Problems from or inspired by mathematics competitions. Questions regarding mathematics competitions.

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11
votes
1answer
111 views

Prove that there exists $t$ such that $0\le t\le T$ and $\int_0^Te^{-x}y'y''\,dx=\int_0^ty'y''\,dx$.

Let $y(x)$ be a solution to $y''+e^xy=0$. Prove that there exists $t$ such that $0\le t\le T$ and $$\int_0^Te^{-x} y'y'' \, dx=\int_0^ty'y''\,dx.$$
2
votes
1answer
39 views

Finding all primes $(p,q)$ for perfect squares.

Find all prime pairs $(p,q)$ such that $2p-1, 2q-1, 2pq-1$ are all perfect squares. Source: St.Petersburg Olympiad 2011 I have only found the pair $(5,5)$ so I am thinking that maybe a modulo $5$ ...
3
votes
3answers
93 views

How to solve $\ln x+x=1$

How can I solve this equation: $$\ln x+x=1$$ We had it on a local Olympiad math contest problem.
1
vote
1answer
34 views

question from russian math olympiad

Let $f(x,y)=\frac{1}{2}(x+y-1)(x+y-2)$ be a function of two positive integers. Prove that for any positive integer $z$ there exists a single pair $x,y$ such that $f(x,y)=z$. Isn't this clearly ...
9
votes
2answers
317 views

Another math contest problem: $\int_0^{\frac{\ln^22}4}\,\frac{\arccos\frac{\exp\sqrt x}{\sqrt2}}{1-\exp\sqrt{4\,x}}dx$

Prove: $$ {\Large\int_{0}^{\ln^{2}\left(2\right) \over4}}\, \frac{\arccos\left(\vphantom{\huge A} {\exp\left(\vphantom{\large A}\sqrt{x\,}\right) \over \sqrt{\vphantom{\large A}2\,}}\right)} ...
7
votes
3answers
90 views

If $a,b,c,d>0$ and $a+b+c+d=4$, then $\frac{1}{11+a^2}+\frac{1}{11+b^2}+\frac{1}{11+c^2}+\frac{1}{11+d^2} \leq \frac {1}{3}$

Prove if $a,b,c,d>0$ and $a+b+c+d=4$, then $$\dfrac{1}{11+a^2}+\dfrac{1}{11+b^2}+\dfrac{1}{11+c^2}+\dfrac{1}{11+d^2} \leq \dfrac {1}{3}$$ This was an Inequality Olympiad Problem1. I proved by ...
7
votes
1answer
280 views

IMO 1979 problem

The question is $$\text{If }\, p, \ q\in \mathbb{N}, \;1-\frac12+\frac13-\frac14-\dotsb-\frac{1}{1318}+\frac{1}{1319}=\frac{p}{q}.\qquad \text{Prove that } 1979\mid p.$$ So my solution went like ...
7
votes
1answer
349 views

Putnam PigeonHole

This is from page 12 of Putnam and Beyond. Problem: Prove that for every set $X ={x_1,x_2, \ldots ,x_n}$ of $n$ real numbers, there exists a nonempty subset $S$ of $X$ and an integer $m$ such that ...
1
vote
4answers
67 views

Let $p(x) = 1+a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots+a_nx^n$ be a polynomial where $a_1,\ldots,a_n$ are integers, and $a_1 + … + a_n$ is even.

Let $p(x) = 1+a_1x+a_2x^2+\cdots+a_nx^n$ be a polynomial where $a_1,\ldots,a_n$ are integers, and $a_1 + \cdots + a_n$ is even. Prove that there is no integer x such that $p(x) =0$ I have started ...
1
vote
4answers
53 views

A function $f$ has the property that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+3xy$. If $f(1)=2$, what is $f(8)$?

A function $f$ has the property that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+3xy$. If f(1)=2, what is f(8)? I would like to try to tackle this problem but I need somewhere to start as I really have no idea at all on how ...
1
vote
3answers
51 views

If $x^2+bx+a=0$ and $x^2+ax+b=0$ have a common root $c$, Then what values of $(a,b)$ would work?

Let $a$ and $b$ be distinct integers. If $x^2+bx+a=0$ and $x^2+ax+b=0$ have a common root $c$, Then which of the following statements are true? 1) $c*(a+c)=-b$ 2) $a+b=-1$ 3) $a+b+c=0$ 4) $c=0$ ...
6
votes
1answer
124 views

Define a sequence by $a_1 = 1, a_2 = 1/2$, and $a_{n+2} = a_{n+1} - a_na_{n+1}/2$ for $n$ a positive integer.

Define a sequence by $a_1 = 1, a_2 = 1/2$, and $$a_{n+2} = a_{n+1} - a_na_{n+1}/2$$ for $n$ a positive integer. Find $$\lim_{n\to\infty}na_n$$ if it exists. Well, we can deduce that $\lim a_n=0$ by ...
6
votes
0answers
70 views

Problem 6 - IMO 1985

For every real number $x_1$ construct the sequence $x_1,x_2,x_3,\ldots$ by setting $x_{n+1}=x_n(x_n+\frac{1}{n})$ for each $n \ge 1$. Prove that there exists exactly one value of $x_1$ for which $0 ...
-2
votes
0answers
22 views

Convergence of series (putnam training) [on hold]

Does the series $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac {|\sin n|}{n} $ converge?
2
votes
2answers
34 views

Maximum of a function from integers to integers

Suppose $f$ is a function form positive integers to positive integers satisfying $f(1)=1$, $f(2n)=f(n)$, and $f(2n+1)=f(2n)+1$ for all positive integers $n$. Job: Find the maximum of $f(n)$ when $n$ ...
10
votes
0answers
90 views

Curious number theory problem

$k,m,n\in\mathbb{N}$ satisfy $k^{m+n}=nm^n$. How can I show that $m=k$ and $n=k^k?$
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Knot Theory: Mutations

Show that if we have three tangles as in Figure 2.33a, we can mutate several times in order to permute the tangles. Note that we can then permute n tangles in a row. This is from Colin Adams; The ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

1995 MathCounts State Team #8

In professional football, it is possible to score 2 points (for a safety), 3 points (for a field goal), or 6 points (for a touchdown). If a touchdown is scored, it is possible to score 1 additional ...
7
votes
2answers
101 views

$a^3+3a^2+a$ is never a perfect square.

Prove that no number of the form $ a^3+3a^2+a $, for a positive integer $a$, is a perfect square. This problem was published in the Italian national competition (Cesenatico 1991). I've been ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Triangles packed into a unit circle

2014 triangles have non-overlapping interiors contained in a unit circle.What is the largest possible value of the sum of their areas? What are some ideas that might help me start this?
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Knot theory: pretzel knot

Prove that pretzel knot $K(p_1,p_2,p_3,\dots,p_n)$ with all $p_i >0$ is an alternating knot or link? I think since all $p_i$'s are positive, the sign has a lot to do with it but how to prove it is ...
2
votes
2answers
76 views

For any positive integers $a$ and $b$, the number $(36a+b)(a+36b)$ can never be a power of $2$.

APMO 1998: Show that for any positive integers $a$ and $b$, the number $(36a+b)(a+36b)$ can never be a power of $2$. The solution I've read substitutes $a=2^Ap,b=2^Bq$ where $p$ and $q$ are ...
4
votes
1answer
80 views

Math Olympiads: GCD of terms in a sequence equals GCD of terms in other sequence

Recently, someone asked for a proof of a problem from the Russian Mathematical Olympiad, 1995. Math Olympiads: GCD of terms in a sequence equals GCD of their indices. The problem was to show that if ...
0
votes
1answer
79 views

If $x + \frac{1}{x} = k$, what's the value of this sum?

Friends, if $x + \frac{1}{x} = k$, with $k$ positive real number, what's the value of $$1+ x^6 + x^{12} + x^{18} + x^{24}+x^{30}$$ I tried with the substitution $u= x^6$: $$a= 1+ u + u^2 + u^3 + u^4 ...
1
vote
3answers
40 views

Ratio Math Problem

This is from a competition math problem I had recently that I just couldn't figure out. If $ (x+y):(y+z):(x+z) = 1:2:4$ and $x+y+z=35$ compute the value of x. I can tell that $7*(x+y)=2x+2y+2z$ ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Maths brain teaser. Fifty minutes ago it was four times as many minutes past three o'clock

Fifty minutes ago it was four times as many minutes past three o'clock. How many minutes is it to six o'clock..? I have got the solution online but have doubts in it : ...
5
votes
2answers
136 views

Math Olympiads: GCD of terms in a sequence equals GCD of their indices.

The sequence $a_1 ,a_2 ,a_3 ,...$ of positive integers satisfies $\text{gcd}(a_i ,a_j ) = \text{gcd} (i, j)$ for $i \neq j$. Prove that $a_i = i$ for all $i$. Source: Russian Mathematical Olympiad, ...
3
votes
2answers
182 views

Integral, Definite Integral $ \int_{-\infty}^\infty \exp{\big(\alpha x^4+\beta x^3+\gamma x^2 +\delta x+\epsilon}\big)dx, \ \alpha <0. $

Calculate the integral $$ I=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \exp{\big(\alpha x^4+\beta x^3+\gamma x^2 +\delta x+\epsilon}\big)dx, \ \alpha <0. $$ The answer can be expressed analytically in terms of a ...
2
votes
2answers
123 views

Cool Integral $\int_0^{\pi/2}dx\ln \sinh x$

$$ I_1=\int_0^{\pi/2}dx\ln \sinh x,\quad I_2=\int_0^{\pi/2}dx\ln \cosh x, \quad I_1\neq I_2. $$ I am trying to calculate these integrals. We know the similar looking integrals $$ \int_0^{\pi/2}dx\ln ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

Maximize the inradius given the base and the area of the triangle

BdMO 2013 Secondary: A triangle has base of length 8 and area 12. What is the radius of the largest circle that can be inscribed in this triangle? Let $A,r,s$ denote the area,inradius and ...
2
votes
3answers
247 views

2014 AMC 12 B problem 25

What is the sum of all positive real solutions $x$ to the following equation? $$2\cos(2x)\left( \cos(2x) - \cos{\left(\frac{2014\pi^2}{x^2}\right)} \right) = \cos(4x) - 1 $$
10
votes
1answer
103 views

Question concerning finite intersecting sets

Let $\{X_i\}_{i=1}^{\infty}$, $\{Y_j\}_{j=1}^{\infty}$ be finite sets of cardinality at most $n$. If for any finite $F$, there are $i,j \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $F \cap X_i \cap Y_j = \emptyset$, ...
2
votes
3answers
45 views

Prove that $(2m+1)^2 - 4(2n+1)$ can never be a perfect square where m, n are integers

I could prove it hit and trial method. But I was thinking to come up with a general and a more 'mathematically' correct method, but I did not reach anywhere. Thanks a lot for any help.
3
votes
1answer
54 views

Locus of the centres of equilateral triangles (contest problem)

Given a triangle $A_0A_1A_2$ determine the locus of the centres of the equilateral triangles $X_0X_1X_2$ satisfying the condition that each of the lines $X_kX_{k+1}$, $k=0,1,2$ passes through ...
1
vote
3answers
41 views

What's the probability that $y\ge x+1$?

"Two numbers, $x$ and $y$ are selected at random from the interval $(0,3)$. What is the probability that $y\ge x+1$?" The answer key says $\frac 29$, but I can't figure out how to get to that answer. ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Bound the Number of Acute-angled Triangles

I encounter the following problem with solution. But I do not quite understand the argument for 5, 10 points and eventually 100 points. Can someone elucidate the details? Problem In a plane there ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Find the sum of the maximum and minimum

For a real number $x$ find the sum of the maximum and minimum. $$y=\frac{x^2-2x-3}{2x^2+2x+1}$$ This is a sample question for a math competition. It seems like calculus would be used to solve this, ...
4
votes
3answers
137 views

How find this function $f(x)$ such $f(a+f(b))=f(a+b)+f(b)$

let function $f:R_{+}\to R_{+}$,and such $$f(a+f(b))=f(a+b)+f(b),\forall a,b\in R_{+}$$ Find $f(x)$. my try: let $a=b=1$,then $$f(1+f(1))=f(2)+f(1)$$ $a=1,b=2$,then $$f(1+f(2))=f(3)+f(2)$$ then I ...
6
votes
2answers
109 views

Integrating $ \int_2^4 \frac{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)} }{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)}+\sqrt{\ln(x+3)} } dx. $

Compute $$ \int_2^4 \frac{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)} }{ \sqrt{\ln(9-x)}+\sqrt{\ln(x+3)} } dx. $$ I am not sure how to start this one...I am thinking of a substitution to get started.
2
votes
4answers
75 views

Find the number of elements in the range$ f(x) =[x] + [2x] +[2x/3] +[3x] +[4x] +[5x]$ for $0\le x \le3$.

Find the number of elements in the range $f(x) =[x] + [2x] +[2x/3] +[3x] +[4x] +[5x]$ for $0\le x \le3.$ I cant understand...It will go very long if i keep breaking them into small intervals .
1
vote
1answer
58 views

How many zeros does this expression end in?

How many zeroes does $$\frac{50!}{2^95^5}$$ end in?
3
votes
2answers
94 views

Integral $ \int_{-\pi/2}^{\pi/2} \frac{1}{2007^x+1}\cdot \frac{\sin^{2008}x}{\sin^{2008}x+\cos^{2008}x}dx $

I am trying to solve this integral $$ \int_{-\pi/2}^{\pi/2} \frac{1}{2007^x+1}\cdot \frac{\sin^{2008}x}{\sin^{2008}x+\cos^{2008}x}dx $$ A closed form does exist despite the looks of the integrand. ...
1
vote
1answer
86 views

A geometry problem on power of points

An acute triangle $ABC$ is inscribed in a circumference of center $O$. Its heights are $AD$, $BE$ and $CF$. The line $EF$ intersects the circumference at two points, $P$ and $Q$. (a) Prove ...
0
votes
0answers
68 views

Integrate $\int_0^\infty \frac{Li_n(-\sigma x)Li_m(-\omega x^2)}{x^3}dx$

I am trying to solve this integral $$ \int_{0}^{\infty} {{\rm Li}_{n}\left(-\sigma x\right){\rm Li}_m\left(-\omega x^{2}\right) \over x^{3}}\,{\rm d}x $$ which is from some high school IMO training ...
31
votes
2answers
1k views

Find all real numbers $x$ for which $\frac{8^x+27^x}{12^x+18^x}=\frac76$

Find all real numbers $x$ for which $$\frac{8^x+27^x}{12^x+18^x}=\frac76$$ I have tried to fiddle with it as follows: $$2^{3x} \cdot 6 +3^{3x} \cdot 6=12^x \cdot 7+18^x \cdot 7$$ $$ 3 \cdot ...
6
votes
2answers
258 views

A generalization of IMO 1977 problem 2

Here is the IMO 1977 problem 2: In a finite sequence of real numbers the sum of any seven successive terms is negative, and the sum of any eleven successive terms is positive. Determine the ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

a spider has 1 sock and 1 shoe for each leg. then find out the the total possibilities.

a spider has one sock and one shoe for each of its 8 legs.in how many different orders can the spider put on its shocks and shoes; assuming that on each leg ;the shock must be put on before the shoe? ...
3
votes
1answer
54 views

How prove $G,H,T $ are collinear.

Question: Circle $O_{1}$ and $O_{2}$ are internally tangent at point $T$. $AB$ and $CD$ are tangents of circle $O_{1}$, the angle bisectors of Angle $\angle ADB$ and $\angle CBD$ intersects at ...
0
votes
3answers
81 views

$1-x+x^2-x^3+. . .-x^{17}=a_0+a_1y+a_2y^2+. . .+a_{17}y^{17},y=x+1$

This is a previous AIME question. $1-x+x^2-x^3+. . .-x^{17}=a_0+a_1y+a_2y^2+. . .+a_{17}y^{17},y=x+1$. Then what is $a_{17}$? Is anything wrong with the following method? $1-x+x^2-x^3+. . ...
3
votes
2answers
144 views

Find the number of series

Find the number of series $(a_1,..., a_{2n})$ that have terms from ${\{0,...9\}}$ so that: $$ 11|\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i-\sum_{i=n+1}^{2n}a_i $$ (this is not a homework) There is a similar problem ...