Problems from or inspired by mathematics competitions. Questions regarding mathematics competitions.

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Prove the derivative

Let $f(x) = (x^2-1)^{\frac{1}{2}}, x>1$. How do I prove that the $n$th derivative of $f(x) > 0$ for odd $n$, and the $n$th derivative of $f(x) < 0$ for even $n$?
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0answers
23 views

Convex quadrilateral

In a convex quadrilateral (the two diagonals are interior to the quadrilateral) prove that the sum lengths of the diagonals is less than the perimeter but great than one-half the perimeter.
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2answers
219 views

Integral, Definite Integral $ \int_{-\infty}^\infty \exp{\big(\alpha x^4+\beta x^3+\gamma x^2 +\delta x+\epsilon}\big)dx, \ \alpha <0. $

Calculate the integral $$ I=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \exp{\big(\alpha x^4+\beta x^3+\gamma x^2 +\delta x+\epsilon}\big)dx, \ \alpha <0. $$ The answer can be expressed analytically in terms of a ...
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1answer
60 views

Trigonometric eq.

The equation $3\sin(x)+4\cos(x)=5$ is well-known. The equation $3\sin^m(x)+4\cos^n(x)=5$ where $m$ and $n$ are non-negative integers is much more interesting.. I would like to see a nice, elementary ...
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2answers
344 views

Even or Odd for factorial

Moderator Note: This is a current contest question on codechef.com. Given $N$ and $M$ I need to tell whether $\left\lfloor \large\frac{N!}{M} \right\rfloor$ is even or odd.How to do this ...
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1answer
145 views

Integral $\int_0^{\pi/2} x\cot(x)dx$, Differntiation wrt parameter only.

Integrate using differentiation wrt parameter only. $$\int_0^{\pi/2} x\cot(x)dx$$ We can express this as $$\int_0^{\pi/2} x\cdot\frac{\cos(x)}{\sin(x)}dx$$ Notice we can write $u=\sin(x)$ ...
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1answer
60 views

different wrt parameter $I=\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{(x^2+p)^{n+1}}dx$

Integrate using differentiation with respect to parameter only: $$ I=\int_0^\infty \frac{1}{(x^2+p)^{n+1}}dx, \ n\geq 0, \ p\geq1 $$ No complex methods allowed. This is a rather useful integral to ...
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2answers
204 views

Computing the integral $ \int_0^{\infty} e^{-\phi^2+\phi}\cdot \phi^{2} \ln(1-2x\cos\phi+x^2)\, d\phi. $

Integrate $$ \int_0^{\infty} e^{-\phi^2+\phi}\cdot \phi^{2} \ln(1-2x\cos\phi+x^2) \, d\phi. $$ Something that may help $(1-2x\cos\phi+x^2)=(1-xe^{i\phi})(1-xe^{-i\phi})$. And using the series ...
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3answers
364 views

Differentiation wrt parameter $\int_0^\infty \sin^2(x)\cdot(x^2(x^2+1))^{-1}dx$

Use differentiation with respect to parameter obtaining a differential equation to solve $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{\sin^2(x)}{x^2(x^2+1)}dx $$ No complex variables, only this approach. Interesting ...
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1answer
24 views

Probability that one buys bread Exactly Three times in the next Five minutes

The problem states that a typical customer buys the bread $60\%$ of the time and fruit $50\%$ of the time on each visit. Also the probability that the customers buy both bread and fruit is $0.3$. ...
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1answer
80 views

finding the Prime numbers easily

I was doing some of the previous math contests and faced a question that asked me "the number of two digit primes that are still primes when the digits are reversed". I actually wrote down every two ...
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1answer
79 views

definiteinteggral

The integral is given by $$\int_0^1 \frac{\ln (1-x)\ln x}{1+x} dx = \frac{1}{8}\big(-\pi^2\ln(4) +13\zeta(3)\big).$$ Any ideas how to prove? We cannot solve the integral so easily because we cannot ...
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4answers
500 views

Some Questions regarding preparing for Math Olympiads (searched but didn't get answers)

Many questions have been asked on this site regarding preparation for olympiads like the Putnam. I've read those questions and accordingly decided to start with Engel's "Problem Solving" but I have a ...
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1answer
54 views

Average Train Speed

I'm repeating this question since they don't seem to like it over there: http://stackoverflow.com/questions/21972403/average-train-speed This is the question I have: If a train is traveling at 50 ...
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3answers
119 views

Finding the Rate of distance between hands of clock

First, I think I don't understand the problem which asks about the greatest rate of change in distance between the tips of the hands of clocks. Does it mean where the increasing of distance is the ...
2
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1answer
42 views

Relabelling players in a tournament

BdMO 2014 $n$ players take part in a chess tournament where each player plays with all others only once and the only outcomes of the games are win and loss.Prove that it is possible,after the ...
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1answer
156 views

2012 USAJMO Problem 5

For distinct positive integers $a, b < 2012$, define $f(a, b)$ to be the number of integers $k$ with $1 \le k<2012$ such that the remainder when $ak$ divided by 2012 is greater than that of $bk$ ...
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1answer
147 views

Do degenerate triangles count? (2014 AMC 12B #12)

The problem is this: A set S consists of triangles whose sides have integer lengths less than 5, and no two elements of S are congruent or similar. What is the largest number of elements that S can ...
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3answers
307 views

2014 AMC 12 B problem 25

What is the sum of all positive real solutions $x$ to the following equation? $$2\cos(2x)\left( \cos(2x) - \cos{\left(\frac{2014\pi^2}{x^2}\right)} \right) = \cos(4x) - 1 $$
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2answers
178 views

A tricky question from the AMC test (American Mathematics competitions)

A man walks into a store with just enough money to buy exactly 30 balloons, he then he discovers the store has a buy 1 get, one 1/3 off, sale. (a rather ridiculous sale if I do say so myself) how many ...
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1answer
57 views

Functional equation of non-negative function

Find all $ f:[0,\infty)\rightarrow [0,\infty) $ such that $ f (2)=0 $, $ f (x)\not= 0 $ for $ x\in [0, 2) $ and $$ f (xf (y)) f (y)=f (x+y) $$ for all $ x, y\ge 0 $. I tried plugging in values ...
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3answers
161 views

An inequality for sides of a triangle

Let $ a, b, c $ be sides of a triangle and $ ab+bc+ca=1 $. Show $$(a+1)(b+1)(c+1)<4 $$ I tried Ravi substitution and got a close bound, but don't know how to make it all the way to $4 $. I am ...
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4answers
2k views

Sum of four squares not a prime

Let $ a, b, c, d $ be natural numbers such that $ ab=cd $. Prove that $ a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2 $ is not a prime. I am clueless on this one. I tried contradiction, but didn't get anywhere. Can you help? ...
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2answers
926 views

Tough contest problem

I found this problem in a collection of contest problems of a Russian competition in 1995 and wasn't able to solve it. Solve for real $x$: $$ \cos (\cos (\cos (\cos(x))))=\sin (\sin (\sin (\sin ...
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2answers
168 views

A counting problem using Burnside's lemma

Suppose we have 12 objects (say, 6 indistinguishable black ones and 6 indistinguishable white ones). How many seatings at a round table can we form from them? The answer is $80$, but how could this ...
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8answers
288 views

Proof of Divisibility of $n(n^2+20)$ by 48.

This is a question from Bangladesh National Math Olympiad 2013 - Junior Category that still haunts me a lot. I want to find an answer to this question. Please prove this. If $n$ is an even ...
3
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2answers
119 views

Eliminate numbers from $1,2,3. . .30$ such that the remaining sequence does not contain both $x$ and $2x$

BdMO 2014 nationals From the sequence 1,2,3. . . .30,pick another sequence of numbers such that if x is in our new sequence,then 2x is not there(or vice versa).What is the maximum number of terms ...
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0answers
95 views

Proving that $\sqrt{4ab-1}=m^2$ is equivalent to $a=b$. where $a$ and $b$ are non zero integers

So the original question was to prove that if $4ab-1$ divides $4a^2-1)^2$, then $a=b$ where $a$ and $b$ are non zero integers. (IMO 2007) I proceed this way: $(4a²-1)²/(4ab-1)=q$ where $q$ is ...
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4answers
945 views

Solve without a calculator: What is the possible value of 2*((1+1/100)^100)?

What is the possible value of $2·((1+\tfrac{1}{100})^{100})$? Google will give $2·((1+\tfrac{1}{100})^{100}) = 5.40962765884$. How can I find the possible value without Google or a calculator? How ...
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1answer
133 views

I am looking for a proof of the “ begonia theorem”.

Let $D$, $E$, $F$ be points on respective (extended) sides $\overleftrightarrow{BC}$, $\overleftrightarrow{CA}$, $\overleftrightarrow{AB}$ of $\triangle ABC$, such that $\overleftrightarrow{AD}$, ...
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1answer
135 views

If one eats $100$ chocolates in $58$ days,then he must be eating exactly 15 chocolates in some consecutive days

BdMO 2014 Nationals $X$ eats 100 chocolates in 58 days,eating at least 1 chocolate per day.Prove that,in some consecutive days,she ate exactly 15 chocolates. I tried using the pigeonhole ...
2
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1answer
108 views

Area of triangle inside triangle

In triangle $ABC$ we choose 3 points $D,E,F$, such that $\overline{AD} = \frac 13 \overline{AB}, \overline{BE} = \frac 13 \overline{BC}, \overline{CF} = \frac 13 \overline{CA}$. Draw segments ...
2
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2answers
446 views

Solve exponential-polynomial equation

Solve the equation in $\mathbb{R}$ $$10^{-3}x^{\log_{10}x} + x(\log_{10}^2x - 2\log_{10} x) = x^2 + 3x$$ To be fair I wasn't able to make any progress. I tried using substitution for the ...
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0answers
219 views

Most famous competition problems? [closed]

When I've attended math competition discussions, I've often heard people remark "oh, this is a famous problem" or say that it's similar to one. Most of them I've actually never heard of before. ...
4
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2answers
128 views

Find all functions ${\rm f} :{ \mathbb R}_{+}\to{ \mathbb R}_{+}$

Find all functions ${\rm f}:{\mathbb R}_{+} \to {\mathbb R}_{+}$ , such that $\forall\ x,y \in \mathbb R_+$ the equation $$ \left[1 + y{\rm f}\left(x\right)\right]\left[1 - y{\rm f}\left(x + ...
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1answer
18 views

i do not how to prove this degenerate polygon

A polygon is called degenerate if one of its vertices falls on a line that joins its neighboring two vertices. In a pentagon ABCDE, AB = AE, BC = DE. P and Q are midpoints of AE and AB. PQ||CD, BD is ...
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1answer
238 views

Maximizing the perimeter of a triangle inside a square

BdMO 2014: We have a square $ABCD$ of side length 5.We take a point $E$ on $AD$ and $F$ on $AB$ so that $\angle FCE=45^\circ$. What can be the maximum perimeter of $\triangle AEF$? I can ...
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0answers
30 views

Completing sets of numbers solely with trigonometric functions and an initial zero?

Last week an extra-curricular math academy I attend gave us this question as a challenge: You start with $0$, and the only functions you can do are $\sin, \cos, \tan, \sin^{-1}, \cos^{-1}, \tan^{-1}$ ...
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1answer
49 views

For a prime $p$, $6p\mid a^p+1$ for no $a$ or infinitely many $a$

BdMO Nationals Secondary: Show that for any prime $p$, there are either infinitely many or no positive integer $a$, so that $6p$ divides $a^p+1$ . Find all those primes for which there exists no ...
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4answers
231 views

Odd one out questions

These are two questions given to a grade 5 student. I couldn't get a conclusive and compelling answer to any.
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1answer
155 views

Answering a flawed Mathletes question (finding $x^2 + y^2 = p$ given $p$ for large $p$)

There was a mathletes meet today (high school) and this was one of the questions: "-Some background on Fermat's 4k+1 sum of square theorem- One such prime is $367369$. What integers $x, y$ satisfy ...
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1answer
139 views

Fifteen pennies lie on the table in the shape of a triangle

Fifteen pennies lie on the table in the shape of a triangle, with five pennies on each side. For some reason, the pennies are painted either black or white. Prove that there exist three pennies of ...
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2answers
144 views

The angle $168^\circ$ is constructible

Prove that the angle $\theta=168^\circ$ is constructible using a straightedge and a compass. It is enough to show that the number $\cos\theta$ is constructible, and WolframAlpha gave ...
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1answer
219 views

A problem in elementary calculus

Let $P(x), Q(x)$ be two polynomials with real coefficients and set $F(x) = \frac{P(x)}{Q(x)}$. Consider a table which has the function $e^{\int_0^x F \, dx}$ on it. The table has the set of rules that ...
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0answers
303 views

Finding the number of arrangement of N people of different height such that K of them are visible from front

Moderator Note: This is a current contest question on codechef.com. [Initially, I had asked this question in stackoverflow, but someone suggested to post it here, and hence this question is ...
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1answer
135 views

IMO problem 4, $1998$

Determine all pairs $(a, b)$ of positive integers such that $ab^{2} + b + 7$ divides $a^{2}b + a + b$. I really have no idea where to start with this. This is the first IMO problem that I attempted, ...
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1answer
57 views

AIME 1986:different sequences of coin tosses

AIME 1986 Problem-13 In a sequence of coin tosses, one can keep a record of instances in which a tail is immediately followed by a head, a head is immediately followed by a head, and etc. We ...
1
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1answer
72 views

Choosing $2n-1$ points from $n\times n$ grid such that $3$ points always form a right triangle

NOTE: Looking for a hint,not the whole solution. BdMO 2012 Nationals Secondary Consider a $n×n$ grid of points. Prove that no matter how we choose $2n-1$ points from these, there will always ...
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1answer
44 views

The second triangle?

BdMO National 2013 Junior Q. 2 Two isosceles triangles are possible with 120 square unit area of each and length of edges are integers. Such one is with 17, 17 and 16 unit edges. Determine the ...
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2answers
165 views

algebra , JEE-IIT entrance test sample questions [closed]

$x$ is a real number. If $x^3+1/x^3=52$, find the value of $x^5+1/x^5$.