A is an expression obtained through an iterative process of representing a number as the sum of its integer part and the reciprocal of another number.

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12
votes
4answers
8k views

Continued fraction of a square root

If I want to find the continued fraction of $\sqrt{n}$ how do I know which number to use for $a_0$? Is there a way to do it without using a calculator or anything like that? What's the general ...
7
votes
2answers
345 views

Ramanujan theta function and its continued fraction

I believe Ramanujan would have loved this kind of identity. After deriving the identity, I wanted to share it with the mathematical community. If it's well known, please inform me and give me some ...
10
votes
4answers
969 views

How to detect when continued fractions period terminates

I'm doing continued fractions arithmetic. Is there a method to detect when a continued fractions period terminates? Let me give you an example: $\sqrt{2} = [1; \overline{2}]$, $\sqrt{7} = [2; \...
2
votes
2answers
546 views

Closed form for this continued fraction [closed]

Is there a closed form for this continued fraction? $$x+\frac{1}{x+\frac{1}{x+\frac{1}{...}}}$$
5
votes
2answers
251 views

The ratio of jacobi theta functions

Let $q=e^{2\pi i\tau}$. If $\theta_2$ and $\theta_3$ are jacobi theta functions , is it true that the ratio of the two functions can be expressed as a continued fraction of the form $$ \frac{\theta_2(...
8
votes
2answers
851 views

Baire space homeomorphic to irrationals

I try to show that the Baire space $\Bbb N^{\Bbb N}$, with regular product metric, is homeomorphic to the unit interval of irrationals $(0,1)\setminus\Bbb Q$. I already know that the needed function ...
12
votes
3answers
596 views

Closed form for a pair of continued fractions

What is $1+\cfrac{1}{2+\cfrac{1}{3+\cfrac{1}{4+\cdots}}}$ ? What is $1+\cfrac{2}{1+\cfrac{3}{1+\cdots}}$ ? It does bear some resemblance to the continued fraction for $e$, which is $2+\cfrac{2}{2+\...
5
votes
1answer
927 views

A nicer proof of Lagrange's 'best approximations' law?

Let $p_N/q_N$ be the $N^\text{th}$ convergent of the continued fraction for some irrational number $\alpha$. It turns out that for any other approximation $p/q$ (with $q \le q_N$) which isn't a ...
8
votes
2answers
162 views

the ratio of jacobi theta functions and a new conjectured q-continued fraction

Given the squared nome $q=e^{2i\pi\tau}$ with $|q|\lt1$, define $$\begin{aligned}H(q)=\cfrac{2(1+q^2)}{1-q+\cfrac{(1+q)(1+q^3)}{1-q^3+\cfrac{2q^2(1+q^4)}{1-q^5+\cfrac{q^3(1+q)(1+q^5)}{1-q^7+\cfrac{q^...
4
votes
1answer
219 views

conjectured general continued fraction for the quotient of gamma functions

Given complex numbers $a=x+iy$, $b=m+in$ and a gamma function $\Gamma(z)$ with $x\gt0$ and $m\gt0$, it is conjectured that the following general continued fraction which is symmetric on $a$ and $b$ is ...
9
votes
1answer
242 views

Minimum of $|az_x-bz_y|$

I am trying to minimize the following function: \begin{align} &f(z_x,z_y)=|az_x-bz_y| \\ &\text{ s.t. } z_x,z_y \in \mathbb{Z},1 \le z_x \le N_x \text{ and } 1 \le z_y \le N_y \text{ and } a,...
62
votes
6answers
5k views

Continued fraction fallacy: $1=2$

It's easy to check that for any natural $n$ $$\frac{n+1}{n}=\cfrac{1}{2-\cfrac{n+2}{n+1}}.$$ Now, $$1=\frac{1}{2-1}=\frac{1}{2-\cfrac{1}{2-1}}=\frac{1}{2-\cfrac{1}{2-\cfrac{1}{2-1}}}=\cfrac{1}{2-\...
17
votes
2answers
963 views

Continued fraction for $\frac{1}{e-2}$

A couple of years ago I found the following continued fraction for $\frac1{e-2}$: $$\frac{1}{e-2} = 1+\cfrac1{2 + \cfrac2{3 + \cfrac3{4 + \cfrac4{5 + \cfrac5{6 + \cfrac6{7 + \cfrac7{\cdots}}}}}}}$$ ...
13
votes
2answers
655 views

How to do a very long division: continued fraction for tan

I want to compute $$\tan(r) = \cfrac{r}{1 - \cfrac{r^2}{3 - \cfrac{r^2}{5 - \cfrac{r^2}{7 - {}\ddots}}}}$$ by dividing the power series for sin and cos as it is said can be done in http://arxiv.org/...
15
votes
0answers
483 views

a conjectured continued fraction for $\displaystyle\tan\left(\frac{z\pi}{4z+2n}\right)$

Given a complex number $\begin{aligned}\frac{z}{n}=x+iy\end{aligned}$ and a gamma function $\Gamma(z)$ with $x\gt0$, it is conjectured that the following continued fraction for $\displaystyle\tan\left(...
6
votes
1answer
752 views

Continued fraction for $\tan(nx)$

I found this beautiful continued fraction expansion of $\tan(nx)$, $n$ being a positive integer, online but I don't remember the source now: $\displaystyle \tan(nx) = \cfrac{n\tan x}{1 -\cfrac{(n^{2} ...
5
votes
1answer
198 views

conjectured new generating function of fibonacci numbers

I conjecture a new generating function for the fibonacci numbers $F_{n}$. Given,the following conjectured q-continued fraction $$\chi(q)=\cfrac{1}{1+q-\cfrac{(1+q^2)}{1+q^3+\cfrac{q^2(1-q)(1-q^3)}{1+...
7
votes
2answers
257 views

a conjecture of certain q-continued fractions

Given the squared nome $q=e^{2i\pi\tau}$ with $|q|\lt1$, define, $$\begin{aligned}F(q)=\cfrac{1-q^2}{1-q^3+\cfrac{q^3(1-q)(1-q^5)}{1-q^9+\cfrac{q^6(1-q^4)(1-q^8)}{1-q^{15}+\cfrac{q^9(1-q^7)(1-q^{11})}...
20
votes
1answer
599 views

An infinite series plus a continued fraction by Ramanujan

Here is a famous problem posed by Ramanujan Show that $$\left(1 + \frac{1}{1\cdot 3} + \frac{1}{1\cdot 3\cdot 5} + \cdots\right) + \left(\cfrac{1}{1+}\cfrac{1}{1+}\cfrac{2}{1+}\cfrac{3}{1+}\cfrac{...
18
votes
1answer
508 views

a new continued fraction for $\sqrt{2}$

In a q-continued fraction related to the octahedral group I defined a new q-continued fraction for the square of ramanujan's octic continued fraction which I discovered using certain three term ...
7
votes
1answer
185 views

Continued fraction of $e^{-2\pi n}$

I found this problem on a well-known problem solving website. It is apparently from Ramanujan. With $$\LARGE{a = \frac{1}{1 + \frac{e^{-2\pi}}{1 + \frac{e^{-4\pi}}{1 + \ddots}}}},$$ what is $a$...
5
votes
1answer
118 views

Link between the negative pell equation $x^2-dy^2=-1$ and a certain continued fraction

Consider the generalized continued fraction $$F(x)=(x-1)-\cfrac{(x+1)}{x+\cfrac{(-1)(5)} {3x+\cfrac{(1)(7)}{5x+\cfrac{(3)(9)}{7x+\cfrac{(5)(11)}{9x+\ddots}}}}}$$ I experimentally discovered that at ...
3
votes
0answers
154 views

a q-continued fraction related to the octahedral group

Let $q=e^{2\pi i\tau}$. If $u(\tau)$ is Ramanujan's octic continued fraction, $$u(\tau)=\cfrac{\sqrt{2}\,q^{1/8}}{1+\cfrac{q}{1+q+\cfrac{q^2}{1+q^2+\cfrac{q^3}{1+q^3+\ddots}}}}$$ is it true that ...
9
votes
3answers
5k views

How to find continued fraction of pi

I have always been amazed by the continued fractions for $\pi$. For example some continued fractions for pi are: $\pi=[3:7,15,1,292,.....]$ and many others given here. Similarly some nice continued ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Approximating $\arctan x$ for large $|x|$

I would like to know if there is reasonably fast converging method for computing large arguments of arctan. Until now I've came across Taylor series that converges only on interval $(-1,1)$ and for ...
6
votes
5answers
639 views

Continued Fraction [1,1,1,…]

If the continued fractional representation of an irrational number $\alpha$ is given by [1,1,1,...], I can compute that $\alpha = \frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}$ by solving the equation $\alpha = 1+ \frac{1}{\...
3
votes
0answers
118 views

Integral formulas involving continued fractions

Ramanujan posed the following formulas as questions in the Journal of Indian Mathematical Society: $$\int_{0}^{\infty}\dfrac{\sin nx\,\,dx}{{\displaystyle x + \dfrac{1}{x +}\dfrac{2}{x +}\dfrac{3}{x +...
3
votes
0answers
119 views

Continued fraction for $\int_{0}^{\infty}(e^{-xt}/\cosh t)\,dt$

In one of the comments to a question I posted on MSE, I got this wonderful continued fraction $$\int_{0}^{\infty}\frac{e^{-xt}}{\cosh t}\,dt = \frac{1}{x +}\frac{1^{2}}{x +}\frac{2^{2}}{x +}\frac{3^{2}...
3
votes
0answers
94 views

Two complementary continued fractions that are algebraic numbers

Define the two similar continued fractions, $$x=\cfrac{1}{km\color{blue}+\cfrac{(m-1)(m+1)} {3km\color{blue}+\cfrac{(2m-1)(2m+1)}{5km\color{blue}+\cfrac{(3m-1)(3m+1)}{7km\color{blue}+\ddots}}}}\tag1$$...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Proving the continued fraction representation of $\sqrt{2}$

There's a question in Spivak's Calculus (I don't happen to have the question number in front of me in the 2nd Edition, it's Chapter 21, Problem 7) that develops the concept of continued fraction, ...
6
votes
1answer
131 views

For which $a$ is $n\lfloor a\rfloor+1\le \lfloor na\rfloor$ true for all sufficiently large $n$?

Inspired by this question I ask this. For which $a$ is $n\lfloor a\rfloor+1\le \lfloor na\rfloor$ true for all sufficiently large $n$? The original question concerned $a=e$, the usual $2.71828\ldots$,...
5
votes
1answer
132 views

Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction in terms of theta functions?

The Rogers-Ramanujan cfrac is, $$r = r(\tau)= \cfrac{q^{1/5}}{1+\cfrac{q}{1+\cfrac{q^2}{1+\ddots}}}$$ If $q = \exp(2\pi i \tau)$, then it is known that, $$\frac{1}{r}-r =\frac{\eta(\tau/5)}{\eta(5\...
4
votes
2answers
222 views

Continued Fractions periodicity and convolution.

Continued fractions for rationals terminate, for transcendentals like pi, they do not terminate and for irrationals (but non transcendentals) they repeat -- is this correct?
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Calculate the continued fraction of square root

I was having difficulty understanding the algorithm to calculate Continued fraction expansion of square root. I know the process is about extracting the integer part in repeat and maintaining the ...
4
votes
4answers
330 views

Relationship between degrees of continued fractions

I'm trying to compute the values of differing degrees of continued fractions like $\sqrt 2$, $e$ and other similar fractions. My theory was to take the reduced fraction at an arbitrary depth and the ...
3
votes
3answers
443 views

How do I solve a Continued Fraction of solution to quadratic equation?

I know that it is possible to make a CF (continued fraction) for every number that is a solution of a quadratic equation but I don't know how. The number I'd like to write as a CF is: $$\frac{1 - \...
-1
votes
1answer
59 views

Find the real number $x$ represented by continued fraction $[12;2,2,12,2,2,12,2,2,12\dots]$

I need to fins the real vlaue of x for the continued fraction (Image attached) I have tried partial coefficient method, but didn't get the exact answer. I there any way where we can identify the ...
389
votes
6answers
27k views

Why is $1 - \frac{1}{1 - \frac{1}{1 - \ldots}}$ not real?

So we all know that the continued fraction containing all $1$s... $$ x = 1 + \frac{1}{1 + \frac{1}{1 + \ldots}} $$ yields the golden ratio $x = \phi$, which can easily be proven by rewriting it as $...
21
votes
2answers
721 views

Riemann's zeta as a continued fraction over prime numbers.

Riemann's zeta function is a function with many faces, I mean representations. I recently derived this one, bellow, as a continued fraction over prime numbers. $$ \zeta(s)=1 +\cfrac{\frac{1}{2^{s}}}{...
16
votes
1answer
381 views

Nested solutions of a quadratic equation.

A quadratic equation of the form $x^2+bx+c=0$ can be solved with the classical formula that gives all solutions. Here I want discuss some other methods to find one solution. The best known is by ...
25
votes
1answer
1k views

A continued fraction involving prime numbers

What is the limit of the continued fraction $$\cfrac{1}{2+\cfrac{1}{3+\cfrac{1}{5+\cfrac{1}{7+\cfrac{1}{11+\cfrac{1}{13+\cdots}}}}}}\ ?$$ Is the limit algebraic, or expressible in terms of e or $\pi$?...
20
votes
2answers
553 views

Evaluation of a continued fraction

Puzzle question... I know how to solve it, and will post my solution if needed; but those who wish may participate in the spirit of coming up with elegant solutions rather than trying to teach me how ...
15
votes
1answer
1k views

Arithmetic of continued fractions, does it exist?

I'm interested in the arithmmetic of continued fractions and specially in multiplication. Consider $$ f(x)=\cfrac{f_{0}(x)}{1-\cfrac{f_{1}(x)}{1+f_{1}(x)-\cfrac{f_{2}(x)}{1+f_{2}(x)-\cfrac{f_{3}(x)}{...
12
votes
1answer
133 views

Continued fraction estimation of error in Leibniz series for $\pi$.

The following arctan formula for $\pi$ is quite well known $$\frac{\pi}{4} = 1 - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{7} + \cdots\tag{1}$$ and bears the name of Madhava-Gregory-Leibniz series after ...
9
votes
1answer
136 views

Are the unit partial quotients of $\pi, \log(2), \zeta(3) $ and other constants $all$ governed by $H=0.415\dots$?

Khinchin showed that given the simple continued fraction of a real number, $$r = a_0+\cfrac{1}{a_1+\cfrac{1}{a_2+\cfrac{1} {\ddots}}}$$ then it is almost always true that the partial quotients $a_i$ ...
8
votes
1answer
474 views

Eigenvalues of a tridiagonal trigonometric matrix

Let $D$ be the diagonal matrix w/alternating in sign diagonal entries: $$D_{kk}=(-1)^{k+1}\tan(\frac{k\pi}{2n+1}),$$ where $k=1,2,\dots n\in N$, and let $B$ be the $n$ by $n$ square $(0,1)$-matrix $$...
10
votes
4answers
822 views

Solve $\dfrac{1}{1+\frac{1}{1+\ddots}}$

I'm currently a high school junior enrolling in AP Calculus, I found this website that's full of "math geeks" and I hope you can give me some clues on how to solve this problem. I'm pretty desperate ...
7
votes
2answers
384 views

Continued fractions

I'd really love with concluding that for given integers $a_0,a_1,...a_N$ with $a_i>0$ for $i>0$, representing the continued fraction $[a_0; a_1,....,a_N]$, with the following recursion: $p_{-1}=...
3
votes
2answers
198 views

A pair of continued fractions that are algebraic numbers and related to $a^2+b^2=c^m$

Similar to the cfracs in this post, define the two complementary continued fractions, $$x=\cfrac{-(m+1)}{km\color{blue}+\cfrac{(-1)(2m+1)} {3km\color{blue}+\cfrac{(m-1)(3m+1)}{5km\color{blue} +\cfrac{...
12
votes
0answers
147 views

Bi-linear relation between two continued fractions

We know that any positive real number $x$ can be represented as a simple continued fraction $$x = a_{0} + \dfrac{1}{a_{1} + \dfrac{1}{a_{2} + \dfrac{1}{a_{3} + \cdots}}} = [a_{0}, a_{1}, a_{2}, a_{3}, ...