Convergence of sequences and different modes of convergence.

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Weak convergence in Banach space

If $X$ is a Banach space, $X'$ its dual and $x,x_n\in X$ and $x',x_n'\in X'$, then the following implication holds: $x_n\to_w x$ (weak convergence) and $x_n'\to x'$ in $X'$ $\implies$ ...
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1answer
28 views

Find the range of $x$ for which the sequence $\dfrac{n!} {k!(n-k)!}x^n $ converges to $0$ for a stabilised $k\in\mathbb{N}$

I'm studying in preparation for a Mathematical Analysis I examination and I'm solving past exam exercises. If it's any indicator of difficulty, the exercise is Exercise 1 of 4, part $c$ and graded for ...
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0answers
17 views

Uniform continuity of this function

Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function. We assume that $f$ satisfies the following property: For every sequence of real numbers $(x_n)_n$, there exist a subsequence $(x_{\phi ...
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0answers
15 views

Can you define a Cauchy product from this identity?

I can write vague expessions for $\zeta(3)$, the Apéry's constant, for example when I multipliy by $\frac{1}{n^4}$ the recursion relation (2) in page 2 here, and after I take the sum ...
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3answers
32 views

Arc length of a sequence of semicircles.

Let $\gamma_1$ be the semicircle above the x axis joining $-1$ and $1$. Now divide this interval into $[-1,0]$ and $[0,1]$, and trace a semicircle joining $-1,0$ above the $x$-axis and another one ...
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3answers
23 views

Convergent sequences out of bounded sequences

Let us consider a bounded sequence $\{a_n\}$ . Now as it is a bounded sequence it must contain a convergent sub-sequence, $\{b_n\}$. Now let us filter out $\{b_n\}$ out of $\{a_n\}$. As such we are ...
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2answers
27 views

Series of functions converge uniformly but sequence of functions does not

Given $a>1$ and $$f_{n}(x)=\frac{1}{1+n^{a}x^{4}}$$ I'm asked to show that for any $\delta >0$, the series of functions $\sum f_{n}(x) $ converges uniformly for $\{x \in \mathbb{R} | |x| \geq ...
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0answers
22 views

Joint convergence of stochastic processes

Suppose I have processes $X_n(t)\overset{d}{\longrightarrow} X(t)$, and $Y_n(t)\overset{p}{\longrightarrow} ct$ for some constant $c$. Then, can I conclude like in Slutsky's theorem that ...
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2answers
55 views

A sequence of functions converges in $C[0,1]$ iff it is Cauchy? Is it pointwise or uniform convergence?

In my notes, there is this theorem: A sequence in $R^n$ converges (to a limit in $R^n$) iff it is Cauchy. I understand that this theorem applies to all complete metric spaces, not just to $R^n$. ...
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1answer
32 views

Suppose $X_n \to_{p} X$, if $\limsup_n E|X_n|^r \leq E|X|^r$, how can I show that $X_n \to_r X$?

If I have that $X_n \to_p X$ (convergence in probability), and if $\limsup_n E|X_n|^r \leq E|X|^r$ for all $r \geq 1$, how can I show that $X_n \to_r X$ (this means $L^{r}$ convergence)? My goal is to ...
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1answer
51 views

Prove if $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^ \infty a_n$ converges, {$b_n$} is bounded & monotone, then $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^ \infty a_nb_n$ converges.

Prove that if $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^ \infty a_n$ converges, and {$b_n$} is bounded and monotone, then $\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^ \infty a_nb_n$ converges. No, $a_n, b_n$ are not necessarily ...
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3answers
20 views

Prove the existence of limit of certain sequences.

Problem: Let $0<a_1<b_1$ and $$a_{n+1}=\sqrt{a_n\cdot b_n},b_{n+1}=\frac{a_n+b_n}{2}.$$ Prove that $\{a_n\}$ and $\{b_n\}$ converge to some limit. Attempt: By induction and AM-GM, I can show ...
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3answers
85 views

In the definition of a limit, why do we care about all $\epsilon > 0$?

Definition of $\lim_{x \to a} f(x) = L$: $\forall \epsilon > 0, \exists \delta > 0 s.t. |f(x) - L| < \epsilon \ if \ 0 < |x-a| < \delta$ Why can't we weaken the assumption to ...
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1answer
29 views

Convergence of the sequence $z_1=\frac{3}{2}$ with $z_{n+1}=\sqrt{3z_n-2}$

Prove the convergence of the sequence $(z_n)$ such that : $$ z_1=\frac{3}{2}$$ $$z_{n}=\sqrt{3z_{n-1}-2}$$ for every $ n \geq 2$. Calculate also the limit. I have applied induction: $$\frac{3}{2} ...
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1answer
72 views

$\lim_{n \to \infty }\int_{0}^{n}\frac{n \cdot e^{\frac{x}{n}}}{x^4+n^2}dx=$?

$$\lim_{n \to \infty }\int_{0}^{n}\frac{n \cdot e^{\frac{x}{n}}}{x^4+n^2}dx=?$$ I am allowed to used all the classical techniques of calculus, and this was a question from measure theory when we were ...
5
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7answers
135 views

Convergence of the recursive sequence $a_{n+1}=\sqrt{2-a_n}$

I'm attempting to prove the convergence (or divergence, though I strongly suspect it converges) of a sequence defined as $a_{n+1}=\sqrt{2-a_n}$ with $a_1=\sqrt{2}$. I cannot use the monotonic ...
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1answer
28 views

Find the limit of $P_{\theta_n}\Big(\sqrt{n}(T_n-\mu(\theta_n))<z_\alpha \sigma(0)-\sqrt{n}(\mu(\theta_n)-\mu(0))\Big)$

Assumptions: Consider a sample of i.i.d random variables $X_i$ $i=1,...,n$, where each $X_i$ is defined on the probability space $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, \mathbb{P})$, $X_i:\Omega\rightarrow ...
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1answer
21 views

How can I show that the sequence $a_n := p^n$ is a convergent sequence in this metric and find its limit?

Suppose $q$ is any nonzero rational number and $p$ is a fixed prime. If $q = p^k\frac{n}{m}$ for integers $n$ and $m$, neither of which has $p$ as a factor, then we define $|q|_p := p^{−k}$. We can ...
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3answers
46 views

Prove that $(a_n)$ converges if and only if there is a natural number $N$ big enough and an integer $m$ such that for any $n \geq N$, $a_n = m$.

Suppose that $a_n$ is a sequence of integers. Prove that $(a_n)$ converges if and only if there is a natural number $N$ big enough and an integer $m$ such that for any $n \geq N$, $a_n = m$. I'm ...
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1answer
24 views

For a sequence, why must $\lim _{n→∞} {||x_n||} = ∞$, $\lim _{n→∞} {||x_n||} = 0$, or there exists a convergent subsequence with a nonzero limit?

Suppose I've got a sequence of vectors $\{x_n\}_{n∈N}$ in $\mathbb{R}^k$. Why is it that exactly one of the following three facts must hold: $\lim _{n→∞} {||x_n||} = ∞$, $\lim _{n→∞} {x_n} = 0$, or ...
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1answer
15 views

Convergence of two sequences conjecture

If $(a_n) \rightarrow 0 $ and $(b_n - a_n) \rightarrow 0$, then $(b_n) \rightarrow a$. I can't think of any counterexamples to this conjecture but I'm not sure how to prove it. Any help would be ...
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0answers
9 views

Monotonically decreasing sequence/series proof [duplicate]

I have a proof that I'm working on and it goes like this: Assume $a_k > 0$ and $a_k$ is monotonically decreasing. Show that: $$\sum_{k=1}^\infty a_k < \infty \iff \sum_{k=0}^\infty b_k < ...
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2answers
28 views

Finding the value for $x$ for which the series converges

I am unable to follow one if the steps described in this question. My question is, can someone describe the part I do not understand? The full question and solution is below : Find the value for $x$ ...
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0answers
25 views

Convergence of improper integral with parameter

In my assignment I have to study the convergence of this integral: $$\int_{0}^{1} \frac{ln(1 + \sqrt{x})}{x (x^{\alpha}-1)} dx$$ with the parameter $\alpha >0$. In a neighbourhood of $x=0$ I ...
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4answers
71 views

If $\sum x_n$ converges absolutely . I'll have to show that $\sum \frac{x_n }{1+ x_n} $ converges . [duplicate]

I tried applying Dirichlet's test and Abel's test. Here I found some similar questions. But in most of the questions, they have assumed $x_n$ to be greater than 'zero' for all 'n', which allows them ...
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1answer
26 views

Showing that a function's Taylor series converges

Define $$\begin{align*} f(t) = \sum_{j=0}^\infty (-1)^j\binom{\frac{1}{2}}{j} t^j &= \sum_{j=0}^\infty (-1)^j \binom{2j}{j} \frac{(-1)^{j+1}} {2^{2j} (2j-1)} t^j \\ &= ...
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5answers
62 views

$a_n = {{2^n}\over n}$ diverges? [on hold]

How do I formally show that the sequence $a_n = {{2^n}\over n}$ diverges using a $\delta$-$\epsilon$ argument?
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1answer
25 views

Continuous mapping theorem to show $g(x_n)$ to $g(x)$ not converges.

Let $X_n$ be a random variable sequence, such that $P(X_n=1)=1/n$ and $P(X_n=1/n)=1-(1/n)$. Let g be a function, such that $ g(x)= 0$ if $ x\le0$, and 1 if $x>0$ Show that $g(X_n)$ not converges ...
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0answers
39 views

Limit of a function is the function of the limit (no continuity or convergence)?

Suppose I have a sequence of real-numbers $\{a_n\}_n$ and that $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty}a_n=a$ where $a$ can be finite or infinite. Consider a function $f(\cdot)$ of $a_n$. Under which conditions ...
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0answers
12 views

which one is the correct way for finding radius of convergence?

which the correct one for finding radius of convergence ? My professor teach me that $r =\frac{a_n}{a_{(n+1)}} $ but in internet it says $r =\frac{a_{(n+1)}}{a_n} $ can someone give some ...
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2answers
38 views

Proof by induction for recursive sequence with no explicit formula.

The problem I am trying to solve is: "show that the sequence defined by $a_1=6$ and $a_{n+1}=\sqrt{6+a_n}$ for $n\ge 1$ is convergent, and find the limit." So I know that I need to use proof by ...
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1answer
12 views

Convergence rate of mean and standard deviation.

I have a random variable simulator with Normal distribution $(\mu,\sigma^2)$. I repeatedly conduction simulation. Each time, the simulation gives $N$ numbers $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_N$. I use the $N$ ...
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5answers
73 views

Limit of the sequence defined by a recurrence

Given a recurrence formula for an arithmetic sequence, $$U_{n} = \frac{1}{2+U_{n-1}}$$ Show that$$\frac{1}{2+\frac{1}{2+\frac{1}{2+\frac{1}{2+ ...}}}} = (SomeGivenValue)$$ How can we solve questions ...
0
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2answers
45 views

Uniform convergence, wrong answer?

I have the functions $$ f_n(x) = x + x^n(1 - x)^n $$ that $\to x$ as $n \to \infty $ (pointwise convergence). Now I have to look whether the sequence converges uniformly, so I used the theorem and ...
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0answers
40 views

Convergence for trigonometric series

Does the following series converge or diverge? $$ s_{n}=\sum_{k=1}^{n}\cos\left(\frac{\pi k}{2}\right)\frac{k}{k+1000}\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}, \text{ for n=1,2,}\ldots$$ I tried root test and ratio test, ...
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0answers
23 views

Show $\limsup S_k=y$ and $\liminf S_k=x$ from rearrangement of series

I'm in a process of proving the last part of Riemann's Theorem on conditionally convergent series. The theorem states: Let $\sum a_n$ be a conditionally convergent series with real-valued terms. ...
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1answer
47 views

Double sequence, if $(x_m)_m$ and $(y_n)_n$ converge, then they have the same limit?

Let $(a_{m, n})_{m, n}$ be a "double sequence" of real numbers; that is, for every pair $(m, n) \in \mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$, $a_{m, n}$ is a real number. Suppose that, for every $m$, $(a_{m, ...
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2answers
56 views

Double sequence, two sequences converge, but to different limits?

Let $(a_{m, n})_{m, n}$ be a "double sequence" of real numbers; that is, for every pair $(m, n) \in \mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$, $a_{m, n}$ is a real number. Suppose that, for every $m$, $(a_{m, ...
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0answers
30 views

Why isn't the convergence rate 1 in ordinary differential equations?

For $${d y\over d t} = b -ay,$$ the equilibrium solution is $$y = {b\over a}$$ and the general solution is $$y = {b\over a} + k e^{-at} (k = \pm e^{c}).$$ I was asked to describe how the solutions ...
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1answer
30 views

Let $f \in L^{1}([0,1])$ be a real valued function. Prove the following

Let $f \in L^{1}([0,1])$ be a real valued function. Prove the following $1) x^k f(x) \in L^1([0,1])$ for all $k\in \mathbb{N}$ $2) \lim_{k\rightarrow\infty}\int_{0}^{1}x^k f(x) dx = 0$ $3)$ If ...
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1answer
31 views

Series generated by food donation

Not counting the fact that students need to take food from the shelves: Assume that I donate $1 $ pound of food and I get $3 $ of my students to donate, but they only donate $35\% $ of what I gave. ...
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1answer
31 views

Convergence of a sequence of Functions .

Let the function sequence $\{f_n\}$ be defined by $f_n(x)= x - 2 \exp(-nx) $ for $x \in \mathbb{R}$ . Now let $f :\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R} $ be defined by $f(x)= x-2I\{0\}(x)$ for $x \in ...
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4answers
84 views

Series $\sum_\limits{n=0}^\infty \frac{(n+1)}{(n^3-7)}$

I would like to prove the series $\sum_\limits{n=0}^\infty\frac{(n+1)}{(n^3-7)}$ is convergent. I have tried the ratio test but it is inconclusive, what is the way to go here ? Thanks
2
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1answer
24 views

Problem completing proof that the Weierstrass $\wp$ function is uniformly convergent

I'm having trouble following Ahlfors logic in his text concerning the proof that the $\wp$ function is convergent. The proof comes down to whether the series $$\sum_{\omega\neq ...
3
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3answers
70 views

limit of the sequence $a_n=1+\frac{1}{a_{n-1}}$ and $a_1=1$

Problem: Find with proof limit of the sequence $a_n=1+\frac{1}{a_{n-1}}$ with $a_1=1$ or show that the limit does not exist. My attempt: I have failed to determine the existence. However if the ...
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0answers
16 views

Martingale Convergence Theorem for non-negative supermartingales: Why is limit non-negative?

Consider a supermartingale $(X_n)$ that is non-negative. The martingale convergence theorem states that $X_n \rightarrow X$ P-a.s. with $X \geq 0$ and $E[X] \leq E[X_0]$. Why can we conclude that $X ...
1
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0answers
25 views

looking for help with convergence in measure problem

Why is it true that if $(X, \mu)$ is a finite space, $f_n \to f$ in measure, and for each $n$ and $\epsilon > 0$ there exists $\delta > 0$ such that $\mu(E) < \delta \Longrightarrow \int_E ...
1
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0answers
49 views

Infinite sum of indicators almost sure convergence

Let $S_{n}:= \sum_{i=1}^{n} X_{i,n}$ where for each $n, X_{1,n}, X_{2,n},..., X_{n,n}$ are sequences of independents r.v.'s. $$X_{i,n}=\begin{cases}1, & \text{with probability }p_n\\0,& ...
0
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1answer
21 views

Find intervals where a series converges and uniformly converges

I'm not sure if I'm doing better. Here is the stuff. Consider the sequence of functions $$f_n(x) = nx \left(\frac{x}{n}\right)^n\text{sinc}^n\left(\frac{x}{n}\right)$$ and the series $$s(x) = ...
0
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2answers
25 views

Find the radius of convergence of this series

I used Dalamber's criteria, but when I solve the limit I find that it goes to infinity, which looks wrong. I think I might have done something wrong while simplifying the expression, but I don't quite ...