Questions on the evaluation of integrals along a locus in the complex plane.

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134
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4answers
8k views

The Integral that Stumped Feynman?

In "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!," Nobel-prize winning Physicist Richard Feynman said that he challenged his colleagues to give him an integral that they could evaluate with only complex methods ...
119
votes
5answers
29k views

Integral $\int_{-1}^1\frac1x\sqrt{\frac{1+x}{1-x}}\ln\left(\frac{2\,x^2+2\,x+1}{2\,x^2-2\,x+1}\right) \ \mathrm dx$

I need help with this integral: $$I=\int_{-1}^1\frac1x\sqrt{\frac{1+x}{1-x}}\ln\left(\frac{2\,x^2+2\,x+1}{2\,x^2-2\,x+1}\right)\ \mathrm dx.$$ The integrand graph looks like this: $\hspace{1in}$ The ...
23
votes
2answers
731 views

Evaluation of $\int_0^{\pi/3} \ln^2\left(\frac{\sin x }{\sin (x+\pi/3)}\right)\,\mathrm{d}x$

I plan to evaluate $$\int_0^{\pi/3} \ln^2\left(\frac{\sin x }{\sin (x+\pi/3)}\right)\, \mathrm{d}x$$ and I need a starting point for both real and complex methods. Thanks ! Sis.
23
votes
1answer
509 views

Proving $\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty e^{-\pi n^2} = \frac{\sqrt[4] \pi}{\Gamma\left(\frac 3 4\right)}$

Wikipedia informs me that $$S = \vartheta(0;i)=\sum_{n=-\infty}^\infty e^{-\pi n^2} = \frac{\sqrt[4] \pi}{\Gamma\left(\frac 3 4\right)}$$ I tried considering $f(x,n) = e^{-x n^2}$ so that its ...
18
votes
3answers
604 views

Evaluating the integral $\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac {dx}{\cos x + \cosh x}$

Many recent questions have been asked here similar to this integral $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac {dx}{\cos x + \cosh x} = 2.39587\dots$$ whose "closed form" I cannot seem to figure out. I have ...
16
votes
4answers
452 views

For which $L^p$ is $\pi=3.2$?

This is a silly question that came to mind after watching numberphile video on How Pi was nearly changed to 3.2. For which $p\in(1,+\infty)$ is the ratio of the perimeter of the $L^p$ disc in $\Bbb ...
14
votes
1answer
294 views

Further our knowledge of a certain class of integral involving logarithms.

$\newcommand{\limitp}{\alpha}\newcommand{\innerp}{\beta}$I am fascinated by definite integrals. Exploring math.stackexchange, I have found many interesting integrals of the form $$ ...
13
votes
3answers
777 views

How do I evaluate this integral $\int\limits_0^\pi{\frac{{{x^2}}}{{\sqrt 5-2\cos x}}}\operatorname d\!x$?

Show that $$\int\limits_0^\pi{\frac{{{x^2}}}{{\sqrt 5-2\cos x}}}\operatorname d\!x =\frac{{{\pi^3}}}{{15}}+2\pi{\ln^2}\left({\frac{{1+\sqrt 5 }}{2}}\right).$$ I don't have any idea how to start, ...
12
votes
3answers
346 views

Evaluate $\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{x^2}{1+\cos^2 x}dx$

Evaluate the following integral $$\int_0^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\frac{x^2}{1+\cos^2 x}dx$$ This function does not have an elementary anti-derivative. How can we solve this?
11
votes
2answers
274 views

Intuition Behind an Identity

I'm currently studying for a complex analysis prelim. exam in August, so I'm working through some of the exercises in Titchmarsh. One of the exercises has us evaluate the integrals ...
11
votes
2answers
361 views

closed form of $\int_{0}^{2\pi}\frac{dx}{(a^2\cos^2x+b^2\sin^2x)^n}$

closed form of $$\int_{0}^{2\pi}\frac{dx}{(a^2\cos^2x+b^2\sin^2x)^n}$$ for $a,b>0$ n=1 we get $$\int_{0}^{2\pi}\frac{dx}{(a^2\cos^2x+b^2\sin^2x)^1}=\frac{2\pi}{ab}$$ n=2 we get ...
11
votes
1answer
203 views

Integration method for $\int_0^\infty\frac{x}{(e^x-1)(x^2+(2\pi)^2)^2}dx=\frac{1}{96} - \frac{3}{32\pi^2}.$

The following definite integral is obtained directly from Hermite's integral representation of the Hurwitz zeta function. But is it possible to obtain the same result via the residue calculus or ...
11
votes
1answer
249 views

integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\cos(\pi x^{2})}{1+2\cosh(\frac{2\pi}{\sqrt{3}}x)}dx=\frac{\sqrt{2}-\sqrt{6}+2}{8}$

Here is a seemingly challenging integral some may try their hand at. $$\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\cos(\pi x^{2})}{1+2\cosh(\frac{2\pi}{\sqrt{3}}x)}dx=\frac{\sqrt{2}-\sqrt{6}+2}{8}$$ It appears to be ...
11
votes
1answer
164 views

Integral with arctan and e: $\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\arctan(x^{3})}{e^{2\pi x}-1}\,\mathrm dx$

Here is an integral I ran across that appears to be tough. It seems to me I have seen integrals like this before. I have looked around the site, but saw nothing like this. $$\displaystyle ...
11
votes
1answer
153 views

Evaluating $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{3}- \sin^{3}(x)}{x^{5}} \ dx $ using contour integration

EDIT: Instead of expressing the integral as the imaginary part of another integral, I instead expanded $\sin^{3}(x)$ in terms of complex exponentials and I don't run into problems anymore. $$ ...
10
votes
4answers
284 views

contour integration of logarithm

I must compute the following integral $$\displaystyle\int_{0}^{+\infty}\frac{\log x}{1+x^3}dx$$ Can someone suggest me the right circuit in the complex plane over which to do the integration? I ...
10
votes
2answers
487 views

What contour should be used to evaluate $\int_0^\infty \frac{\sqrt{t}}{1+t^2} dt$

Could anyone help me decide what contour to use to evaluate this integral? $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sqrt{t}}{1+t^2} dt$$ So we have simple poles at $i$,$-i$. Why does using a quarter of a circle in ...
9
votes
2answers
864 views

Showing that $\int_0^1 \log(\sin \pi x)dx=-\log2$

I need help with a textbook exercise (Stein's Complex Analysis, Chapter 3, Exercises 9). This exercise requires me to show that $$\int_0^1 \log(\sin \pi x)dx=-\log2$$ A hint is given as "Use the ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Calculating the Fourier transform of $\frac{\sinh(kx)}{\sinh(x)}$

I'm trying to compute $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{\sinh(kx)}{\sinh(x)}e^{-i\omega x} \ dx$$ i.e. the Fourier transform of $x\mapsto \frac{\sinh(kx)}{\sinh(x)}$, where $0<k<1$ is fixed. But ...
8
votes
3answers
282 views

Evaluate the integral $I=\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{\ln^3{x}}{(1+x^2)(1+x)^2}dx$

Find this integral $$I=\int_{0}^{\infty}\dfrac{\ln^3{x}}{(1+x^2)(1+x)^2}dx$$ My try: let $x=\tan{t}$ then $$I=\int_{0}^{\frac{\pi}{2}}\dfrac{\ln^3{\tan{t}}}{(1+\tan{t})^2}dt$$ I am unable to simplify ...
8
votes
1answer
431 views

Another challenging integral

$$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{e^{-a x^2(x^2-\pi^2)}\cos(2\pi a x^3)}{\cosh x}dx=\frac{\pi}{2}e^{-\pi^4 a/16}.$$ Note the unusual appearance of $x^1,x^2,x^3,x^4$.
8
votes
2answers
360 views

Integrate: $\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\sin (ax)}{e^{\pi x} \sinh(\pi x)}dx$

How to evaluate the following $$\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\sin (ax)}{e^{\pi x} \sinh(\pi x)} dx $$ Given hints says to construct a rectangle $0\to R\to R+i\to i \to 0$ and consider $\displaystyle ...
8
votes
2answers
242 views

Integral $I=\int_0^\infty \frac{\ln(1+x)\ln(1+x^{-2})}{x} dx$

Hi I am stuck on showing that $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\ln(1+x)\ln(1+x^{-2})}{x} dx=\pi G-\frac{3\zeta(3)}{8} $$ where G is the Catalan constant and $\zeta(3)$ is the Riemann zeta function. Explictly ...
8
votes
3answers
184 views

Evaluating $ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{\cos \left(x-\frac{1}{x} \right)}{1+x^{2}} \ dx$

I'm curious about the proper way to evaluate $\displaystyle\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{\cos \left(x-\frac{1}{x} \right)}{1+x^{2}} \ dx = \text{Re} \int_{\infty}^{\infty} \frac{e^{i(x- ...
8
votes
1answer
622 views

Integral of $e^{-x^2}\cos(x^2)$ using residues

I want to solve the following integral: $$\int_0^{\infty} \!\! \operatorname{e}^{-x^2}\!\cos(x^2) \, \operatorname{d}\!x$$ I have seen this in a section about residues, so my guess is that I would ...
8
votes
2answers
227 views

Integral…$\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta$.

I am trying to calculate $$ I=\frac{1}{\pi}\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta=\frac{11\pi^4}{180}=\frac{11\zeta(4)}{2}. $$ Note, we can expand the log in the integral to ...
7
votes
4answers
820 views

Evaluating $\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\ln(x^2+1)}{x^2+1}dx$

How would I go about evaluating this integral? $$\int_0^{\infty}\frac{\ln(x^2+1)}{x^2+1}dx.$$ What I've tried so far: I tried a semicircular integral in the positive imaginary part of the complex ...
7
votes
4answers
159 views

Integrate $ \int_0^\infty \frac{ \ln^2(1+x)}{x^{3/2}} dx=8\pi \ln 2$

I am trying to evaluate this integral. $$ I=\int_0^\infty \frac{ \ln^2(1+x)}{x^{3/2}} dx=8\pi \ln 2 $$ Note $$ \ln(1+x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{n+1}x^n}{n}, \ |x| < 1. $$ I was trying to do ...
7
votes
4answers
173 views

show that $\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \frac{dx}{(x^2+1)^{n+1}}=\frac {(2n)!\pi}{2^{2n}(n!)^2}$

show that: $$\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \frac{dx}{(x^2+1)^{n+1}}=\frac {(2n)!\pi}{2^{2n}(n!)^2}$$ where $n=0,1,2,3,\ldots$. is there any help? thanks for all
7
votes
2answers
144 views

Ramanujan's 'well known' integral, $\int_\frac{-\pi}{2}^\frac{\pi}{2} (\cos x)^m e^{in x}dx$.

$$ \int_{-\pi/2}^{\pi/2}\cos^m\left(x\right){\rm e}^{{\rm i}n x}\,{\rm d}x ={\pi \over 2^{m}}\, {\Gamma\left(1 + m\right) \over \Gamma\left( 1 + \left[m + n\right]/2\right)\ \Gamma\left( 1 + ...
7
votes
2answers
317 views

Integrating $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log x}{(1+x)^3}\,dx$ using residues

I am trying to use residues to compute $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\log x}{(1+x)^3}\,dx.$$My first attempt involved trying to take a circular contour with the branch cut being the positive real axis, but ...
7
votes
1answer
339 views

using contour integration, or other means, is there a way to find a general form for $\frac{\sin^{n}(x)}{x^{n}}$

While studying some CA, I have ran across methods of solving $$\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x}{x} \, dx, \;\ \int_0^\infty \frac{\sin^2 x}{x^2} \, dx, \;\ \int_0^\infty \frac{\sin^3 x}{x^{3}} \, dx.$$ Is ...
7
votes
2answers
181 views

How to show $\int^{\infty}_{-\infty}\frac{\sin(ax)}{x(x^2+1)}dx=\pi(1-e^{-a})$? ($a\ge0$)

$$\int^{\infty}_{-\infty}\frac{\sin(ax)}{x(x^2+1)}dx=\pi(1-e^{-a}), \ a\ge0$$ I tried to solve but came up with $\pi(2-e^{-a}) $. Could you tell me where did I do the mistake? if $x=z$ then ...
7
votes
1answer
265 views

integral of $\int_{0}^{1}\frac{\ln(x^{2}+1)}{x+1}dx$ using contour integration?

I have an interest in contour integration. I am not that good at it, but I enjoy learning what I can about it. Here is a version of a rational log integral rarely encountered. $\displaystyle ...
7
votes
2answers
631 views

Help with integrating $\displaystyle \int_0^{\infty} \dfrac{(\log x)^2}{x^2 + 1} dx$ - contour integration?

George Arfken's book: Mathematical Methods for Physicists has the following problem in a chapter on contour integration: $\displaystyle \int_0^{\infty} \dfrac{(\log x)^2}{x^2 + 1} dx$. Their ...
7
votes
1answer
279 views

Help with understanding the evaluation of a real integral using complex analysis

This morning I decided to look up some complex analysis, and I came across this Wikipedia section, where the following integral is evaluated: $$\int_0^3 \frac{x^{3/4}(3-x)^{1/4}}{5-x}dx$$ There are ...
7
votes
0answers
189 views

Contour integral representation of Confluent Hypergeometric Function

My brain is spinning around in circles trying to reconcile three distinct contour-integral representation of the confluent hypergeometric function $_1F_1(a,b,z)$ for $b \in \mathbb{Z}_+$: From ...
6
votes
4answers
107 views

Computing $\int_0^\infty\mathrm{d} x\frac{x}{e^x+1}$ with contour integration

Let's set: $$ \int_0^\infty\mathrm{d}x\frac{x}{e^x+1}=I. $$ I would like to compute it using, presumably, the methods of complex analysis and contour integration.
6
votes
1answer
308 views

Inverse Laplace Transform of $\bar p_D = \frac{K_0(\sqrt[]s r_D)}{sK_0(\sqrt[]s)}$

I solved the following partial differential equation using Laplace Transform: $\LARGE \frac{1}{r_D}\frac{\partial}{\partial r_D}(r_D\frac{\partial p_D}{\partial r_D})=\frac{\partial p_D}{\partial ...
6
votes
2answers
109 views

Integrating $ \int_2^4 \frac{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)} }{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)}+\sqrt{\ln(x+3)} } dx. $

Compute $$ \int_2^4 \frac{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)} }{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)}+\sqrt{\ln(x+3)} } dx. $$ I am not sure how to start this one...I am thinking of a substitution to get started.
6
votes
3answers
129 views

Show that $\int_0^\infty e^{-x^2} \sin{2xb}\, dx =e^{-b^2}\int_0^b e^{x^2} \, dx, \, b>0, $?

Show that $$\int_0^\infty e^{-x^2} \sin{2xb}\, dx =e^{-b^2}\int_0^b e^{x^2} \, dx, \, b>0, $$ I need help. I did the following steps: Apply Cauchy's Theorem, being $\varphi (x) = e^{-z^2}$ analytic ...
6
votes
1answer
103 views

Contour integration of a meromorphic function

Given a meromorphic function $f$ which is uniformly bounded on the upper half plane. Assume that $\int_{-\infty}^{+\infty} f(x)dx$ is absolutely integrable. Then Cauchy's integral theorem suggests ...
6
votes
2answers
674 views

How prove this integral $\int_0^{2\pi }{\frac{{{e^{\cos x}}\cos\left({\sin x}\right)}}{{p-\cos\left({y-x}\right)}}}dx$

show that $$ \int\limits_0^{2\pi }{\frac{{{e^{\cos x}}\cos\left({\sin x}\right)}}{{p-\cos\left({y-x}\right)}}}dx =\frac{{2\pi }}{{\sqrt{{p^2}-1}}}\exp\left({\frac{{\cos ...
6
votes
1answer
194 views

Evaluating $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{\log^{2}(1+ix^{2})}{1+ix^{2}} \ dx $ using contour integration

It was suggested to me to evaluate $ \displaystyle \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{\log^{2}(1+ix^{2})}{1+ix^{2}} \ dx $ by integrating $ \displaystyle f(z) = \frac{\log^{2}(1+z^{2})}{1+z^{2}}$around a ...
6
votes
2answers
111 views

Evaluate $\int\limits_0^\pi \frac{\sin^2x}{2-\cos x}\ \mathrm dx$ by complex methods

find integral $$\int\limits_0^\pi \frac{\sin^2x}{2-\cos x}dx$$ what I had in mind is to use Euler formula, to turn it into a complex integral and change the limits of integration from $ -\pi$ to ...
6
votes
1answer
353 views

What is contour integration

So I recently took a course that involves contour integration. I understood how to perform the integrals out, but I never got a hold of what the physical meaning was. I understand the introductory ...
6
votes
2answers
81 views

calculation of $\int^{\frac{\pi}{2}}_{0}\cos^{n}x\cos (nx)\ dx $, where $n\in \mathbb{N}$

Calculation of $\displaystyle \int^{\frac{\pi}{2}}_{0}\cos^{n}x\cos (nx)\ dx $, where $n\in \mathbb{N}$ $\bf{My\; Try}::$ Using $\displaystyle \cos (x) = \frac{e^{ix}+e^{-ix}}{2}$, we get ...
6
votes
1answer
67 views

Integral $I=\int_0^\infty \frac{\ln(1+x) Li_2 (-x)}{x^{3/2}} dx$

Hello can you please help me solve this integral $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\ln(1+x) Li_2 (-x)}{x^{3/2}} dx=-\frac{2\pi}{3}(\pi^2+24\ln 2). $$ I am trying to work through all logarithmic integrals. Note, ...
6
votes
1answer
176 views

Extended Proof of the Theorem that a bounded analytic function is constant.

I am having trouble feeling convinced by my proof and more importantly - feeling confident in my working out. The question reads (a) Let $f$ be an entire function such that there exist real ...
6
votes
1answer
296 views

If $(f'_n)$ converges uniformly, does $(f_n)$ necessarily converge uniformly?

I've been studying complex analysis problems, and get stuck on the following: Let $D \subseteq \mathbb{C}$ be a domain (open connected set) and $z_0 \in D$. Assume that $(f_n)$ is a sequence of ...