A is an expression obtained through an iterative process of representing a number as the sum of its integer part and the reciprocal of another number.

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377
votes
6answers
26k views

Why is $1 - \frac{1}{1 - \frac{1}{1 - \ldots}}$ not real?

So we all know that the continued fraction containing all $1$s... $$ x = 1 + \frac{1}{1 + \frac{1}{1 + \ldots}} $$ yields the golden ratio $x = \phi$, which can easily be proven by rewriting it as ...
59
votes
3answers
688 views

Closed form solution for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{1+\frac{n^2}{1+\frac{1}{\stackrel{\ddots}{1+\frac{1}{1+n^2}}}}}$.

Let $$ \text{S}_k = \sum_{n=1}^\infty\cfrac{1}{1+\cfrac{n^2}{1+\cfrac{1}{\ddots1+\cfrac{1}{1+n^2}}}},\quad\text{$k$ rows in the continued fraction} $$ So for example, the terms of the sum $\text{S}_6$ ...
58
votes
6answers
4k views

Continued fraction fallacy: $1=2$

It's easy to check that for any natural $n$ $$\frac{n+1}{n}=\cfrac{1}{2-\cfrac{n+2}{n+1}}.$$ Now, ...
41
votes
1answer
918 views

A new continued fraction for Apéry's constant, $\zeta(3)$?

As a background, Ramanujan also gave a continued fraction for $\zeta(3)$ as $\zeta(3) = 1+\cfrac{1}{u_1+\cfrac{1^3}{1+\cfrac{1^3}{u_2+\cfrac{2^3}{1+\cfrac{2^3}{u_3 + \ddots}}}}}\tag{1}$ where the ...
32
votes
1answer
687 views

How do I calculate the 2nd term of continued fraction for the power tower ${^5}e=e^{e^{e^{e^{e}}}}$

I need to find the 2nd term of continued fraction for the power tower ${^5}e=e^{e^{e^{e^{e}}}}$ ( i.e. $\lfloor\{e^{e^{e^{e^{e}}}}\}^{-1}\rfloor$), or even higher towers. The number is too big to ...
30
votes
10answers
2k views

What are the applications of continued fractions?

What is the most motivating way to introduce continued fractions? Are there any real life applications of continued fractions?
25
votes
1answer
1k views

A continued fraction involving prime numbers

What is the limit of the continued fraction $$\cfrac{1}{2+\cfrac{1}{3+\cfrac{1}{5+\cfrac{1}{7+\cfrac{1}{11+\cfrac{1}{13+\cdots}}}}}}\ ?$$ Is the limit algebraic, or expressible in terms of e or ...
22
votes
0answers
425 views

Curious about an empirically found continued fraction for tanh

First of all, and since this is my first question in this forum, I would like to specify that I am not a professional mathematician (but a philosophy teacher); I apologize by advance if something is ...
21
votes
1answer
563 views

Direct proof that for a prime $p$ if $p\equiv 1 \bmod 4$ then $l(\sqrt{p})$ is odd.

Definition: Assume $p$ is a prime. $l(\sqrt{p})=$ length of period in simple continued fraction expansion of $\sqrt{p}$. The standard proof of this uses the following: $p$ is a prime implies $p ...
21
votes
2answers
709 views

Riemann's zeta as a continued fraction over prime numbers.

Riemann's zeta function is a function with many faces, I mean representations. I recently derived this one, bellow, as a continued fraction over prime numbers. $$ \zeta(s)=1 ...
20
votes
2answers
541 views

Evaluation of a continued fraction

Puzzle question... I know how to solve it, and will post my solution if needed; but those who wish may participate in the spirit of coming up with elegant solutions rather than trying to teach me how ...
20
votes
1answer
3k views

What was Ramanujan's solution?

The wikipedia entry on Ramanujan contains the following passage: One of his remarkable capabilities was the rapid solution for problems. He was sharing a room with P. C. Mahalanobis who had a ...
19
votes
1answer
539 views

An infinite series plus a continued fraction by Ramanujan

Here is a famous problem posed by Ramanujan Show that $$\left(1 + \frac{1}{1\cdot 3} + \frac{1}{1\cdot 3\cdot 5} + \cdots\right) + ...
19
votes
0answers
198 views

Continued fraction analog to zeta function - how to properly define it and find its properties?

I do not mean the continued fraction representation of zeta function, I mean the function which has the form: $$f(s)=\cfrac{1}{1^s+\cfrac{1}{2^s+\cfrac{1}{3^s+\cfrac{1}{4^s+\cdots}}}}$$ For some ...
18
votes
1answer
487 views

a new continued fraction for $\sqrt{2}$

In a q-continued fraction related to the octahedral group I defined a new q-continued fraction for the square of ramanujan's octic continued fraction which I discovered using certain three term ...
17
votes
2answers
940 views

Continued fraction for $\frac{1}{e-2}$

A couple of years ago I found the following continued fraction for $\frac1{e-2}$: $$\frac{1}{e-2} = 1+\cfrac1{2 + \cfrac2{3 + \cfrac3{4 + \cfrac4{5 + \cfrac5{6 + \cfrac6{7 + \cfrac7{\cdots}}}}}}}$$ ...
16
votes
3answers
1k views

Motivation behind this eccentric Ramanujan Identity

I just visited the MathJaX page due to the Math.SE website showing some problems while loading the page. I saw some demo math equations samples at this page, when this identity actually caught my ...
16
votes
1answer
354 views

Nested solutions of a quadratic equation.

A quadratic equation of the form $x^2+bx+c=0$ can be solved with the classical formula that gives all solutions. Here I want discuss some other methods to find one solution. The best known is by ...
15
votes
1answer
268 views

Closed-form of infinite continued fraction involving factorials

Is there a closed form of this: $$ 1!+\dfrac{1}{2!+\dfrac{1}{3!+\dfrac{1}{4!+\ldots}}} $$
14
votes
2answers
332 views

Solving for $x$: $1=\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{1+\frac{1}{x}}+\frac{1}{1+\frac{1}{1+\frac{1}{x}}}+\cdots$

How can I solve for $x$: $$1=\cfrac{1}{x}+\cfrac{1}{1+\cfrac{1}{x}}+\cfrac{1}{1+\cfrac{1}{1+\cfrac{1}{x}}}+\cdots$$ Any clues?
14
votes
1answer
999 views

Arithmetic of continued fractions, does it exist?

I'm interested in the arithmmetic of continued fractions and specially in multiplication. Consider $$ ...
14
votes
0answers
444 views

a conjectured continued fraction for $\displaystyle\tan\left(\frac{z\pi}{4z+2n}\right)$

Given a complex number $\begin{aligned}\frac{z}{n}=x+iy\end{aligned}$ and a gamma function $\Gamma(z)$ with $x\gt0$, it is conjectured that the following continued fraction for ...
14
votes
0answers
223 views

Continued fraction with prime reciprocal entries

We know that the reciprocals of the primes form a divergent series. We also know that a necessary and sufficient condition for a continued fraction to converge is that its entries diverge as a series. ...
13
votes
2answers
629 views

How to do a very long division: continued fraction for tan

I want to compute $$\tan(r) = \cfrac{r}{1 - \cfrac{r^2}{3 - \cfrac{r^2}{5 - \cfrac{r^2}{7 - {}\ddots}}}}$$ by dividing the power series for sin and cos as it is said can be done in ...
13
votes
2answers
231 views

What's the formula for this series for $\pi$?

These continued fractions for $\pi$ were given here, $$\small \pi = \cfrac{4} {1+\cfrac{1^2} {2+\cfrac{3^2} {2+\cfrac{5^2} {2+\ddots}}}} = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{4(-1)^n}{2n+1} = \frac{4}{1} - ...
13
votes
1answer
186 views

Evaluation of a slow continued fraction

Puzzle question... I know how to solve it, and will post my solution if needed; but those who wish may participate in the spirit of coming up with elegant solutions rather than trying to teach me how ...
12
votes
3answers
582 views

Closed form for a pair of continued fractions

What is $1+\cfrac{1}{2+\cfrac{1}{3+\cfrac{1}{4+\cdots}}}$ ? What is $1+\cfrac{2}{1+\cfrac{3}{1+\cdots}}$ ? It does bear some resemblance to the continued fraction for $e$, which is ...
12
votes
1answer
233 views

Request for a proof of the following continued-fraction identity

I have been poring over many texts about continued fractions, but none of them seem to be helping me to prove the following beautiful continued-fraction identity (I am nowhere close): $$ ...
12
votes
1answer
970 views

a conjectured continued-fraction for $\cot\left(\frac{z\pi}{4z+2n}\right)$ that leads to a new limit for $\pi$

Given a complex number $\begin{aligned}\frac{z}{n}=x+iy\end{aligned}$ and a gamma function $\Gamma(z)$ with $x\gt0$, it is conjectured that the following continued fraction for ...
12
votes
1answer
127 views

Continued fraction estimation of error in Leibniz series for $\pi$.

The following arctan formula for $\pi$ is quite well known $$\frac{\pi}{4} = 1 - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{7} + \cdots\tag{1}$$ and bears the name of Madhava-Gregory-Leibniz series after ...
12
votes
1answer
380 views

How to prove this determinant is $\pi$?

prove or disprove $$\pi=\begin{vmatrix} 3&1&0&0&0&\cdots\\ -1&6&1&0&0&\cdots\\ 0&-1&\dfrac{6}{3^2}&1&0&\cdots\\ ...
12
votes
0answers
141 views

Bi-linear relation between two continued fractions

We know that any positive real number $x$ can be represented as a simple continued fraction $$x = a_{0} + \dfrac{1}{a_{1} + \dfrac{1}{a_{2} + \dfrac{1}{a_{3} + \cdots}}} = [a_{0}, a_{1}, a_{2}, a_{3}, ...
11
votes
5answers
452 views

What's the value of $n+\cfrac{n}{n+\cfrac{n}{n+\cfrac{n}{\vdots}}}$ for $n\in\mathbb{C}$?

Write $$\phi_n\stackrel{(1)}{=}n+\cfrac{n}{n+\cfrac{n}{\vdots}}$$ so that $\phi_n=n+\frac{n}{\phi_n},$ which gives $\phi_n=\frac{n\pm\sqrt{n^2+4n}}{2}.$ We know $\phi_1=\phi$, the Golden Ratio, so ...
11
votes
3answers
353 views

Value of $f'(0)$ if $f(x)=\frac{x}{1+\frac{x}{1+\frac{x}{1+\ddots}}}$

Consider the function $$f(x)=\cfrac{x}{1+\cfrac{x}{1+\cfrac{x}{1+\ddots}}} $$ Determine the value of $f'(0)$. I tried to differentiate $f(x)$ but it is not subject to chain rule, and now I'm stuck. ...
11
votes
4answers
8k views

Continued fraction of a square root

If I want to find the continued fraction of $\sqrt{n}$ how do I know which number to use for $a_0$? Is there a way to do it without using a calculator or anything like that? What's the general ...
11
votes
1answer
563 views

Deriving a trivial continued fraction for the exponential

Lately, I learned about the following continued fraction for the exponential function: $$\exp(x)=1+\cfrac{x}{1-\cfrac{x/2}{1+x/2-\cfrac{x/3}{1+x/3-\cfrac{x/4}{1+x/4-\dots}}}}$$ I thought it was ...
11
votes
1answer
671 views

Continued Fraction expansion of $tan(1)$

Prove that continued fraction of $\tan(1)=[1;1,1,3,1,5,1,7,1,9,1,11,...]$. I tried using the same sort of trick used for finding continued fractions of quadratic irrationals and trying to find a ...
11
votes
1answer
752 views

A strange “pattern” in the continued fraction convergents of pi?

From the simple continued fraction of $\pi$, one gets the convergents, $$p_n = \frac{3}{1}, \frac{22}{7}, \frac{333}{106}, \frac{355}{113}, \frac{103993}{33102}, \frac{104348}{33215}, ...
11
votes
0answers
168 views

Divergent continued fractions?

The solutions to $$ x^2-6x+10=0 \tag 1 $$ are $$ 3\pm i\tag2. $$ Rearranging $(1)$ just a bit, we get $$ x = 6 -\frac{10}x \tag3 $$ and then substituting the right side of $(3)$ for $x$ within the ...
10
votes
4answers
812 views

Solve $\dfrac{1}{1+\frac{1}{1+\ddots}}$

I'm currently a high school junior enrolling in AP Calculus, I found this website that's full of "math geeks" and I hope you can give me some clues on how to solve this problem. I'm pretty desperate ...
10
votes
4answers
916 views

How to detect when continued fractions period terminates

I'm doing continued fractions arithmetic. Is there a method to detect when a continued fractions period terminates? Let me give you an example: $\sqrt{2} = [1; \overline{2}]$, $\sqrt{7} = [2; ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Proving the continued fraction representation of $\sqrt{2}$

There's a question in Spivak's Calculus (I don't happen to have the question number in front of me in the 2nd Edition, it's Chapter 21, Problem 7) that develops the concept of continued fraction, ...
10
votes
1answer
924 views

How do I prove the partial denominators formula of the Bauer-Muir transformation of a generalized continued fraction?

Notation: $b_{0}+\underset{n=1}{\overset{\infty }{\mathbb{K}}}\left( a_{n}/b_{n}\right) $ is the Gauss Notation for generalized continued fractions. Description of the Bauer-Muir transformation ...
10
votes
1answer
82 views

Multiply all terms in continued fraction by a constant

I noticed that continued the fraction for $\sqrt{12}$ is $3;2,6,2,6,2,\ldots$ and the continued fraction for $\sqrt{7\times12}$ is $9;6,18,6,18,6,\ldots$ all the terms in the continued fraction are ...
9
votes
3answers
177 views

Generalizations of $\sum_{m=3n+2}^{\infty}\phi^m=\phi^{3n}$ and $\sum_{m=13n+1}^{\infty}(\sqrt2-1)^m=\dfrac{(\sqrt2-1)^{13n}}{\sqrt2}$

I noticed that the following identies hold with the help of wolfram alpha and oeis. I'm sure they're well-known, but I'd like to know how they generalize. ...
9
votes
1answer
204 views

Minimum of $|az_x-bz_y|$

I am trying to minimize the following function: \begin{align} &f(z_x,z_y)=|az_x-bz_y| \\ &\text{ s.t. } z_x,z_y \in \mathbb{Z},1 \le z_x \le N_x \text{ and } 1 \le z_y \le N_y \text{ and } ...
9
votes
0answers
111 views

Infinitely nested radical expansions for real numbers

Conjecture. For any real number $x \in (0,1]$ there exists a unique expansion in the form $x=-2+\sqrt{a_1+\sqrt{a_2+\sqrt{a_3+\cdots}}}$ with $a_k$ being natural numbers from the set $(2,3,4,5,6)$. ...
9
votes
0answers
504 views

What can Euler's identity teach us about (generalised) continued fractions?

We know that $$e^{i \pi} = -1 .$$ We can transform all of the components of this identity into (generalized) continued fractions. When we start of with $\pi$, we see that $$ \Big(3+ ...
8
votes
3answers
4k views

How to find continued fraction of pi

I have always been amazed by the continued fractions for $\pi$. For example some continued fractions for pi are: $\pi=[3:7,15,1,292,.....]$ and many others given here. Similarly some nice continued ...
8
votes
4answers
315 views

Continued fractions for $\sqrt{x} $ and beyond, valid formula?

For $x > 0$, is this trick valid? I use $$ ( \sqrt{x}-1)(\sqrt{x}+1)=x-1 $$ then $$ \sqrt{x}+1 = \frac{x-1}{\sqrt{x}+1-2} $$ so I can use iterations to get the rational approximant $$ \sqrt{x} ...