Problems from or inspired by mathematics competitions. Questions regarding mathematics competitions.

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0
votes
3answers
231 views

Sets of integers in the form $a^2 + 4ab + b^2$

Let $A$ be the set of all integers of the form $ a^2 + 4ab + b^2$ where $a, b$ are integers if $x, y$ are in $A$, prove that $xy$ is in $A$ (I have tried opening everything, it gets nowhere) Show ...
3
votes
2answers
157 views

The square of a number's last few digits remain the same.

The number $9376$ has a property that the last four digits of $9376^2$ remain the same. How many $4$ digit numbers have this property? Are there values of $n>4$ such that a $n$-digit number has ...
6
votes
2answers
55 views

Given $p(x)$ is a polynomial with integer coefficients and that $p(a)=1$ for some integer $a$ prove that $p(x)$ has no more than two integral roots. [duplicate]

Given $p(x)$ is a polynomial with integer coefficients and that $p(a)=1$ for some integer $a$ prove that $p(x)$ has no more than two integral roots. I've attempted a proof by contradiction assuming ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

Connecting square vertexes with minimal road

I have four cities in $A=(0,0),B=(1,0),C=(1,1),D=(0,1)$. I am asked to build the shortest motorway to connect the cities. How can I do that? I was thinking that first I need some compactness argument ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

chain of divisibility relation

Let $a$ and $b$ be positive integers such that $a | b^2, b^2 | a^3, a^3 | b^4, b^4 | a^5, \cdots $ Prove that $a = b$. My way is as follows: Let $A=v_p(a), B=v_p(b)$ be the exact power of a prime $p$ ...
4
votes
1answer
230 views

Inequality in triangle involving side lenghs, medians and area

A, B and C are the vertices of a triangle. Denote $m_a$, $m_b$ and $m_c$ the medians from A, B and C. Prove the inequality: $$\sum_{cyc}{a^2bcm_a}\geq\sum_{cyc}{cS(a^2+b^2)}$$where a, b and c are the ...
0
votes
0answers
48 views

Solving the recurrence $F(0) = X$ and $F(i)=A \cdot (F(i-1))^2 + B \cdot F(i-1) + C$

Moderator Note: This is a current contest question on codechef.com. I am given $F(0)=X$ and $F(i)=A \cdot (F(i-1))^2 + B \cdot F(i-1) + C$ for $1 \leq i \leq N$. Now given $N,A,B,C$ and $X$, how ...
13
votes
2answers
436 views

Integral $\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta$.

I am trying to calculate $$ I=\frac{1}{\pi}\int_0^\pi \theta^2 \ln^2\big(2\cos\frac{\theta}{2}\big)d \theta=\frac{11\pi^4}{180}=\frac{11\zeta(4)}{2}. $$ Note, we can expand the log in the integral to ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Number of moves to switch all tiles from black to red?

Four tiles are arranged as per the diagram and all start off black. On each move, two connected tiles may be interchanged, and upon doing so each of the two tiles switches color from red to black ...
8
votes
2answers
245 views

Computing the last non-zero digit of ${1027 \choose 41}$?

I am working on the following problem: Let $x_n$ be a sequence of positive odd numbers. If $N$ is the number of ordered pairs $(x_1, x_2, x_3, \dots, x_{42})$ such that $$x_1 + x_2 + x_3 + \dots + ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

Number theory problem - powers

Find the smallest prime $p$ such that for any $1 \leq k \leq 10$ relatively prime to $p$, one of $k, k^2,\ldots k^{p - 2}$ is congruent to $1$ modulo $p$. I am honestly not sure how to approach this ...
3
votes
2answers
162 views

AMC 12 word problem modified to be considerably harder

The original problem is stated as follows: ...
-1
votes
1answer
54 views

Three Bags Marble Probability

I found this problem in a maths test, and although I am sure there is a method to solve it, I don't know how. I have three bags. Two bags have identical contents- 1 black marble and 2 white ones. The ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Proving using squeeze principle

This problem sounds very confusing. Please help me solve this problem.
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Prove the derivative

Let $f(x) = (x^2-1)^{\frac{1}{2}}, x>1$. How do I prove that the $n$th derivative of $f(x) > 0$ for odd $n$, and the $n$th derivative of $f(x) < 0$ for even $n$?
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Convex quadrilateral

In a convex quadrilateral (the two diagonals are interior to the quadrilateral) prove that the sum lengths of the diagonals is less than the perimeter but great than one-half the perimeter.
3
votes
2answers
212 views

Integral, Definite Integral $ \int_{-\infty}^\infty \exp{\big(\alpha x^4+\beta x^3+\gamma x^2 +\delta x+\epsilon}\big)dx, \ \alpha <0. $

Calculate the integral $$ I=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \exp{\big(\alpha x^4+\beta x^3+\gamma x^2 +\delta x+\epsilon}\big)dx, \ \alpha <0. $$ The answer can be expressed analytically in terms of a ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Trigonometric eq.

The equation $3\sin(x)+4\cos(x)=5$ is well-known. The equation $3\sin^m(x)+4\cos^n(x)=5$ where $m$ and $n$ are non-negative integers is much more interesting.. I would like to see a nice, elementary ...
-2
votes
2answers
199 views

Even or Odd for factorial

Moderator Note: This is a current contest question on codechef.com. Given $N$ and $M$ I need to tell whether $\left\lfloor \large\frac{N!}{M} \right\rfloor$ is even or odd.How to do this ...
0
votes
1answer
125 views

Integral $\int_0^{\pi/2} x\cot(x)dx$, Differntiation wrt parameter only.

Integrate using differentiation wrt parameter only. $$\int_0^{\pi/2} x\cot(x)dx$$ We can express this as $$\int_0^{\pi/2} x\cdot\frac{\cos(x)}{\sin(x)}dx$$ Notice we can write $u=\sin(x)$ ...
0
votes
1answer
58 views

different wrt parameter $I=\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{(x^2+p)^{n+1}}dx$

Integrate using differentiation with respect to parameter only: $$ I=\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{(x^2+p)^{n+1}}dx, \ n\geq 0, \ p\geq1 $$ No complex methods allowed. This is a rather useful integral to ...
6
votes
2answers
192 views

Computing the integral $ \int_0^{\infty} e^{-\phi^2+\phi}\cdot \phi^{2} \ln(1-2x\cos\phi+x^2)\, d\phi. $

Integrate $$ \int_0^{\infty} e^{-\phi^2+\phi}\cdot \phi^{2} \ln(1-2x\cos\phi+x^2) \, d\phi. $$ Something that may help $(1-2x\cos\phi+x^2)=(1-xe^{i\phi})(1-xe^{-i\phi})$. And using the series ...
6
votes
3answers
261 views

Differentiation wrt parameter $\int_0^\infty \sin^2(x)\cdot(x^2(x^2+1))^{-1}dx$

Use differentiation with respect to parameter obtaining a differential equation to solve $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\sin^2(x)}{x^2(x^2+1)}dx $$ No complex variables, only this approach. Interesting ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

Probability that one buys bread Exactly Three times in the next Five minutes

The problem states that a typical customer buys the bread $60\%$ of the time and fruit $50\%$ of the time on each visit. Also the probability that the customers buy both bread and fruit is $0.3$. ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

finding the Prime numbers easily

I was doing some of the previous math contests and faced a question that asked me "the number of two digit primes that are still primes when the digits are reversed". I actually wrote down every two ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

definiteinteggral

The integral is given by $$\int_0^1 \frac{\ln (1-x)\ln x}{1+x} dx = \frac{1}{8}\big(-\pi^2\ln(4) +13\zeta(3)\big).$$ Any ideas how to prove? We cannot solve the integral so easily because we cannot ...
5
votes
4answers
378 views

Some Questions regarding preparing for Math Olympiads (searched but didn't get answers)

Many questions have been asked on this site regarding preparation for olympiads like the Putnam. I've read those questions and accordingly decided to start with Engel's "Problem Solving" but I have a ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Average Train Speed

I'm repeating this question since they don't seem to like it over there: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/21972403/average-train-speed This is the question I have: If a train is traveling at 50 ...
0
votes
3answers
97 views

Finding the Rate of distance between hands of clock

First, I think I don't understand the problem which asks about the greatest rate of change in distance between the tips of the hands of clocks. Does it mean where the increasing of distance is the ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Relabelling players in a tournament

BdMO 2014 $n$ players take part in a chess tournament where each player plays with all others only once and the only outcomes of the games are win and loss.Prove that it is possible,after the ...
2
votes
1answer
150 views

2012 USAJMO Problem 5

For distinct positive integers $a, b < 2012$, define $f(a, b)$ to be the number of integers $k$ with $1 \le k<2012$ such that the remainder when $ak$ divided by 2012 is greater than that of $bk$ ...
0
votes
1answer
138 views

Do degenerate triangles count? (2014 AMC 12B #12)

The problem is this: A set S consists of triangles whose sides have integer lengths less than 5, and no two elements of S are congruent or similar. What is the largest number of elements that S can ...
2
votes
3answers
282 views

2014 AMC 12 B problem 25

What is the sum of all positive real solutions $x$ to the following equation? $$2\cos(2x)\left( \cos(2x) - \cos{\left(\frac{2014\pi^2}{x^2}\right)} \right) = \cos(4x) - 1 $$
1
vote
2answers
156 views

A tricky question from the AMC test (American Mathematics competitions)

A man walks into a store with just enough money to buy exactly 30 balloons, he then he discovers the store has a buy 1 get, one 1/3 off, sale. (a rather ridiculous sale if I do say so myself) how many ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

Functional equation of non-negative function

Find all $ f:[0,\infty)\rightarrow [0,\infty) $ such that $ f (2)=0 $, $ f (x)\not= 0 $ for $ x\in [0, 2) $ and $$ f (xf (y)) f (y)=f (x+y) $$ for all $ x, y\ge 0 $. I tried plugging in values ...
5
votes
3answers
152 views

An inequality for sides of a triangle

Let $ a, b, c $ be sides of a triangle and $ ab+bc+ca=1 $. Show $$(a+1)(b+1)(c+1)<4 $$ I tried Ravi substitution and got a close bound, but don't know how to make it all the way to $4 $. I am ...
20
votes
4answers
2k views

Sum of four squares not a prime

Let $ a, b, c, d $ be natural numbers such that $ ab=cd $. Prove that $ a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2 $ is not a prime. I am clueless on this one. I tried contradiction, but didn't get anywhere. Can you help? ...
18
votes
2answers
875 views

Tough contest problem

I found this problem in a collection of contest problems of a Russian competition in 1995 and wasn't able to solve it. Solve for real $x$: $$ \cos (\cos (\cos (\cos(x))))=\sin (\sin (\sin (\sin ...
1
vote
2answers
143 views

A counting problem using Burnside's lemma

Suppose we have 12 objects (say, 6 indistinguishable black ones and 6 indistinguishable white ones). How many seatings at a round table can we form from them? The answer is $80$, but how could this ...
7
votes
8answers
263 views

Proof of Divisibility of $n(n^2+20)$ by 48.

This is a question from Bangladesh National Math Olympiad 2013 - Junior Category that still haunts me a lot. I want to find an answer to this question. Please prove this. If $n$ is an even ...
3
votes
2answers
117 views

Eliminate numbers from $1,2,3. . .30$ such that the remaining sequence does not contain both $x$ and $2x$

BdMO 2014 nationals From the sequence 1,2,3. . . .30,pick another sequence of numbers such that if x is in our new sequence,then 2x is not there(or vice versa).What is the maximum number of terms ...
1
vote
0answers
89 views

Proving that $\sqrt{4ab-1}=m^2$ is equivalent to $a=b$. where $a$ and $b$ are non zero integers

So the original question was to prove that if $4ab-1$ divides $4a^2-1)^2$, then $a=b$ where $a$ and $b$ are non zero integers. (IMO 2007) I proceed this way: $(4a²-1)²/(4ab-1)=q$ where $q$ is ...
5
votes
4answers
840 views

Solve without a calculator: What is the possible value of 2*((1+1/100)^100)?

What is the possible value of $2·((1+\tfrac{1}{100})^{100})$? Google will give $2·((1+\tfrac{1}{100})^{100}) = 5.40962765884$. How can I find the possible value without Google or a calculator? How ...
3
votes
1answer
127 views

I am looking for a proof of the “ begonia theorem”.

Let $D$, $E$, $F$ be points on respective (extended) sides $\overleftrightarrow{BC}$, $\overleftrightarrow{CA}$, $\overleftrightarrow{AB}$ of $\triangle ABC$, such that $\overleftrightarrow{AD}$, ...
4
votes
1answer
131 views

If one eats $100$ chocolates in $58$ days,then he must be eating exactly 15 chocolates in some consecutive days

BdMO 2014 Nationals $X$ eats 100 chocolates in 58 days,eating at least 1 chocolate per day.Prove that,in some consecutive days,she ate exactly 15 chocolates. I tried using the pigeonhole ...
2
votes
1answer
95 views

Area of triangle inside triangle

In triangle $ABC$ we choose 3 points $D,E,F$, such that $\overline{AD} = \frac 13 \overline{AB}, \overline{BE} = \frac 13 \overline{BC}, \overline{CF} = \frac 13 \overline{CA}$. Draw segments ...
2
votes
2answers
283 views

Solve exponential-polynomial equation

Solve the equation in $\mathbb{R}$ $$10^{-3}x^{\log_{10}x} + x(\log_{10}^2x - 2\log_{10} x) = x^2 + 3x$$ To be fair I wasn't able to make any progress. I tried using substitution for the ...
7
votes
0answers
192 views

Most famous competition problems? [closed]

When I've attended math competition discussions, I've often heard people remark "oh, this is a famous problem" or say that it's similar to one. Most of them I've actually never heard of before. ...
4
votes
2answers
123 views

Find all functions ${\rm f} :{ \mathbb R}_{+}\to{ \mathbb R}_{+}$

Find all functions ${\rm f}:{\mathbb R}_{+} \to {\mathbb R}_{+}$ , such that $\forall\ x,y \in \mathbb R_+$ the equation $$ \left[1 + y{\rm f}\left(x\right)\right]\left[1 - y{\rm f}\left(x + ...
2
votes
1answer
16 views

i do not how to prove this degenerate polygon

A polygon is called degenerate if one of its vertices falls on a line that joins its neighboring two vertices. In a pentagon ABCDE, AB = AE, BC = DE. P and Q are midpoints of AE and AB. PQ||CD, BD is ...