}x)}{n}$

I am having trouble in proving the pointwise convergence of $$ g(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\sin(\sqrt{n}x)}{n}$$ for all real numbers $x$ using elementary methods (e.g. integral test, Weierstrass ...
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$f_n$ uniformly converge to $f$ and $g_n$ uniformly converge to $g$ then $f_n \cdot g_n$ uniformly converge to $f\cdot g$

Please help me check, if $f_n$ uniformly converge to $f$ and $g_n$ uniformly converge to $g$ then $f_n + g_n$ uniformly converge to $f+g$ $f_n$ uniformly converge to $f$ and $g_n$ uniformly ...
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$\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty |a_n|$ converges implies $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty |a_n|^2$ converges? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Prove that $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\ a_n^2$ is convergent if $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\ a_n$ is absolutely convergent If $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty |a_n|$ converges, the ...
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Weak Convergence implies boundedness and componentwise convergence

Let $\ell^2$ be the set of real number sequences $\{a_n\}$ such that $\sum a_n^2 <\infty$. Let $\langle a_n,y\rangle \rightarrow \langle a,y\rangle$ for some $a\in \ell^2$ and for all $y\in ...
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Sufficient condition for convergence of a real sequence

Let $(x_n)$ be a sequence of real numbers. Prove that if there exists $x$ such that every subsequence $(x_{n_k})$ of $(x_n)$ has a convergent (sub-)subsequence $(x_{n_{k_l}})$ to $x$, then the ...
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$\ell_1$ and unconditional convergence

Thanks to the Riemann theorem we know that absolute convergence and unconditional convergence are the same for $\mathbb{R}$. In all the Frechet spaces absolute convergence implies unconditional ...
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Convergence of an alternating harmonic series

Consider the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty c_n \cdot \tfrac 1n$$ where $c_n$ is either $-1$ or $1$. In my case I have $$c_n = \begin{cases} 1&; \lceil np \rceil - \lceil (n-1)p \rceil = 1 \\ -1 ...
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Convergence in probability (limit of integrals)

How to prove the following: $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \int_0^1 \int_0^1 \cdots \int_0^1 \frac{x_1^2+x_2^2+ \cdots +x_n^2}{x_1+x_2+ \cdots +x_n} dx_1 dx_2 \cdots dx_n = \frac23 $$ I would really ...
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Does the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^n}{n(\sin(n)+2)}$ converge or diverge?

I was thinking about it and was stumped. Mathematica claims it converges.
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If the sum and the product of two sequences converges to zero, does that mean that each sequence converges to zero?

If the sum and the product of two sequences converges to zero, does that mean that each sequence converges to zero ? Thanks
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Does the series $1 + \frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{4} + \frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{6} + \dots$ converge?

Does the following variant of the harmonic series converge? If it diverges (which I think it does), can I know if it diverges to $\infty$ or has no limit? Note that the series is not alternating in ...
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Convergence of Ratio Test implies Convergence of the Root Test

In Elias Stein and Rami Shakarchi's Complex Analysis textbook, we have the following exercise: Show that if $\{a_n\}_{n=0}^\infty$ is a sequence of complex numbers such that ...
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576 views

Kummer's test - Calculus, Apostol, 10.16 #15.

I want to prove the following: Let $\{ a_n \}$ and $\{ b_n \}$ be two sequences with $a_n>0$ and $b_n>0$ for all $n \geq N$, and let $$c_n = b_n - \frac{a_{n+1}b_{n+1}}{a_n}$$ Then If there ...
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Compact maps problem in Lax

In Functional Analysis of Peter Lax there are the following exercise Show that if $\bf C$ is compact and $\{{\bf M}_n \}$ tends strongly to $\bf M$, then $\bf CM_n$ tends uniformly to $\bf CM$. ...
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A series involving $\prod_1^n k^k$

Is this series $$\sum_{n\geq 1}\left(\prod_{k=1}^{n}k^k\right)^{\!-\frac{4}{n^2}} $$ convergent or divergent? My attempt was to use the comparison test, but I'm stuck at finding the behaviour of ...
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Summing various rearrangements of $1-\frac12+\frac13-\frac14+\cdots$

Show that the series $1-\frac12+\frac13-\frac14+\ldots$ converges to $\log2$ but the rearranged series: ...
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Prove that the convergence of the sequence ($s_n$) implies the convergence of ($s_n^3$)

I believe I have the gist of how to prove this. My professor worked out a problem similar to this one only, instead of ($s_n^3$), he used ($s_n^2$), and I am slightly confused as to how he came up ...
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Does the integral test work on higher dimensions?

The integral test of convergence states that, if $f:[1,+\infty)\to[0,+\infty)$ is a monotonically decreasing nonnegative function, then the series $\sum_1^\infty f(n)$ converges iff $\int_1^\infty ...
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Does a convergent power series on a closed disk always converge uniformly?

If I have a power series $\displaystyle\sum_{i=0}^{+\infty} {a_iz^i} \in\mathbb{C}[[z]]$ with radius of convergence $r>0$ and I know that the series $\displaystyle\sum_{i=0}^{+\infty} {a_iz^i}$ ...
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How will the limit $\lim \sin(A^{n})$ behave for $|A| > 1$?

While answering to the following question Problem. Find the range of $x$ for which $\displaystyle \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (-1)^{n} \sin(x^{-n})$ converges. Unlike some careless answerers who merely ...
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$a_{n+f(n)}-a_{n}\rightarrow0$ implies convergence?

$(a_{n})$ is a sequence of reals. Say $a_{n+f(n)}-a_{n}$ tends to 0 as n tends to infinity for every function f from the positive integers to the positive integers. Does this imply that $a_{n}$ is ...
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506 views

Sequence of convex functions

If a sequence of convex functions $\{ f_n \}$ on [0,1] converges pointwise to a continuous function f, then is the convergence uniform? The questions is almost identical to this one, except that the ...
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Proof of a theorem of Cauchy's on the convergence of an infinite product

Well it is relatively well known that the condition for absolute convergence is given by the following theorem: In order that the infinite product $\prod _{n=1}^{\infty }\left( 1+a_{n}\right) $ may be ...
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Determine if $\sum \frac{1}{(\ln{n})^{\ln{n}}}$ converges.

I currently trying to determine it by comparison. I've tried comparing it with $\frac{1}{n^2}$, and it seems to work but I'm not sure if I did it right. I've done it like this: $(\ln ...
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When does interchangibility of limit and Riemann integral imply uniform convergence?

Let $\{f_n\}$ be a sequence of real-valued functions defined on an interval $[a,b]$ such that each $f_n$ is Riemann integrable, $\{f_n\}$ converges point-wise to $f$, $f$ is Riemann integrable and ...
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180 views

Does $\sum a_n$ converge if $a_n = \sin( \sin (…( \sin(x))…)$

Does $\sum a_n$ converge if $a_n = \sin( \sin (\cdots( \sin(x))\cdots)$, $\sin$ being applied n times and $x \in (0, \pi/2)$? What about $\sum a_n^r$ for $r \in \mathbb{R^+}$?
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Convergence in measure is not given by a seminorm

Let $V$ be the vector space of all real-valued Borel measurable functions on $[0,1]$. Show that convergence in measure (with respect to Lebesgue measure) is not given by a seminorm. That is, show that ...
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0answers
93 views

Does $\sum_n |\sin n|^{cn^2}$ converge?

So I recently asked a question about convergence of $\sum_n |\sin n|^{cn}$ for arbitrary $c > 0$ and it turns out that the terms of the series don't even converge, for any $c > 0$, so the series ...
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256 views

Approximation of the exponential

Let $c>1,k\in\mathbb{N}$. Let's consider two approximations of the exponential function : The first one is the most common one $f_k(x)=\left(1+\frac{x}{c^k}\right)^{c^k}$ and the second one is ...