Intuitively, a continuous function is one where small changes of input result in correspondingly small changes of output. Use this tag for questions involving this concept. As there are many mathematical formalizations of continuity, please also use an appropriate subject tag such as (real-analysis) ...

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A Topology such that the continuous functions are exactly the polynomials

I was wondering which fields $K$ can be equipped with a topology such that a function $f:K \to K$ is continuous if and only if it is a polynomial function $f(x)=a_nx^n+\cdots+a_0$. Obviously, the ...
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Why did mathematicians introduce the concept of uniform continuity?

I have solved many problems regarding uniform continuity, but still I can't understand the following: Is there any practical application of this concept, or it is just a theoretical concept? Is there ...
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Why are real numbers useful?

A question (by a fellow CS student taking a first course in calculus, presumably after the lecture in which continuity was introduced: was as follows. In the real, physical world, we deal with ...
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A game with $\delta$, $\epsilon$ and uniform continuity.

UPDATE: Bounty awarded, but it is still shady about what f) is. In Makarov's Selected Problems in Real Analysis there's this challenging problem: Describe the set of functions $f: \mathbb R ...
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Why weren't continuous functions defined as Darboux functions?

When we were in primary school, teachers showed us graphs of 'continuous' functions and said something like "Continuous functions are those you can draw without lifting your pen" With this in ...
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How prove there is no continuous functions $f:[0,1]\to \mathbb R$, such that $f(x)+f(x^2)=x$.

Prove that there is no continuous functions $f:[0,1]\to R$, such that $$ f(x)+f(x^2)=x. $$ My try. Assume that there is a continuous function with this property. Thus, for any $n\ge 1$ and all ...
29
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What is the geometrical difference between continuity and uniform continuity?

Can we explain between ordinary continuity and Uniform Continuity difference geometrically? What is the best way to describe the difference between these two concepts? Where the motivation of ...
29
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Continuity $\Rightarrow$ Intermediate Value Property. Why is the opposite not true?

Continuity $\Rightarrow$ Intermediate Value Property. Why is the opposite not true? It seems to me like they are equal definitions in a way. Can you give me a counter-example? Thanks
28
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Do all continuous real-valued functions determine the topology?

Let $X$ be a topology space. If I know all the continuous functions from X to $\mathbb R$, will the topology on $X$ be determined? I know the $\mathbb R$ here is, somewhat, artificial. So if this is ...
26
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1answer
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Can a continuous function from the reals to the reals assume each value an even number of times?

Suppose $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continuous. Is it possible for $f$ to assume each value in its range an even number of times? To clarify, some values might be taken 0 times, some 2, ...
24
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7answers
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A map is continuous if and only if for every set, the image of closure is contained in the closure of image

As a part of self study, I am trying to prove the following statement: Suppose $X$ and $Y$ are topological spaces and $f: X \rightarrow Y$ is a map. Then $f$ is continuous if and only if ...
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No continuous function switches $\mathbb{Q}$ and the irrationals

Is there a way to prove the following result using connectedness? Result: Let $J=\mathbb{R} \setminus \mathbb{Q}$ denote the set of irrational numbers. There is no continuous map $f: \mathbb{R} ...
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Is some thing wrong with the epsilon-delta definition of limit??

In the epsilon-delta definition of limit which is: For all $\epsilon>0$ there exists a $\delta>0$ such that, whenever $|x-a|<\delta$ then $|f(x)-L|<\epsilon$ . Now since $\epsilon$ ...
21
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2answers
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Which $f$ satisfy the equation $\,\,f(x)\,f(y)-f(x+y)=\sin x\,\sin y\,$?

Find all continuous functions $f$ which satisfy the functional equation $$ f(x)\,f(y)-f(x+y)=\sin x\,\sin y, $$ for all $x,y\in\mathbb R$. I can prove that $f(n\pi)=\cos\left(n\pi\right)$ for all ...
21
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1answer
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Is there a function having a limit at every point while being nowhere continuous?

Is there a function $\,f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R},\,$ which has a limit at every $x\in\mathbb R$ and is everywhere discontinuous?
21
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Calculus over $\mathbb{Q}$

The mismatch between the sensitivity of 'mathematical calculus' and the flexibility of 'real world calculus' has been bothering me a bit recently. What I mean is this: in the real world, I can trust ...
20
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How does this discontinuity occur in evaluating a nested square root?

This question is based on a comment I made on a question likely to be closed. Let $$y=\sqrt {x+ \sqrt {x+ \sqrt {x+ \sqrt {x+ \sqrt {x+ \dots}}}}}$$ be the classic nested square root which has ...
19
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If $f$ is continuous at $a$, is it continuous in some open interval around $a$?

If $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is continuous at $a$, is it continuous in some open interval around $a$?
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Is a differentiable function on $(-2, 4)$ always integrable on $[-2, 4]$?

So my question is, say I have a function that is differentiable on $(-2, 4)$. Is it always integrable on $[-2, 4]$? I know that if $f$ is diff on $(-2, 4)$, then it is continuous on $(-2, 4)$. And I ...
19
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2answers
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Function $f(x)=\int_0^\infty\left|\sin(t)\cdot\sin(x\,t)\cdot e^{-t}\right|\,dt$

Let $$f(x)=\int_0^\infty\Big|\sin(t)\cdot\sin(x\,t)\cdot e^{-t}\Big|\,dt,$$ where $|\dots|$ denotes the absolute value. We are concerned only with positive values of $x$ (i.e. let the domain of the ...
18
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1answer
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$f(f(\sqrt{2}))=\sqrt{2}$ then f has a fixed point

$f(x)$ is continuous $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ $f(f(\sqrt{2}))=\sqrt{2}$ Prove that $f$ has a fixed point in other words prove the there is $x_1$ such that $f(x_1)=x_1$ I tried using ...
18
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A topological function with only removable discontinuities

I've posted similar questions here and here, but no one has answered them to my satisfaction. Suppose that $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is such that $\lim_{y\to x}f(y)$ exists for all $x$, that is, ...
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Is this alternative notion of continuity in metric spaces weaker than, or equivalent to the usual one?

I will try to be as clear as possible. For simplicity I will assume that the function $f$ for which we define continuity at some point is real function of a real variable $f: \mathbb R \to \mathbb ...
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How to show that $f(x)=x^2$ is continuous at $x=1$? [closed]

How to show that $f(x)=x^2$ is continuous at $x=1$?
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How exactly can't $\delta$ depend on $x$ in the definition of uniform continuity?

I'm told that a function defined on an interval $[a,b]$ or $(a,b)$ is uniformly continuous if for each $\epsilon\gt 0$ there exists a $\delta\gt 0$ such that $|x-t|\lt \delta$ implies that ...
17
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4answers
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Is there a continuous function from $[0,1]$ to $\mathbb R$ that satisfies

Is there a continuous function $f:[0,1] \to \mathbb R$ such that $f(x) = 0$ uncountably often and, for every $x$ such that $f(x) = 0$, in any neighbourhood of $x$ there are $a$ and $b$ such that $f(a) ...
17
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Prove that the function$\ f(x)=\sin(x^2)$ is not uniformly continuous on the domain $\mathbb{R}$.

If I want to prove that the function$\ f(x)=\sin(x^2)$ is not uniformly continuous on the domain $\mathbb{R}$, I need to show that: $\exists\epsilon>0$ $\forall\delta>0$ ...
17
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1answer
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Is It Always Possible to Draw A Connected Compact Set in $\mathbb R^2$?

Inspired by this answer, I wondered whether a printer could render all continuous functions "well enough". In particular, I am curious about the following statement: Let $S$ be a compact, ...
16
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Why formulate continuity in terms of pre-images instead of image?

I wanted to discuss my intuition of why we formulate the concept of continuity in terms of pre-image of open set is open instead of images for example if we consider $f(x) = c$ where $c$ is some ...
16
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1answer
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Can a surjective continuous function from the reals to the reals assume each value an even number of times?

Suppose $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continuous and onto. Is it possible for $f$ to assume each of its values an even number of times? To clarify, some values might be taken 2 times, ...
15
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8answers
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Continuous versus differentiable

A function is "differentiable" if it has a derivative. A function is "continuous" if it has no sudden jumps in it. Until today, I thought these were merely two equivalent definitions of the same ...
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1answer
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Prove that function is continuous without knowing the function explicitly

Let $f\colon \mathbb R^+\to\mathbb R$ be a function that satisfies the following conditions: $$\tag1 \lim_{x\to 1}f(x)=0 $$ $$\tag2f(x_1)+f(x_2)=f(x_1x_2)$$ Show that $f$ is continuous in its domain. ...
15
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1answer
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Is there a monotonic function discontinuous over some dense set?

Problem (for fun--not homework) Can we construct a monotonic function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that there is a dense set in some interval $(a,b)$ for which $f$ is discontinuous at all ...
15
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Does there exist a continuous $g(x,t)$ such that every continuous$ f(x)$ equals $g(x,t)$ for some $t$ and all $x$??

Is there a continuous $g(x,t)$ such that every continuous $f(x)$ equals $g(x,t)$ for some $t$ and all $x$? $f$ is from $[0,1]$ to itself with $f(0)=0$ and $f(1)=1$ and is either smooth or continuous ...
15
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If $\lim_n f_n(x_n)=f(x)$ for every $x_n \to x$ then $f_n \to f$ uniformly on $[0,1]$?

This is a self-posed question, so I do not know the answer and I would like to know what do you think about. Let $f,f_n:[0,1]\to \mathbb R$ be continuous functions. Assume that for every sequence ...
15
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Condition for an additive function to be continuous

The problem below is Problem 7 from this year's Miklos Schweitzer competition (contest ended Nov 4th). Suppose that $f: \Bbb{R} \to \Bbb{R}$ is an additive function (that is $f(x+y) = f(x)+f(y)$ ...
14
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Who gave you the epsilon?

Who gave you the epsilon? is the title of an article by J. Grabiner on Cauchy from the 1980s, and the implied answer is "Cauchy". On the other hand, historian I. Grattan-Guinness points out in his ...
14
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Additivity + Measurability $\implies$ Continuity

A function $f:\Bbb R \to \Bbb R$ is additive and Lebesgue measurable. Prove that $f$ is continuous. I know that on $\Bbb Q$, $f$ comes out to be linear. So, if $f$ is to be continuous then $f$ must ...
14
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536 views

Continuity of a function in two variables

Function $f(x,y)$ is continuous in each variable separately. Prove that there exists a point where it is continuous in two variables. I do not quite understand how to act here. I know the ...
14
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Help me correct my ideas of continuity

I've been studying real analysis over the past few months, and I'm having trouble organizing the different notions of continuity and ideas related to continuity in my head geometrically. I will ...
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Prove: bounded derivative if and only if uniform continuity

The definition of uniform continuity of a real-valued function states: A function $f\colon A\mapsto\mathbb{R}$ is uniformly continuous on $A$ iff for every $\varepsilon \gt 0$ there exists a ...
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If $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ is continuous and $f(x)\neq x$ for all $x$, must it be true that $f(f(x))\neq x$ for all $x$?

Let $f: \Bbb R → \Bbb R$ be a continuous function such that $f(x)=x$ has no real solution . Then is it true that $f(f(x))=x$ also has no real solution ?
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Difficulty in finding a counterexample

I am finding difficulties in finding a counterexample that if $f\colon (0,\infty) \to(0,\infty) $ is uniformly continuous, this implies that $$\lim_{x\to \infty} \frac{f(x+\frac{1}{x})}{f(x)} =1.$$
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A continuous function on $[0,1]$ not of bounded variation

I'm looking for a continuous function $f$ defined on the compact interval $[0,1]$ which is not of bounded variation. I think such function might exist. Any idea? Of course the function $f$ such ...
12
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Is it really true that “if a function is discontinuous, automatically, it's not differentiable”? [duplicate]

I while back, my calculus teacher said something that I find very bothersome. I didn't have time to clarify, but he said: If a function is discontinuous, automatically, it's not differentiable. ...
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Equicontinuity on a compact metric space turns pointwise to uniform convergence

I know that If $\{f_n\}$ is an equicontinuous sequence, defined on a compact metric space $K$, and for all $x$, $f_n(x)\rightarrow f(x)$, then $f_n\rightarrow f$ uniformly. I'm having trouble ...
12
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Existence of continuous angle function $\theta:S^1\to\mathbb{R}$

Let $S^1\subseteq\mathbb{C}$ be the unit circle and let $U\subseteq S^1$ be open. How to show that there exist a continuous function $$\theta:U\to\mathbb{R}$$ such that $$e^{i\theta(z)}=z$$ for all ...
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Homeomorphism between open unit ball and $\mathbb R^n$

Let $B=\{x\in\mathbb R^n : ||x||<1\}$ the open unit ball with the subapce topology of $\mathbb R^n$. I want to show that $B^n\cong\mathbb R^n$ with the map $F(x)=\tan(\frac{\pi ...
12
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1answer
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Countable-infinity-to-one function

Are there continuous functions $f:I\to I$ such that $f^{-1}(\{x\})$ is countably infinite for every $x$? Here, $I=[0,1]$. The question "Infinity-to-one function" answers is similar but without the ...
11
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Functions that are continuous only at two points?

I need to find a function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ which is continuous only at two points, but discontinuous everywhere else. How on earth would I go about doing this? I can't think of any ...