Convergence of sequences and different modes of convergence.

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1answer
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Matrix algorithm convergence

Suppose I start with a $n \times n$ matrix of zeros and ones: $$ \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & 0 & 1 & 1\\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1\\ 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1\\ 1 ...
9
votes
1answer
325 views

Sum of cosines of primes

Let $p_n$ be the nth prime number, $p_1=2,p_2=3,p_3=5,\ldots$ How to prove this series converges/diverges? $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \cos{p_n}$$
9
votes
1answer
237 views

Convergence in topologies

Let $\tau_1\subseteq \tau_2$ be two Hausdorff regular topologies in an infinite set $X$ such that the convergences of sequences in $\tau_1$ and $\tau_2$ coincide (they have the same convergent ...
9
votes
1answer
344 views

Convergence in $L^1$ space

Suppose that $f_{n}$ is a sequence of measurable functions, in a finite measure space, $f_{n}\to f $ in $m$-measure and that there exists $g$ in $L^1$ such that $\vert f_n\vert \le g$. Prove that ...
9
votes
3answers
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In what spaces does the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem hold?

The Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem says that every bounded sequence in $\Bbb R^n$ contains a convergent subsequence. The proof in Wikipedia evidently doesn't go through for an infinite-dimensional space, ...
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5answers
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Need to prove the sequence $a_n=1+\frac{1}{2^2}+\frac{1}{3^2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{n^2}$ converges

I need to prove that the sequence $a_n=1+\frac{1}{2^2}+\frac{1}{3^2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{n^2}$ converges. I do not have to find the limit. I have tried to prove it by proving that the sequence is monotone ...
8
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7answers
271 views

Convergence of the sequence $(1+\frac{1}{n})(1+\frac{2}{n})\cdots(1+\frac{n}{n})$

I have a sequence $(a_n)$ where for each natural number $n$, $$a_n = (1+\frac{1}{n})(1+\frac{2}{n})\cdots(1+\frac{n}{n})$$ and I want to find its limit as $n\to\infty$. I obviously couldn't ...
8
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3answers
341 views

Convergence of $a_{n+1}=\frac{1}{1+a_n}$

We define $$a_{n+1}=\frac{1}{1+a_n}, a_0=c> 0$$ I stumbled across that sequence and Mathematica gives me that it converges against $\frac{1}{2} \left(\sqrt{5}-1\right)$ which doesn't even depend ...
8
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2answers
461 views

convergence of $\sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty }\bigl\{ \frac {1\cdot3 \cdots (2n-1)} {2\cdot 4\cdots (2n)}\cdot \frac {4n+3} {2n+2}\bigr\} ^{2}$

I am investigating the convergence of $$\begin{split}\sum _{n=1}^{\infty }\left\{ \dfrac {1\cdot 3\cdots (2n-1)} {2\cdot 4\cdots (2n)}\cdot \dfrac {4n+3} {2n+2}\right\} ^{2} &= \sum _{n=1}^{\infty ...
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Pointwise Convergence of $\sum \frac{\sin(\sqrt{n}x)}{n}$

I am having trouble in proving the pointwise convergence of $$ g(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\sin(\sqrt{n}x)}{n}$$ for all real numbers $x$ using elementary methods (e.g. integral test, Weierstrass ...
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votes
3answers
2k views

$f_n$ uniformly converge to $f$ and $g_n$ uniformly converge to $g$ then $f_n \cdot g_n$ uniformly converge to $f\cdot g$

Please help me check, if $f_n$ uniformly converge to $f$ and $g_n$ uniformly converge to $g$ then $f_n + g_n$ uniformly converge to $f+g$ $f_n$ uniformly converge to $f$ and $g_n$ uniformly ...
8
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2answers
227 views

$\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty |a_n|$ converges implies $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty |a_n|^2$ converges? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Prove that $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\ a_n^2$ is convergent if $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\ a_n$ is absolutely convergent If $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty |a_n|$ converges, the ...
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2answers
2k views

Weak Convergence implies boundedness and componentwise convergence

Let $\ell^2$ be the set of real number sequences $\{a_n\}$ such that $\sum a_n^2 <\infty$. Let $\langle a_n,y\rangle \rightarrow \langle a,y\rangle$ for some $a\in \ell^2$ and for all $y\in ...
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2answers
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Sufficient condition for convergence of a real sequence

Let $(x_n)$ be a sequence of real numbers. Prove that if there exists $x$ such that every subsequence $(x_{n_k})$ of $(x_n)$ has a convergent (sub-)subsequence $(x_{n_{k_l}})$ to $x$, then the ...
8
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2answers
483 views

$\ell_1$ and unconditional convergence

Thanks to the Riemann theorem we know that absolute convergence and unconditional convergence are the same for $\mathbb{R}$. In all the Frechet spaces absolute convergence implies unconditional ...
8
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3answers
269 views

Convergence of an alternating harmonic series

Consider the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty c_n \cdot \tfrac 1n$$ where $c_n$ is either $-1$ or $1$. In my case I have $$c_n = \begin{cases} 1&; \lceil np \rceil - \lceil (n-1)p \rceil = 1 \\ -1 ...
8
votes
1answer
301 views

Convergence in probability (limit of integrals)

How to prove the following: $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} \int_0^1 \int_0^1 \cdots \int_0^1 \frac{x_1^2+x_2^2+ \cdots +x_n^2}{x_1+x_2+ \cdots +x_n} dx_1 dx_2 \cdots dx_n = \frac23 $$ I would really ...
8
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1answer
554 views

Stone-Čech compactifications and limits of sequences

I've been working on some old prelims from my university when they used to just be on point-set topology. We don't cover a couple of the topics so I've been teaching myself some of the material, one ...
8
votes
2answers
235 views

Does the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^n}{n(\sin(n)+2)}$ converge or diverge?

I was thinking about it and was stumped. Mathematica claims it converges.
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4answers
544 views

If the sum and the product of two sequences converges to zero, does that mean that each sequence converges to zero?

If the sum and the product of two sequences converges to zero, does that mean that each sequence converges to zero ? Thanks
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3answers
291 views

Does the series $1 + \frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{4} + \frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{6} + \dots$ converge?

Does the following variant of the harmonic series converge? If it diverges (which I think it does), can I know if it diverges to $\infty$ or has no limit? Note that the series is not alternating in ...
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2answers
253 views

Compact maps problem in Lax

In Functional Analysis of Peter Lax there are the following exercise Show that if $\bf C$ is compact and $\{{\bf M}_n \}$ tends strongly to $\bf M$, then $\bf CM_n$ tends uniformly to $\bf CM$. ...
8
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3answers
108 views

A series involving $\prod_1^n k^k$

Is this series $$\sum_{n\geq 1}\left(\prod_{k=1}^{n}k^k\right)^{\!-\frac{4}{n^2}} $$ convergent or divergent? My attempt was to use the comparison test, but I'm stuck at finding the behaviour of ...
8
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2answers
157 views

Summing various rearrangements of $1-\frac12+\frac13-\frac14+\cdots$

Show that the series $1-\frac12+\frac13-\frac14+\ldots$ converges to $\log2$ but the rearranged series: ...
8
votes
2answers
597 views

Prove that the convergence of the sequence ($s_n$) implies the convergence of ($s_n^3$)

I believe I have the gist of how to prove this. My professor worked out a problem similar to this one only, instead of ($s_n^3$), he used ($s_n^2$), and I am slightly confused as to how he came up ...
8
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1answer
348 views

Does the integral test work on higher dimensions?

The integral test of convergence states that, if $f:[1,+\infty)\to[0,+\infty)$ is a monotonically decreasing nonnegative function, then the series $\sum_1^\infty f(n)$ converges iff $\int_1^\infty ...
8
votes
1answer
276 views

Does a convergent power series on a closed disk always converge uniformly?

If I have a power series $\displaystyle\sum_{i=0}^{+\infty} {a_iz^i} \in\mathbb{C}[[z]]$ with radius of convergence $r>0$ and I know that the series $\displaystyle\sum_{i=0}^{+\infty} {a_iz^i}$ ...
8
votes
2answers
229 views

How will the limit $\lim \sin(A^{n})$ behave for $|A| > 1$?

While answering to the following question Problem. Find the range of $x$ for which $\displaystyle \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (-1)^{n} \sin(x^{-n})$ converges. Unlike some careless answerers who merely ...
8
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4answers
95 views

$a_{n+f(n)}-a_{n}\rightarrow0$ implies convergence?

$(a_{n})$ is a sequence of reals. Say $a_{n+f(n)}-a_{n}$ tends to 0 as n tends to infinity for every function f from the positive integers to the positive integers. Does this imply that $a_{n}$ is ...
8
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1answer
463 views

Sequence of convex functions

If a sequence of convex functions $\{ f_n \}$ on [0,1] converges pointwise to a continuous function f, then is the convergence uniform? The questions is almost identical to this one, except that the ...
8
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1answer
833 views

Proof of a theorem of Cauchy's on the convergence of an infinite product

Well it is relatively well known that the condition for absolute convergence is given by the following theorem: In order that the infinite product $\prod _{n=1}^{\infty }\left( 1+a_{n}\right) $ may be ...
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2answers
139 views

Determine if $\sum \frac{1}{(\ln{n})^{\ln{n}}}$ converges.

I currently trying to determine it by comparison. I've tried comparing it with $\frac{1}{n^2}$, and it seems to work but I'm not sure if I did it right. I've done it like this: $(\ln ...
8
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2answers
233 views

Convergence in measure is not given by a seminorm

Let $V$ be the vector space of all real-valued Borel measurable functions on $[0,1]$. Show that convergence in measure (with respect to Lebesgue measure) is not given by a seminorm. That is, show that ...
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0answers
83 views

Does $\sum_n |\sin n|^{cn^2}$ converge?

So I recently asked a question about convergence of $\sum_n |\sin n|^{cn}$ for arbitrary $c > 0$ and it turns out that the terms of the series don't even converge, for any $c > 0$, so the series ...
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0answers
239 views

Approximation of the exponential

Let $c>1,k\in\mathbb{N}$. Let's consider two approximations of the exponential function : The first one is the most common one $f_k(x)=\left(1+\frac{x}{c^k}\right)^{c^k}$ and the second one is ...
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7answers
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Series that converge to $\pi$ quickly

I know the series, $4-{4\over3}+{4\over5}-{4\over7}...$ converges to $\pi$ but I have heard many people say that while this is a classic example, there are series that converge much faster. Does ...
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9answers
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Fastest Square Root Algorithm

What is the fastest algorithm for finding the square root of a number? I created one that can find the square root of "987654321" to 16 decimal places in just 20 iterations (I'm not ready to release ...
7
votes
5answers
850 views

Test for convergence $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^\sqrt{n}}$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: convergence of a series involving $x^\sqrt{n}$ Test for convergence $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{2^\sqrt{n}}$$ My first thought was to use the ratio test but it's ...
7
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3answers
149 views

Evaluate $\frac{2}{4}\frac{2+\sqrt{2}}{4}\frac{2+\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}}}{4}\cdots$

Evaluate $$ \frac{2}{4}\frac{2+\sqrt{2}}{4}\frac{2+\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}}}{4}\frac{2+\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}}}}{4}\cdots . $$ First, it is clear that terms tend to $1$. It seems that the infinity ...
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2answers
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Does $\sum_{n\ge1} \sin (\pi \sqrt{n^2+1}) $ converge/diverge?

How would you prove convergence/divergence of the following series? $$\sum_{n\ge1} \sin (\pi \sqrt{n^2+1}) $$ I'm interested in more ways of proving convergence/divergence for this series. Thanks. ...
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2answers
154 views

the sum $\sum \limits_{n>1} f(n)/n$ over primes

Let $$ f(n)=\begin{cases}-1&\text{if $n$ is a prime integer},\\ 1&\text{otherwise}. \end{cases} $$ Then, does the series $$ \sum_{n>1} f(n)/n $$ converge or diverge?
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5answers
550 views

does $\int_0^\infty x/(1+x^2 \sin^2x) \mathrm dx$ converge or diverge?

$$\int_0^\infty x/(1+x^2\sin^2x) \mathrm dx$$ I'd be very happy if someone could help me out and tell me, whether the given integral converges or not (and why?). Thanks a lot.
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2answers
989 views

What is the radius of convergence of $\displaystyle\sum z^{n!}$?

How could you find out the radius of convergence of $\displaystyle\sum z^{n!}$? I'm used to applying the ratio test to power series of the form $\displaystyle\sum a_{n}z^{n}$, but for a different ...
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4answers
207 views

Again, improper integrals involving $\ln(1+x^2)$

How can I check for which values of $\alpha $ this integral $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\ln(1+x^2)}{x^\alpha}\,dx $$ converges? I managed to do this in $0$ because I know $\ln(1+x)\sim x$ near 0. I ...
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3answers
188 views

$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}a_{n} $ diverges but $ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{a_{n}}{1+a_{n}^{2}} $ sometimes converges and sometime diverges.

Let $ \lbrace a_{n}\rbrace $ be a sequence of positive terms such that $ \sum \limits_{n=1}^{\infty}a_{n} $ diverges. I am going to show that the series $$ \sum ...
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3answers
3k views

proving convergence of a sequence and then finding its limit

For every $n$ in $\mathbb{N}$, let: $$a_{n}=n\sum_{k=n}^{\infty }\frac{1}{k^{2}}$$ Show that the sequence $\left \{ a_{n} \right \}$ is convergent and then calculate its limit. To prove it is ...
7
votes
2answers
135 views

Prove that the series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \left[f(n)-\int_n^{n+1}\!f(x)\,\text{d}x\right]$ converges

Let $f$ be a non-negative decreasing function on $[1,+\infty)$. Prove that the series $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \left[f(n)-\int_n^{n+1}\!f(x)\,\text{d}x\right]$$ converges.
7
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6answers
267 views

Series where the usual convergence tests fail

Is there any simple series where all the usual convergence tests are inconclusive? And how is convergence/divergence determined for these series?
7
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2answers
167 views

$f(x+1)-f(x)$ converges $\Rightarrow\frac{f(x)}x$ converges

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ continuous such that $\lim_{x\to\infty}f(x+1)-f(x)=l$. How can I prove that $\dfrac{f(x)}x$ converges for $x\to+\infty$ ? I am just trying to prove the convergence, ...
7
votes
3answers
282 views

If $\frac{\sin{a_n}}{a_n}\rightarrow 1$ then $a_n\rightarrow0 $

I'm trying to prove that if $\;\frac{\sin{a_n}}{a_n}\rightarrow 1$ then $a_n\rightarrow0$, assuming $a_n\neq 0$ for all $n$. I think this is easy enough to show as follows: first, prove ...