Problems from or inspired by mathematics competitions. Questions regarding mathematics competitions.

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5
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2answers
288 views
10
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2answers
142 views

Show $1+x+(x^2/2!)+ \cdots + (x^n/n!)=0$ has no rational solutions for all $n>1$.

Prove that the equation $$1+x+\frac{x^2}{2!}+ \cdots + \frac{x^n}{n!}=0$$ has no rational solutions for all $n>1$. Assume there is a rational solution $\frac{p}{q} \in \mathbb{Q}$ with ...
3
votes
2answers
201 views

Solving an equation for two primes

This is from contest preparation: Find all pairs of primes $(p, q)$ that satisfy $$p^q - q^p = p q^2 - 19$$. It looks simple, but I spent hours trying to solve it... and no luck so far. ...
2
votes
0answers
85 views

Problem regarding the speed of two points $A$ and $B$ moving with constant speed in the plane [duplicate]

Consider a Point A that moves linearly on the positive x-axis with the speed 1 m/s and another Point B at a distance L from A with position (L,0). With each forward motion of point A the Point B moves ...
3
votes
1answer
93 views

Putnam Problem A-1 2008 3 variable function

I looked at a Putnam problem from 2008, here it is: Putnam Link " Let $f : R^2 → R$ be a function such that $f(x, y)+ f(y,z)+ f(z, x) = 0$ for all real numbers $x, y, z$. Prove that there exists a ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Are there way of proving that polynomials are relatively prime using number theory or abstract algebra?

This question is inspired by question A5 from the Putnam Mathematical Competition: Let $$P_n(x) = 1 + 2x + 3x^2 + \cdots + nx^{n-1}.$$ Prove that polynomials $P_j(x)$ and $P_k(x)$ are ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Why doesn't this approach work for integral of $\log(\sin(x))$?

Evaluation of: $$I = \int_{0}^{\pi} \log(\sin(x)) dx$$ Over closed rectangular contour $ABCD$ complex analysis. Kind of like the contour here: Contour Answer complex analysis. BUT INSTEAD the ...
23
votes
4answers
1k views

Prove that $2^{2^{\sqrt3}}>10$

With a computer or calculator, it is easy to show that $$ 2^{2^\sqrt{3}} = 10.000478 \ldots > 10. $$ How can we prove that $2^{2^{\sqrt3}}>10$ without a calculator?
4
votes
1answer
150 views

Summation identity involving the floor function

(Kömal November B. 4666) Prove that $\sum_{k=1}^n (2k-1) [\frac{n}{k}]=\sum_{k=1}^n [\frac{n}{k}]^2$ for every positive integer $n$, where $[n]$ is the largest integer greater than or equal to $n$.
0
votes
2answers
156 views

Is Spivak good preparatory for Putnam Exam?

I am currently a junior in high school, interested in the Putnam exam. I have access to number theory complex analysis, real analysis, any textbooks. Spivak Calculus for one is a rigorous textbook, ...
1
vote
3answers
61 views

On finding the $n$-th term of an arithmetic progression

Given the common difference $d$, and first term $a$ (say). It is very easy to find the $n$th term of an arithmetic progression. My question is if we are given two common differences say $d_1$ and ...
5
votes
2answers
154 views

Three circles having centres on the three sides of a triangle

NOTE: I would appreciate it if you provided a hint and not the whole solution. BdMO 2014 Nationals: In acute angled triangle ABC, considering a portion of side BC as diameter a circle is drawn ...
6
votes
1answer
219 views

IMO 2015 warm up problem

I get this problem from IMO 2015 facebook page. Let $x_i$ be positive integers for $i=1,2,...,11$. If $x_i+x_{i+1}\geq 100$, $|x_i-x_{i+1}|\geq 20$ for $i=1,2,...,10$. And $x_{11}+x_{1}\geq 100$, ...
5
votes
1answer
76 views

Inequality on length of intervals

Let $n\ge 1$ and $\{I_j\}_{j=1}^{n}$ is a set of non-degenerate subintervals of $[0,1]$. Then show that : $$ \overline\sum \dfrac{1}{|I_j\cup I_k|}\geq n^2$$ Here $\overline\sum$ denotes ...
11
votes
1answer
72 views

Coloring $\mathbb R^n$ with $n$ colors always gives us a color with all distances.

I wanted to share a really cool but simple problem. Consider a coloring of the points of $\mathbb R^n$ with $n$ colors. Prove that there is a color $c$ such that for any $r>0$ there are two points ...
2
votes
1answer
55 views

Shuffling cards and laying them out in order

The numbers from 1 to 50 are printed on cards. The cards are shuffled and then laid out face up in 5 rows of 10 cards each. The cards in each row are rearranged to make them increase from left ...
1
vote
4answers
168 views

Absolute convergence in a metric space

Let $(X,d)$ be a metric space, $(a_n)$ and $(b_n)$ are sequences in $(X,d)$. If $\sum_{n=1}^\infty d(a_n,b_n)$ is absolutely convergent, what do I say about the convergence of $(a_n)$ and $(b_n)$?
10
votes
1answer
206 views

Group theoretic solution to an IMO problem

Is there a (strictly) group theoretic interpretation (and possibly a solution) to this problem (taken from the 27th IMO)? "To each vertex of a regular pentagon an integer is assigned in such a way ...
3
votes
3answers
114 views

Convergence of summable sequences

If $(a_n)$ is a sequence such that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{a_1^4+a_2^4+\dots+a_n^4}{n}=0.$$ How do I show that $\lim_{n\to\infty}\dfrac{a_1+a_2+\dots+a_n}{n}=0$?
1
vote
2answers
67 views

Maximising the Area of a Cyclic Quadrilateral

In cyclic quadrilateral $ABCD$, $AB = AD$. If $AC = 6$ and $AB/BD = 3/5$, find the maximum possible value of $[ABCD]$. (Source: SMT 2014) If we let $AB=AD = 3x$ and $BD=5x$, from Ptolemy, we have ...
4
votes
3answers
125 views

Find $ \int \frac {1-x^2}{1+3x^2+x^4} \, \mathrm{d}x $

Today, the CalcBee sample problems got released. The following problem was my creation and I wanted to see how many solutions people can come up with. The result is very beautiful and I thought it ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Limit sup and inf hint

I have problem in finding the Limsup and liminf for the following sequences. Any hint pls? $(s_n) = [1-r^n]\sin \frac{n\pi}{2}$ and $(s_n) = [(-1)^n + 1]n^2$.
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Area of a circumcenter triangle equals area of medial triangle

Let $X$, $Y$, $Z$ be the midpoints of sides $BC$, $AC$, $AB$ respectively in triangle $ABC$. Let $O_{A}$, $O_{B}$, and $O_{C}$ be the circumcenters of triangles $AZX$, $BXY$, and $CYZ$ respectively. ...
6
votes
2answers
205 views

How prove this complex inequality with same as (2014 china CMO) Cauchy-Schwarz inequality

Let $r$ $z_{1},z_{2},\cdots,z_{n}$ be given such that $$ |z_{i}-1|\le r,i=1,2,\cdots,n,r\in(0,1). $$ Show that ...
1
vote
1answer
35 views

Find the volume $z \geq 3x^2+2y^2, \ \ 3x^2+2y^2+5z^2 \le 1$

Find the volume of solid defined by the following inequalities : $$z \geq 3x^2+2y^2, \ \ 3x^2+2y^2+5z^2 \le 1$$ We have an ellipse, which the semi-axis are $\sqrt{\frac{z}{2}}$ and ...
2
votes
8answers
140 views

How to show that $f(x) = 0$ if $\int_a^bf(x)\,\text{d}x=0$ for all $a,b\in\mathbb{R}$?

I found this problem on the web: Let $f(x)$ be a real-valued, continuous function with the property that $$\int_a^bf(x)\,\text{d}x=0$$for all real numbers $a,b$. Prove that $f$ is identically $0$. ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

2014 Fall OMO #28

Here is a problem from this year’s OMO: Let $S$ be the set of all pairs $(a,b)$ of real numbers satisfying $1+a+a^2+a^3 = b^2(1+3a)$ and $1+2a+3a^2 = b^2 - \frac{5}{b}$. Find $A+B+C$, where $$ A = ...
4
votes
4answers
560 views

Is it possible to permute an unknown binary sequence so that two particular bits are equal? [closed]

A blind mathematician is give a $2015$ bit sequence. The mathematician can take any two bits and switch them (so the bit in position $A$ goes to position $B$ and vice-versa). He knows at what position ...
1
vote
4answers
1k views

How to find Bitwise AND of all numbers for a given range?

How can I find Bitwise AND of all numbers for a given range say from A to B, including both? I found a beautiful answer for finding XOR for such range. http://stackoverflow.com/a/10670524/2046703How ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Where can Gaussian Elimination be used?

I have searched for this and came to know about it that it is traditionally used to solve linear equations, finding determinant, rank of matrix, inverse of matrix. There was a problem on codechef: ...
1
vote
0answers
56 views

How prove this the number of ordered $n$-tuples $(\varepsilon_{1},\cdots,\varepsilon_{n})$such this following inequality is $2^{n-100}$

Interesting Question: for any complex numbers $z_{1},z_{2},\cdots,z_{n}$ such $$\begin{cases} |z_{1}|^2+|z_{2}|^2+\cdots+|z_{n}|^2=1\\ |z_{i}|\le\dfrac{1}{10},i=1,2,\cdots,n \end{cases}$$ ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

Motivation for Putnam (soft question)

This question may be too specific and too vague. But I'm curious about this. How highly are the applicants evaluated in PhD admission if they were ranked above the cutoff of honorable-mention in ...
5
votes
1answer
170 views

Set with distinct subset sums

The problem is as follows : Given a set A with distinct positive integer elements, prove that there always exists another set B consisting of positive integers, s.t., The size of B is less than or ...
2
votes
6answers
115 views

$2x^2+ 3y^2+4z^2 =1$ find the maximum of $4x+3y+2z$

If $2x^2+ 3y^2+4z^2 =1$ find the maximum of $4x+3y+2z$. This is a question from a regional math olympiad and thus there must exist solutions without application of calculus. I have no idea how to ...
0
votes
1answer
56 views

Do two altitudes uniquely determine the third

BdMO 2014 Nationals If the lengths of two altitudes drawn from two vertices of a triangle on their opposite sides are $2014$ and $1$ unit, then what will be the length of the altitude drawn from ...
3
votes
1answer
136 views

When does the Putnam release solutions to this year's exam? Has anyone released their own solutions?

I was just wondering when the Putnam committee releases the solutions to this year's exam or if anyone has posted their own solutions.
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Finding the invariant

There are A white, B black, and C red chips on a table. In one step, you may choose two chips of different colors and replace them by a chip of the third color. If just one chip will remain at the ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

No 37 question in knight of pi math tournament Dec 15, 2012

The five digit integer ABCDE, where each letter represents a digit, not necessary distinct, is divided by the numbers $2$,$3$,$4$,$5$, and $6$. The remainders are A, B, C, D, and E respectively. What ...
1
vote
2answers
52 views

How many consecutive squares can be subtracted from a number?

Let's say I am given a number N. I want to check how many consecutive squares of integers(starting from 1) can be subtracted from this number. Example- For N=13, I will first subtract 1(=1^2), leaves ...
3
votes
1answer
112 views

Taking a Putnam (General Questions) [duplicate]

I've just discovered an undergrad math competition (William Lowell Putnam Competition) and that my school offers it. The competition looks extraordinarily difficult, but I thought I'd give it a go. ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Find if there exist some combination of these digits that will be divisible by 8 or not

Let's say I am given some 100 digits and I have to find whether there can be any combination of these digits such that the number formed will be divisible by 8, how can I do that? I know divisibility ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

How can I determine the center of this circumference?

I have the following question: if I have an irregular symmetric polygon, how can I determinate the circumference with the least area that contains this polygon? I believe (in case that the polygon ...
3
votes
3answers
170 views

AHSME 1981 #22 - Number of lines that pass through four distinct points

How many lines in a three dimensional rectangular coordinate system pass through four distinct points of the form $(i, j, k)$ where $i$, $j$, and $k$ are positive integers not exceeding four? ...
4
votes
2answers
60 views

Find minimum of $a+b$ if $13|a+11b $ and $11|a+13b$

Find minimum of $a+b$ if $13|a+11b $ and $11|a+13b$ where $a,b>0$. My attempt : $13|a+11b \implies 13|a+24b$ . Similarly we get $11|a+24b$. Now $\gcd(11,13)=1$, so, $143|a+24b$. Therefore $a+24b ...
8
votes
1answer
238 views

How to prove there exists $n_{1}a_{n_{0}}+n_{2}a_{n_{1}}+\cdots+n_{k}a_{n_{k-1}}<3(a_{1}+a_{2}+\cdots+a_{N})$

Let $a_{1},a_{2},\cdots,a_{N}$ be nonnegative reals, not all $0$. Prove that there exists a sequence $$1=n_{0}<n_{1}<\cdots<n_{k}=N+1$$ of integers such that ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

How find this Exponential constant $C$,if such this $Ax^C\le N(x)\le Bx^C$

interesting problem Let sequence $$a_{0}=x\in (0,1),a_{n}=a_{n-1}+a^3_{n-1},n=1,2,\cdots$$ and define $$N(x)=\min{\{n|a_{n}>1\}}$$ Assmue that there exsit postive constant $A,B$,and ...
4
votes
1answer
48 views

Modulo Arithmetic of Complex Numbers

Suppose $a,b,c \in \mathbb{C}$ such that $$a+b+c\in \mathbb{Z},$$ $$a^2+b^2+c^2=-3,$$ $$a^3+b^3+c^3=-46,$$ $$a^4+b^4+c^4=-123$$ then find $(a^{10}+b^{10}+c^{10})\pmod{1000}$. I only observed that ...
11
votes
0answers
255 views

Determining information in minimum trials (combinatorics problem)

A student has to pass a exam, with $k2^{k-1}$ questions to be answered by yes or no, on a subject he knows nothing about. The student is allowed to pass mock exams who have the same questions as the ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Determining diagonalizability of a linear transformation defined by a matrix.

Suppose $A\in M_n(\Bbb C)$ satisfies $A^6-A^3+I=O$. Prove that if a linear transformation $T:M_n(\Bbb C)\rightarrow M_n(\Bbb C)$ is given by $T(B)=AB$, then $T$ is diagonalizable. How to prove it? ...
3
votes
1answer
59 views

How find prime numbers $p_{i}$ such $p_{1}+p_{2},p_{2}+p_{3},p_{3}+p_{4},\cdots,p_{n}+p_{1}$ is square number

Question: Let $n\ge 5$ be an odd number, show that: there exist (or does not exist) primes $p_{i}\:;\:i=1,2,\cdots,n$ such that $$p_{1}+p_{2},p_{2}+p_{3},p_{3}+p_{4},\cdots,p_{n}+p_{1}$$ all ...